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Mar 8, 2007


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The mystery of where Earth's water came from deepens

The bulk of the light water makeup of the Earth's oceans arrives in the most mundane way imaginable and is easily visible to anybody @ night N or S of about 65 degrees latitude. The charged particles from the solar wind are slowed in the van allen belts generated by our dipole magnetic field, & most are captured there (bad news for astronauts), occasionally an overload dumps a few down onto the poles where they collide with atmospheric molecules & are slowed further. The immediate ionisation glow is immediately visible as an aurora. The not so easily noticed part is that the charged particles are ions, & once slowed enough by collision on the way down into the denser atmosphere, will chemically react with molecules they encounter. For Earth the atmosphere is oxidising, N2 bulk relatively unreactive but able to reduce to NH free radicals (especially in the glow region of the aurora) resulting in NH2 add ons to other molecules (more protons in the mix) and also occasionally NH3, resulting in ammonium salts with upper atmosphere water. The most reactive however nowadays is O2 resulting in OH free radicals & eventually H2O. For a reducing atmosphere rich in CO2 the result would have been organics, Methane, and H2O along with ammonia and amines. H2O appears as an end product in BOTH cases. Result also is that the H2O content of Earth will increase with time. Have a nice day:  (Dec 16, 2014 | post #1)

Natural Disasters

L.A. tornado: 'It was crazy'

Hmm. No newscaster wiped out by a starlet on a billboard this time then? Have to do better next time... Have a nice day: Ag  (Dec 16, 2014 | post #1)

Volcanic Eruption

Were dinosaurs killed off by a 'one-two punch'? Dates sug...

This one is more fun then it first seems. There was a major impact off SW Mexico on the margin of a basaltic plateau producing a crater with the smashed up sectors of the outer rim now preserved @ Gorgona island off SW Colombia. This impact was oceanic in Basalt 300,000 years or so before Chixculub & was bigger. This event covered NE Mexico in a tsunami deposit redistributing lots of airfall basaltic tektites that were mostly still liquid on contact with the ocean surface. The Dinos & most other life on Earth survived that one as the massive steam plume condensed out fast & rained out removing the dust pall. The early stage Deccan traps eruptions (N. part) erupted AFTER this impact. The 2nd major impact was Chixculub. It was smaller than Gorgona but struck a thick carbonate platform on a continent comprising the N. Yucatan peninsula in very shallow water. The result was a massive dust pall, the platinum group element anomaly (from deep continental sulphides), and about 6 months or so of near total darkness which cut off the herbivore based ecosystem leaving only the detritivores behind. This wiped out about 90% of species on Earth (connected to the photosynthetic chain ecosystem, the dinos were one of those groups). Note Birds survived because the primary survivors were waders connected to the detritivore chain (what's up duck?). The Main sequence of the Deccan traps popped up after the Chixculub impact and plated over the bulk of the Deccan @ that time. The 3rd impact was bigger than Chicxculub & Gorgona & severely crimped the recovery of life in the early Danian post extinction. It took a long time to find the crater for this one despite the fallout worldwide & tsunami effects being reported in the Early Danian carbonate shelves. It also struck a continent resulting in a platinum group element anomaly from remobilisation of deep continental sulphides. The causative crater actually appears on the map in the article and is the Shiva crater. It excavated the thick basalt plate from earlier deccan eruptions off the coast of Mumbai, and uplifted the base continental crust which was still hot & plastic while the basalt plate around it sank under its own weight forming a 400Km or so fault bounded basin with no basalt in the middle, & rift alkali volcanics from outer margin area hot crust & mantle. The 3rd deccan outbreak occurred after the Shiva crater impact producing a small plateau in the S. Deccan & rifting the Indian margin W of the Maldives from the Seychelles. The volume produced in the post impact outbreak was very large but the Hotspot was largely non continental @ that time. The last paragraph took me a while to collate, (the clincher is that if the Shiva crater had struck @ the same time as Chixculub, the crater would be sitting @ the base of a pristine & very thick basalt plate rather then being a traps free tertiary oil basin). There was no real mass extinction for the Shiva crater as the mass extinction had by then already happened & the devastation affected only adapts to the photosynthetic food chain plants that survived marginally during chixculub but failed to survive the longer period of darkness resulting from the bigger dust plume from Shiva. The Early Danian age was likely a few hundred thousand years or so after Chixculub, and Shiva crater ejecta & tsunami effects were long assumed to be directly K-T. Incidentally the Impacts (all 3) produced global cooling, but the Basalt plateau & mass extinction effects produced a CO2 spike from severely reduced vegetation cover resulting in overall warming. That do ya? Have a nice day: Ag  (Dec 16, 2014 | post #1)


Woman Cooking Sees Deer Run in Her Bathroom

I noticed that one too. CWDD is human in origin so probably a side effect of that in the environment. Have a nice day: Ag  (Dec 16, 2014 | post #21)


Deer breaks into home, leading to standoff with police

Going to need a radical design of the state pen for this new breed of mutant home invaders. Probably can't shoot them either. Have a nice day: Ag  (Dec 8, 2014 | post #3)

Volcanic Eruption

Holuhraun Biggest Lava Flow in Centuries

Interesting. I am still awaiting the lava flow volumetrics @ Holuhraun as a result of sidescan radar & levelling compared with the original ground surface & a comparison with the volume loss in the caldera. In the real fun & games scenario the volumes will be the same & the 2 results (product & volume loss) would be equal. In that case the eruption would be a Hawaiian type similar to major drainage events that produced the big calderas @ Mauna Loa & Kilauea. In that case the Icelandic population will have lots of fun & games as the product will eventually be a massive shield volcano with the high humpy bit piled up over the Baugur vent when the pressure in the caldera & the vent equalise as a result of the lowering of the caldera lid & the buildup @ the open vent around Baugur. Celebrations & more feld trips + naming ceremonies etc... In the more interesting scenario, the original dry rifting event produced a recharge of the chamber simultaneous to the drain through the fissure in the main chamber SSE @ the Gjalpar shunt. In that case the original hot primitive magma filling the dike & the flow @ Baugur was proimitive relatively hot gas rich magma from the base of the crust, which would have propped up the caldera lid @ the point of ingress of the new magma (NNE side). Reports are now coming in of magma which is less primitive in which case crystal settling & probably the deep feeder shutdown are now being seen. The bubbles in the magma settling to the top of the dike & the settling of crystals to the base of the dike (along with thermal erosion of the upper dike walls) appear to be responsible for the current pulsating outflow @ the Baugur vent, where domains of gas rich ascending magma & descending crystal rich magma appear alternately at the vent. In this case the lava volume would be bigger than the caldera collapse volume. The fact that the output & caldera collapse is winding down indicates that the deep feeder @ the base of the magma chamber (if it existed) has now shut down, & that the original ~10km deep or so dike now is actively transporting magma in the zone from ~250-500m (top) to 1 or 2 Km (base), which results in a slower flow regime. It seems likely that the current eruption will slowly peter out if a new feeder intrusion does not hit the base of the magma chamber first (rifting in iceland is often episodic so another set of dry rift quakes may occur @ Bardarbunga in the current crisis & the result may be another refilling & outbreak event likley still @ Baugur). 3rd scenario is that rifting may strike an adjacent unrelated volcano while the eruption is ongoing & winding down. Likely volcanoes are Grimsvotn (tapping a different much more gas rich magma disc), and Loki-Fogrufjoll (an advancing pluton under the Loki cauldrons tapping the Bardarbunga magma disc. In that case magma may break out into the loki rift & pep up the outflow @ the Baugur vent with mostly similar but unrelated magma in the mix (chaos & silly name calling & the volcanology & petrology dept ensues). Will keep watching that space... Oops: almost forgot. Earthquake studies in passing indicate a deep advancing pluton under Herdubreidartogl which is tapping the Askja magma disc. This one has not yet reached the surface, but the 3 way hydraulic split shows up. Have a nice day: Ag  (Dec 8, 2014 | post #1)

North Korea Bans Use of Leader's Name

excellent news: Now everybody can refer to him as "spoilt brat" without suffering nasty consequences. Have a nice day: Ag  (Dec 3, 2014 | post #1)


Strange galaxy perplexes astronomers

Hmm. The optical gives few clues, as it may be a monochrome image. Radio jets however are not too unusual in spirals as "Fornax A" very close to home with the core black hole now OFF has a similar equatorial spiral & polar jet configuration. This may be a transient stage in a galaxy merger with the 2 core black holes already merged. In loose cluster habitat, the galaxy will eventually relax into a lenticular with time, & the chaos in the spiral arms evened out will then switch off the core black hole. A clue on distance & mass of the galaxy would be handy for this one in future. Have a nice day: Ag  (Dec 3, 2014 | post #1)

Volcanic Eruption

UW Team Explores Large, Restless Volcanic Field in Chile

nice: I will definitely keep watching that space. Expectation is that it has something to do will the Maule stratovolcano cluster on the caldera rim, but it may be a different feeder fracture coming up under the old rhyolite/dacite in the caldera centre, (volcanic fields tend to have variable vent locations so not unusual). Maule stratovolcano group is also rather hot & busy so may be an intrusion eventually emergent there. Fun & games for later. Have a nice day: Ag  (Dec 3, 2014 | post #1)

Volcanic Eruption

Largest Japanese active volcano spews ash and rocks, disr...

Nice vids. The best one shows incandescent magma in the vent. Have a nice day: Ag  (Dec 1, 2014 | post #1)

Volcanic Eruption

Lava from Cape Verde volcano threatens to engulf town

Interesting: Seen other stories & the vids & the sat pics. Appears that Fogo island is tilted as a result of the deep magma disc @ the base of the crust actually occupying the W side of the island. The Cha caldera formed as a result of a landslide of the original cone preferentially built E on the beginnings of the landslide scar fracture set. The new Fuego cone occupied the new scar & eventually shut down as a result of its mass. The new cinder cones are now doing the same as the old Cha volcano (pre collapse) utilising fractures induced by gravity slide of the construct in the current caldera. The Cha caldera however does appear to be the first collapse event on the tilting Fogo island. Fuego de Fogo cone will therefore slowly go down to the beach for a holiday paddle while the cinder cone set now growing behind it will fill in the gap. The possibility once the caldera is filled is that dikes extending W from Cha caldera will begin to centralise the volcano over the top of the magma disc with cinder cones to the W. coast. The more likely event is the landslide based removal of the contents of Cha caldera (again) producing another deep marine turbidite dump deposit to the E. of the island. The place looks lovely, it very closely resembles Tenerife. It is a real pity that volcano tourism is difficult because it is so remote. The caldera appear to be fertile in the same way as Orotava (tenerife) in that the bowl shaped valley captures clouds & squeezes them out as they travel upslope in the bowl resulting in permanent streams. The lava is likely to reach the sea in this current eruption which should extend the coastline. have a nice day: Ag  (Dec 1, 2014 | post #1)

Volcanic Eruption

Volcanic Eruption In Japan Disrupts Flights

Nice to see Aso popping again. It was bubbling under in the Smithsonian reports for a couple of months, nice to see the volcano finally going "pop". It appears that the long deep crustal magma filled fracture feeding Aso in the current round of activity has squeezed in another blob into the base of the chamber. The long fracture runs WSW into the backarc rift area or arc backfault and is being squeezed ENE into Aso as differential compression @ the Ryukyu backarc preferentally squeezes the W side of the backarc basin. The magma in the fracture set responds by moving ENE @ the base of the crust until it hits the arc graben wall @ Aso & can go no further. Should there be a long repose @ Aso & Sakurajima (Aira) then the Japanese @ Ryukyu will need to get worried (teh godzilla movie monster noise however would accompany a big quake & tsunami @ that point rather than a big volcanic eruption, with the epicentre near Taiwan & extending ENE to Kyushu over the next 10 minutes or so. Current volcanism indicates that there is still a way to go before the big quake & tsunami. Have a nice day: Ag  (Dec 1, 2014 | post #1)

Volcanic Eruption

Walking on lava flow

Like the yellow tuft grass. Have a nice day: Ag  (Dec 1, 2014 | post #1)

Volcanic Eruption

Volcanoes hailed as Scotland's new rock stars

Interesting. Ardamurchan & Skye in particular are places to visit for icelandic volcanologists right now (particularly with the ongoing eruption of the Bardarbunga central volcano). In these cases the top bit of the central volcanic complexes are cold & eroded anabling a close examination of average everyday conditions at 8-10 Km depth in central volcano complexes from the same volcanic province as modern day Iceland. Of note, there is a mite less rhyolite in Icelandic volcanoes as they had to cook up their own most of the time rather than melt the surrounding continental crust as in Scotland. The only Scottish analog is actually Hekla which has intruded an ancient caldera complex buried ~15Km down or so & has remobilised the rhyolite producing spectacular summit eruptions after long repose periods allow the remobilised rhyolite to "lava lamp" to the top of the chamber. Have a nice day: Ag  (Dec 1, 2014 | post #1)

Q & A with Adrian Godsafe MSc


Geologist [I'm Climate Change]


formerly Nuneaton



Local Favorites:

NEIC global earthquake list. Smithsonian Inst: Global volcanism program. Local area sites in geological event areas (see believe in).

I Belong To:

nobody at all:(this following a science blacklist under New labour since 1999, and a 100% employment blacklist by the same idiots since 2001).

When I'm Not on Topix:

on web gathering science info (Geology & Meteorology). Also now emigrating with father to new EX UK address.

Read My Forum Posts Because:

Completely independent science graduate.

I'm Listening To:


Read This Book:

Douglas Adams: So long & thanks for all the fish

Favorite Things:

Gardening: shrubs arboriculture. naturetrail. Meteorology ie, enso events, astronomy etc. all 4 climate modes.

On My Mind:

relocation, relocation, relocation.

Blog / Website / Homepage: (emailer)

I Believe In:

Absolutely nothing at all. B.Sc 2:ii Geology, Aberystwyth 1987 P.G.Diploma Advanced manufacturing Technology, Nottingham Trent Univ. 1989 M.Sc DIC Petroleum Geology, Imperial college 1999. I am emigrating in response to the Blair/Brown/Bush employment blacklist versus science/engineering since 1997, and its discovery in 2005 preventing employment in all but their lowest level criminal rehab (they still call me climate change).