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Physics

Galactic M-Sigma Relation & Anomalous Velocity Dispersion...

OOPS! It is Dark Matter. Sorry.  (Jun 1, 2012 | post #3)

Physics

Galactic M-Sigma Relation & Anomalous Velocity Dispersion...

(continued from previous post) Newton’s law will accommodate a 1/r gravitational field only if spacetime is limited to 2 dimensions plus time, by general relativity. Kepler’s laws can be modified to accommodate a 1/r field because these laws assume Newton, and Newton’s law needs only to be rewritten for gravitational 1/r 2-D spacetime. This 2-D spacetime parcel possesses mass, like the highly excited inflaton field postulated by Alan Guth. Also, since it is spacetime in nature, it is immune to the event horizon of a black hole. Therefore, it can extend as far outward as is necessary to account for its effects - the real meaning of infinity. The potential energy profile of the hyperbolic 1/r supermassive black hole galactic gravitational field is generally higher than the profile of the equivalent inverse square profile. So, the difference between the P.E. of the hyperbolic field and the P.E. of the inverse square field is a real energy difference. Because M = E/c^2, this difference represents mass – matter that is unseen and unseeable. That is, this is Dark Energy. I have written a paper along these lines. But, I need a reviewer to help check my mathematics. [email protected]  (Jun 1, 2012 | post #2)

Physics

Galactic M-Sigma Relation & Anomalous Velocity Dispersion...

Hypothesis: Supermassive black holes must develop incredibly high spin rates, as would be measured by an observer under the event horizon. They condense initially out of massive supernovae and then from stellar components that orbit in concert within the innermost stratum of the central bulge of spiral galaxies. Due to this ultra high spin rate, nearing infinite rate below the event horizon, matter in such black holes never has a chance to compactify to a singular point with virtually infinite density. Instead, it flattens not to a mere point mass or to a simple ring singularity, but to subtend a "planar" subset of spacetime that is only 2 dimensional. It becomes a huge flat spacetime disk. But, this spacetime parcel still has mass. Oddly enough, this explains the strange correlation of the velocity distribution of stars in spiral galaxies wherein rotational v of outer stars correlates with the mass of the central supermassive black hole, the M-sigma relation. There should be no such correlation if gravitational force for black holes is an inverse square central force. This notion shows that no exotic dark matter is needed to explain this phenomenon. But, Dark Matter is still implied by this hypothesis. Because by extreme contraction under rapid spin of matter to “almost” a point singularity with “almost” infinite density (“almost” means “to below a Planck distance”), the gravitational force therein is so intense that it is asymptotic in behavior: it is hyperbolic (1/r) in nature and it changes the nature of spacetime. So, it emanates from an extensive centripetally induced 2-D “disk” singularity. A peculiar result is that for stars nearer the galactic periphery, stellar velocity v' = (GM/r*)½ , that is, it is a constant that is totally independent of r. (r* = the unit vector of r, for dimensional integrity.) Therefore, it is actually observed (the M-Sigma relation and the anomalous velocity distribution in galaxies and clusters) that this hyperbolic 1/r gravitational field of the supermassive black hole disk singularity can reach to the galactic periphery and far far beyond. And, because it is so much more extensive than an inverse square force, it has an effect on other nearby galaxies which also may have supermassive black holes with similar gravitational forces in play. This possibility explains all the phenomena associated with Dark Matter. It does not deny Dark Matter. It clarifies it. This massive flat relativistically plausible spacetime ultra-spin disk is a hyperboloid of one sheet. It has a saddle shape, its being embedded in a 3-D + time universe. The curvature of the hyperboloid does not become apparent until r becomes very large, far beyond a galaxy. So, to engage other galaxies with their own SBH hyperbolic fields, the "plane" or surface of this curved sheet will align with them more readily because it is not really planar or “flat”. This alignment is a way to account for the observed large scale network or spiderweb distribution of galaxies within clusters and superclusters. It also helps account for the primordial structure of the universe, as supermassive black holes may have been very common in the beginning. (continued)  (Jun 1, 2012 | post #1)

Physics

Black-Holes: The Hyperbolic Hyper-Massive Black-Hole Univ...

The hyperbolic black-hole gravitational field produces the mathematical result that the velocity distribution of stars in galaxies and galaxies in clusters follows the relation v = (GM)^1/2 and the gravitational potential energy follows P.E. proportional to ln(r), the natural logarithm of the radial distance from a black-hole or from the barycenter of several black holes. This is exactly the same as that predicted by hypotheses of "Dark Matter". The hyperbolic black-hole gravitational field IS Dark Matter.  (Feb 8, 2012 | post #2)

Physics

Black-Holes: The Hyperbolic Hyper-Massive Black-Hole Univ...

Black-Holes: The Hyperbolic Hyper-Massive Black-Hole Universe The hyperbolic (declines as 1/r) black-hole galactic and universe gravitational field explains Dark Energy and Dark Matter. Stephen Hawking did not buy his own pronouncements regarding the disappearance of information into black holes. Instead, as a retraction, he and some others invented a whole new theory of black-hole thermodynamics. So, in a sense, they concluded, the black-hole event horizon is a real surface. It is sometimes called a "quasi-surfac e". However, the center of a black-hole is a physically real singularity. It is constrained only by the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. There is no such thing as a valid quantum gravity (how many papers are published in ArXiv on unicorns? By their standards, there should be dozens!) So, any appeal to QG to put the Kibosh on black-hole singularities is therefore bogus. See The Hyperbolic Hyper-Massive Black-Hole Universe and Galactic Gravitational Field (HHBF), which is a paper written for the blog http://garyakent.w ordpress.com that describes the e-Model for inflationary expansion of the universe. The hyperbolic hyper-massive black-hole gravitational field is a phenomenological postulate, that is, it is a tentative premise that should be confirmed by experiment or observation and need not wait for theoretical justification. In the case of galaxies and galactic clusters, there is already enough observational support for the galactic hyperbolic super-massive black-hole gravitational field (HSBF). The point is emphasized that Birkhoff’s Theorem and other interpretive principles derived from general relativity cannot apply to any real black-holes. These rules presume that the massive bodies that are considered are always “unperturbed” and are perfectly “spherically symmetric”. No real black hole meets these criteria. The rules are good only for approximate calculation, not for “precision cosmology”. Besides, GR should not prohibit a gravitational field that declines as 1/r if a metric is found, similar to the Schwarzschild metric, using assumptions and boundary conditions wherein a singular black-hole is presumed at the outset. If such a gravitational field can be confirmed, the e-model will serve as more evidence for the existence of our universe as part of a multiverse in meta-time. Hugh Everett may one day be seen as a thinker on a par with A. Einstein. And, John Archibald Wheeler’s suggestion concerning the quantum self-interference of probability density waves may be taken more seriously while Everett’s declaration of the “reality of probability” as a sort of substance gains credence. Self-interference can explain the virtual absence of antimatter (AM) in our universe. AM would be confined to our virtual twin, which must exist according to the logical extension of Alan Guth’s inflation hypothesis wherein a virtual particle came into existence from a hyper-excited false vacuum which came to exist precisely because of its ultra-high energy level. It would be seen as the deeper mechanism behind apparent “symmetry breaking” and unbalanced annihilation of fundamental sub-nuclear particles and antiparticles to give our universe with matter as the dominant form. The existence of an interference twin could also be helpful in explaining the hyperbolic field as the resultant of a superposition of states. As the real expression of a statistical process within the multiverse, we experience only the total sum, the superposed probability density form from which emerges probability, P ---> 1. There are ways that such a superposition might affect the shape of a gravitational potential well. Gravity itself may be viewed as a probability vortex or wave in the Einstein Aether. There is much that has not been considered.  (Feb 7, 2012 | post #1)