Mar 8, 2007
Adrian Godsafe MSc's Favorites
Adrian Godsafe MSc Profile
Nice article. The best way to tell apart the differences in cosmic ray sources is by looking @ the particle. Atomic nuclei spun up to high V are the result of escapes from magnetars spun up via a synchotron accelerator process of cern type where the nucleus eventually exits the system @ near c because it cannot keep up with spin @ high distance from the neutron *. Storms of cosmic rays (as seen in the relative production ratios & rates of Li, Be, B, & 14C), are usually the result of a large rock colliding with a nearby neutron * with the resulting splash becoming a particle storm. geminga (the closest), part of the Betelgeuse/Canopus association is a prime suspect in that case. High V protons however are more likely to be the result of supermassive black holes in the cores of small to medium sized E type galaxies outside of the gas pool of a major cluster (the high T gas would get in the way). The high energy protons are again in that case the result of a collision of a * with the black hole with the high E cosmic ray being the result of a near miss. In that case the proton is spun up to high V during the infall & outswing, likely prograde via drag & spin without a thick accretion disc forming. The cosmic rays may also prevent condensation of gas in the core of the E. happy hunting guys. Have a nice day: Ag (Wednesday Jul 9 | post #1)
Hmm. Appears to need a chapter for each. The hot Jupiter systems are becoming easier to manage as far as models as they are relics from the condensation of the star out of the nebula, with the disc collapsing onto the star & the planets as knots in the disc. The accretion process ends when the disc runs out of gas. The smaller inner planets in that case are the result of long term evaporation of the innermost planet by the radiation from the central *. These systems appear to be all ages & practically all classic main sequence masses frome late M through to early F or above. the oldest found so far appears to be Kapteyn's star (same age as omega Centauri) with the inner hot gas giant evaporated to 5 earth masses by radiation from the * over about 12 billion years. The oddbod ones however (such as the solar system), are far more difficult to explain, The absence of the hot Jupiter inner planets & the very compressed distances of the orbital bins make the Solar system different from most of the logged systems. The closest solar system analog (55 cnc), for example has hot Jupiter inner planets descending in size with distance and a large gas giant @ distance. Orbital bin distances are (typical of others) approx twice those of the solar system. The eccentric systems are easy. Either a captured interloper turned into an elliptical orbit due to condensation from the disc, or a scattering due to a massive interloper. The oddbods (such as the solar system) appear to be unique, the only norm so far appear to be the Kepler type hot Jupiter systems in close orbit, but that may merely be an artifact of the discovery method. Worth a decent book publication. Have a nice day: Ag (Wednesday Jul 9 | post #1)
Nice. needs pi, mu, delta, RV, spectral type, V-I & B-V. After that should be a decent * reference. Will be expecting an M type main sequence star, but knowing random allocators, may be disappointed. Have a nice day: Ag (Wednesday Jul 9 | post #1)
Cheaper soya milk. Goody. Have a nice day: Ag (Wednesday Jul 9 | post #1)
Interesting article. Thought it was a failed oil exploration well causing a dissolution cavern. Turns out to be a salt cavern after all. Hard part is working out how the salt cavern was formed as it is in a swamp zone so as a result it is likely to fill with water before even getting to the salt dome. Could have been a dissolution cavern in the salt dome with the brine recrystallised for salt later. End result in that case will be the same. Gas charged water surges likely due to pressurisation of the water/gas mix due to a collapse of the roof. When contents of cavern finally squirt out the roof goes down @ the same rate. If a dissolution well, then the current swamp conditions will guarantee the dissolution & collapse of the entire salt dome until the goop collapsing onto the crater seals the dome. Should create a very impressive slightly salty lake. Have a nice day: Ag (Wednesday Jul 9 | post #1)
Nice article. Shows a very nice pic of the Puu Oo cone & the surrounding lava shield. Looks like it is now slowly evolving into one of the pre caldera shield & pit crater systems seen higher up on the E. rift zone (chain of craters road). As a note, the inactivity of Kilauea postcaldera, prior to the formation of the halemaumau intracaldera shield & lava lake, may be explained by a submarine version of the exact same thing producing one or a chain of Puu oo type submarine cones on the lower rift. The fact that halemaumau has now popped back up indicates that Puu Oo is likely now in the declining phase & may shut down in the next decade assuming another earthquake & slump does not re open the rift @ the same spot. Will keep watching that space. Have a nice day: Ag (Monday Jul 7 | post #1)
Nice cert. Will need a spectral type, pi, Mu, Delta, and absolute magnitude, to be properly recognised. Would be best as a main sequence type M. (flares are optional but handy). Have a nice day: Ag (Monday Jul 7 | post #1)
Hmm... Now you see em.. now you don't. Looks like Gleise 581 is a classical star formed from a condensing disc with the disc eventually blown away. In the case of Gleise 581 the * doing the disc evaporation was likely an OB type star in the association where Gleise 581 formed. System now looks more classical in form. Gleise 581 is not alone, Kapteyn's star is another star formed in the core of a condensing disc. It however (due to being a halo star associated with Omega centauri) has very little dust & it is likely that it was the * that blew away its surrounding disc leaving the planets behind. In old systems of this type, the radiation from the * blows away a lot of the light gas from the innermost planet. Have a nice day: Ag (Monday Jul 7 | post #1)
Aha: this one is a far better written article and indicates that the system is more of a facsimile of the alpha Centauri system in which the stars making up the binary are orbited by planets condensed around the star rather than the binary itself. In this case the binary is likely to be rather wide with a long period and tidal bumping will eventually cause the planet to drift inward toward the central star into the lifezone with the planet warming with time. In the case of alpha centauri B which is about 7 billion years old or so the outermost planet of the system is now approaching lava temperature & is eventually going to merge with the star. There may have been an inner planet which has likely already gone due to tidal bumping driven merger. Have a nice day: Ag (Monday Jul 7 | post #1)
Nice model but only works with completed stars which have been crashed by a companion resulting in a red flare, where the crash remnant becomes a giant which then shrinks. In many cases however the * will grow from the bottom up via a condensing disc with bits in it. In that case the protostar will be at or above main sequence size & will grow via equatorial condensation from the disc until the core switches ON & the * blows away the remnant disc. Stars of that type are very easy to spot as they will have closely orbiting exoplanets beginning with hot gas giants and ending further out with either mini gas giants or titanides condensed out of the disc in descending size order with distance. In that case merely delete the early giant stage from the model & start with main sequence descent from the "n" shaped loop at the foot of the giant condensation track, with the protostar probably begining (visible) as a red dwarf at near main sequence luminosity in the ring before ending the model at solar mass or thereabouts. A look @ hot Jupiter type systems indicates that condensation from a closely orbiting ring can continue to early F type at least and may go further. Have a nice day: Ag (Monday Jul 7 | post #1)
Interesting: Due to tidal "bumping " the rocky planet in the system would originally have been closer to the binary than at present. It would drift outward with time as the 2 stars in the system drift closer. As the planet is rather small, the stars have not drifted together all that much. The planet may have started out as a dry venus like planet & dried out before passing through the lifezone & drifting out into the freezer. Would now likely look a bit like mars but a mite bigger. The rate of outward drift would be slower if the system held a big outer gas giant as the planet would be held in an orbital bin & the drift rate would be the same as for the outer gas giant bin rather than the small inner planet. handy to know if you account for the age of the stars in the core of the system. The Solar system may have initially begun in the same way, as a very close pair of M type red dwarves which bumped out the outer gas giants prior to merger. This probably accounts for the closeness of the gas giant orbital bins which are about 1/2 of the average seen in other exoplanet systems. In that case, the rocky inner planets formed in the interior orbital bins immediately after the merger, about 30-40 million years after the condensation of the system in the solar cluster. Have a nice day: Ag (Monday Jul 7 | post #1)
Yesterday storm tracked as extratropical into E. Canada heading for newfoundland. plenty of summer fun & games over there. Now the real fun bit. got a supertyphoon about to do a neat dosi do around Okinawa. Impressive single ring stadium eyewall around that one very reminiscent of Isabel. Have a nice day: Ag (Monday Jul 7 | post #3)
Got a bit more news. Head of ISIS popped in to N.Iraq a few days ago, & gave the usual rabble rousing speech. Easy to spot as the web goes out anytime he turns up in a city. Did not go down well with the arabic neighbours as that mideastern jigabu was seen sporting a stolen high value wristwatch. Case of... "meet the new boss, same as the old boss". Have a nice day: Ag (Monday Jul 7 | post #78)
Little bit turned up on the news recently featuring apparently the head of ISIS (easy to spot cos the web disappears wherever he happens to be). Apparently did not go down well among the rest of the arab states as that mideastern jigabu giving the lecture is actually flashing a stolen high cost wristwatch. Will be interesting to see that movie (bit like world war Z) but may get a mite hard on the cameramen. Have a nice day: Ag (Monday Jul 7 | post #11)
Q & A with Adrian Godsafe MSc
Geologist [I'm Climate Change]
NEIC global earthquake list. Smithsonian Inst: Global volcanism program. Local area sites in geological event areas (see believe in).
I Belong To:
nobody at all:(this following a science blacklist under New labour since 1999, and a 100% employment blacklist by the same idiots since 2001).
When I'm Not on Topix:
on web gathering science info (Geology & Meteorology). Also now preparing to emigrate with father to new EX UK address.
Read My Forum Posts Because:
Completely independent science graduate.
I'm Listening To:
Read This Book:
Stephen King: Under the dome
Gardening: shrubs arboriculture. naturetrail. Meteorology ie, enso events, astronomy etc. all 4 climate modes.
On My Mind:
Survival of local idiot cartel(s) until relocation.
Blog / Website / Homepage:
I Believe In:
Absolutely nothing at all. B.Sc 2:ii Geology, Aberystwyth 1987 P.G.Diploma Advanced manufacturing Technology, Nottingham Trent Univ. 1989 M.Sc DIC Petroleum Geology, Imperial college 1999. I am emigrating in response to the Blair/Brown/Bush employment blacklist versus science/engineering since 1997, and its discovery in 2005 preventing employment in all but their lowest level criminal rehab (refused then & now).
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