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Jan 30, 2013

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Improving Diagnostics and Energy Analysis for Multifamily...

BOILER ENERGY BALANCE One possible retrofit in buildings with old single-pipe steam heating systems is replacement of the existing brick-set steam boiler. These boilers are usually significantly oversized, have large standby losses, and thus have low seasonal heating efficiencies. Because of the difficulties associated with separating envelope and distribution system performance from boiler performance, energy bill analysis is not adequate for evaluating boiler replacement as an option. However, boiler surface-temperatur e measurements, heat-flux measurements, and stack heat-loss measurements can be used to make a detailed energy balance the boiler. Such a detailed energy balance contains the information required to evaluate both boiler retrofits and complete boiler replacement. We used the measurements made during our week-long experiment to make a detailed energy balance on the boiler. The surface temperature measurements, along with the boiler room air temperature were used to calculate the convective and radiative heat losses from the surface of the boiler during both on- and off-cycle periods. The heat losses from the steam pipes in the boiler room were estimated from short-term measurements of their surface temperatures. We used the temperature measured on the ground underneath the boiler, along with estimates of outdoor air temperature and the groundwater temperature to determine the conductive heat losses from the bottom of the boiler. The off-cycle stack heat losses were determined from the tracer gas measurements used in the vent damper tests, and the on-cycle losses were determined from steady-state efficiency measurements made by the MEO staff. The heat losses from the boiler surfaces were determined using simplified models of radiative and convective heat transfer, and assuming that the wall surface temperatures were equal to the boilerroom air temperature. Read Full Report http://www.ornl.go v/sci/buildings/20 12/1985%20B3%20pap ers/050.pdf  (Jun 25, 2013 | post #1)

Cooper Chung International (Hong Kong Edition News)

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Cooper Chung International (Hong Kong Edition News)

http://forums.dpre st/50768931 Free-trade Shanghai aims to create a 'mini-Hong Kong' Shanghai has put its best foot forward in building the mainland's first free-trade zone, an ambitious project that demonstrates the city's increasing assertiveness in its bid to become a world-class metropolis. The plan, aimed at eventually creating a "mini-Hong Kong" in the mainland's commercial capital, underlines the new city leaders' ambitions of transforming Shanghai into the envy of Asia amid China's rising economic might. According to two government officials, the blueprint of the free-trade zone had received approval from the central government before acting mayor Yang Xiong unveiled the proposal in the government report delivered at the Shanghai People's Congress on Sunday. Yang said Shanghai was expected to officially launch the project on a trial basis this year. "It was not an empty promise," said an official who asked not to be identified. "City officials understand the difficulty of implementing the plan but are determined to realise the dream with years of effort." A free-trade zone, or free port, is where customs authorities allow the flow of goods unhindered with zero tariffs on imports. A typical free port is Hong Kong, the region's established financial, trading and shipping centre. Shanghai has yet to map out a detailed plan for the free-trade zone, which could result in booming economic activity and rising affluence. The acting mayor's statement on the zone signalled the city is aiming high, economists said. In Hong Kong, there were mounting concerns that Shanghai's rise would dent its role as a financial centre while siphoning off foreign investors' interest. Beijing has been cautious about establishing a free-trade zone for the past three decades as officials were spooked by fears that the authorities would lose their grip on the special area. Xiamen, one of the four pilot cities to spearhead China's economic reform in 1980s, lobbied the central government to give it free port status more than two decades ago, in vain. But Beijing has approved more than a dozen bonded areas, including three in Shanghai, which are prototypes of free-trade zones. In a bonded zone, imported tariff-free goods are processed and re-exported abroad. A free-trade zone, larger and more active in business transactions, could transform the economic prospects of the port city as goods and cash flow in freely. "Pudong, as a national-level pilot area for comprehensive economic reforms, should pioneer the move to build a free-trade zone," said Zhou Hanmin, a vice-chairman of the Shanghai People's Political Consultative Conference, who is also a renowned economist. "Initially, the efforts should be focused on legislation, rule-setting and system-building. " Shanghai won't be able to build a free-trade zone unless it obtains endorsements from a clutch of state-level authorities all the way from customs, taxation, commerce and banking to the planning agency. More importantly, concerns among top state officials about Hong Kong's prosperity and stability could turn out to be a major stumbling block for Shanghai. The economic output in the three bonded zones now account for about 7 per cent of the city's total. Source: Cooper Chung International  (Jan 30, 2013 | post #1)

Cooper Chung International News: Asia's social innovatio...

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