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Mar 8, 2007


Adrian Godsafe MSc Profile

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Volcanic Eruption

Early Earth - Now A Lot Less Like Hell

About time too. The "Magma ocean" would have only lasted for a relatively short time after the earth/moon formation event & would have crusted over relatively soon after the last of the big bits dropped back onto the surface & the sub clarke belt ring dropped piecemeal onto the equator, (a few million years). The sun was a lot smaller & a bit hotter in those days but the insolation rate was far less @ earth than @ present (global warming is nothing new). The interesting bit is that the bulk of the water arriving during accretion would have been buried under the ejecta sheet from the earth moon formation impact & dissolved back into the magma. Would have condensed out as the atmosphere cooled. There was however a lot less water than @ present, in large part due to the protons making up the bulk of the H2O arrived via the solar wind slows to capture speed in the upper atmosphere not having arrived yet (a continuous process). By the mid hadean the bulk earth would have been CO2 rich with insolation protons producing NH3 , Amines, Formaldehyde, and H2O, with the surface between major basin forming impacts cold enough to produce ice caps, & equatorial oceans of relatively shallow depth. H2O was ephemeral in the hadean as a big impact would blast a fair chunk of atmosphere 7 water off on a tangent & the addition from meteorites & comets would be from fireball sized (sub 500m chunks). As there were a lot of those we also got cometary origin H2O along with solar wind protons. Have a nice day: Ag  (Wednesday | post #1)

Volcanic Eruption

Mount Mayon lava: Fears of explosive volcano eruption pro...

Fun: I will keep watching that space. Need a tuna sandwich to go with the mayonnaise. NOTE: Pinatubo is better with popcorn. Have a nice day: Ag  (Wednesday | post #1)

Volcanic Eruption

Volconologist: Only a Matter of Time when next Eruption S...

Looks like current rift episode has produced a classical hydraulic problem; ie. Bardarbunga has sprung a leak. There does not as yet appear to be a connection between the main magma chamber (between 8Km & ~35km down), & the deep sub crustal magma disc. but the rifting along the Loki fissure system via the shunt appears to be widening in response to the mass of the intruded basalt & is increasing in depth as well as width (less magma emerging @ Holouhraun than is disappearing from the Hawaiian caldera piston collapse. There may be another "lava hammer" (see hydrologic water hammer for details) event, when the rift stops widening but it is more likely that surface rifting and graben formation is likely to occur instead (particularly in the higher altitude parts under the Dyngjujokull. The eruption being Hawaiian in main type will do the classical thing & drain out @ the lowest point (currently the Holouhraun vent & the deep dyke. There may if interesting bits continue... be a dike intrusion bypassing Askja (currently a pinch point) and extend into the also rifting Herdubreidartogl area. A connection with the main magma disc is possible but is likely a few more years away & may pop up @ Loki rather than bardarbunga. (That one may be fun as it is ice covered, & the Loki rift is now full of basalt (currently liquid but may be solid in 3-5 years). Have a nice day: Ag  (Wednesday | post #1)

Volcanic Eruption

B r arbunga: On Hot Tubs and Ice

Nice post. The fact that there is less lava coming out of Holuhraun than is entering the dike @ the loki rift (Loki-Fogrufjoll system) via the SE shunt from the subcaldera magma chamber, is an indicator of ongoing rifting in the region. The last eruption (Holuhraun) in the region may have been Bardarbunga (uncertain) and was about 300 years ago with a tail end charlie in the area by 1755. As a result the area has been locked & tight for at least 250 years in the classic E-W direction of N.America-W. European spreading. This is about the same time interval as between rift events @ Krafla so as a result it is likely that the Holuhraun area (loosened by the ESE lurch of the W.European plate in 1755) is now the locus of the widening rift which is likely all moving at once. I am @ present still uncertain whether the rifting has broken through to the magma disc @ the base of the crust under bardarbunga, currently I think not, but it may happen soon if the rift widening continues. Rifting appears to have reached the base crustal magma disc @ the Gjalpar shunt (Bardarbunga-Grims votn) @ the Gjalp fissure (big Jokullhlaup), & also along the SW caldera rim area of Grimsvotn (VEI 4 plinian column about 3 years ago). Spreading rate is faster S. than N. in Iceland so rift propagation along the Gjalpar shunt toward bardarbunga is likely and a reconnection with the base crustal magma disc is likely in a matter of a few years if not already. For the record The Loki-Fogrufjoll system was bisected by the Gjalpar shunt after 1755 when it was a transform fault (striking NNW-SSE in en echelon steps in a zone ~SSW-NNE from Grimsvotn SW caldera rim to NE Bardarbunga shown up by the dry rifts of the current crisis in the 1st few days); The fissure zone of the Loki rift through to Holuhraun was jolted SSE along with the crust through Lakagigar and was invaded by magma from Grimsvotn in the time post 1783 when the Grimsvotn caldera refilled. Gjalp fissure is attributed to grimsvotn. Loki-Fogrufjoll however is part of Hamarinn volcano system & will eventually take over from Bardarbunga as the N. American plate edge hotspot sitting volcano. Thanks to the Gjalpar shunt however, the bulk of the magma input into the Loki rift to Holuhraun comes from the neighbours Grimsvotn, & Bardarbunga, & is likely that the Gjalpar shunt may become the locus of a new central volcano E. of the old pre shunt Hamarinn, in the same way as Grimsvotn developing E. of Thordarhyrna (older than the shunt). The Gjalpar shunt appears to be at least 2 lisbon quake cycles old (over 2000 years) and cycles from transform to rift with time, depending on presence or absence of plate lurch. It may be mid Holocene in age. Will keep watching that space... Have a nice day: Ag  (Monday Sep 15 | post #1)


Doubts as to whether Nicaraguan blast was cause by meteorite

Must have item for the sort out team... Metal detectors. To produce a small fireball & a big hole, the object would have to be a slow moving iron (which would have bits carved off by impact & scattered among the ejecta). Alternative would be a clandestine weapons dump produced by one of the numerous civil wars in Nicaragua's history. In that case also lots of bits of metal would turn up in the ejecta field; may also find in that case the remains of a peasant farmer whom turned over a rather hotter than average rusty rock. Other possibility may be a phreatic explosion but in that case there would be a very hot (steaming) lake in the crater floor right about now. happy hunting: Have a nice day: Ag  (Monday Sep 15 | post #1)


Discovery! First Water Ice Clouds Found Beyond Our Solar ...

Nice story. For those whom like warm feet & cold showers. Be nice to see astrometric details to see if it is a disc object (free floating planet of approx uranus mass), or a halo object just passing through to remind us of the location the galactic halo missing mass. Have a nice day: Ag  (Monday Sep 15 | post #1)


The First Galaxies Were Big BabiesBy Matthew R. Francis

Interesting background story. Easiest way to figure things out is to look @ nearby remnants. The closest is NGC 5128 that grew as a "green pea" and reached its current size & elliptical colour only when it ran out of gas. As it grew the core collapsed into a black hole as a result of stellar collision & merger followed by core collapse of the supergiant star & (same as ours), the black hole precesses in all 3 axes & grew to supermassive size by munching on the nearby stars in random directions due to core collapse compaction of stellar orbits. With NGC 5128, the precessing core results in a constantly compacting drag & spin disc & also compacting stellar orbits in the core as the black hole precesses. The result is a constant low luminosity quasar retaining the spherical shape of the galaxy as newly formed stars in the drag & spin disc drift out of the plane of the equator of the black hole while the less massive gas & dust continue to follow teh equator around in spin & drop in undr gravity (hence orbit compaction). Most of the collision & merger ellipticals (giants) usually have a merged supermassive black hole with a very low precession rate and a lot of them are bigger than NGC 5128 with galaxy shape anywhere from E0 to E7 depending on the dynamics of the merger. As the supermassive black hole in the core of mergers does not precess, the ellipticals in clusters show up as radio galaxies (when active), & isolated ones grow a flat drag & spin disc and turn back into spirals. Your average startup galaxy will therefore be as big or probably bigger than NGC 5128, & their collision & merger results in the big buggers we see in clusters (virgo for example) & in isolation such as M104 & M102. The pretty spirals we see grew up in the gaps where the startup gas concentrations were relatively thin. The big ones such as Andromeda also did not escape collisions & mergers, Note also that being bathed in thin gas in the outskirts of big clusters, the merger remnants of galaxy groups turn back into spirals quite easily. I did like the pic of the funky spiral in the article. that one appears to have been a typical condensation out of the thin gas on the outskirts of a cluster. The first to form would have been in the thick gas & looked a lot like green peas & eventually NGC 5128. The only reason that the gioant ellipticals are no longer growing is that most of the cluster ellipticals are orbiting the cluster core too fast to condense the gas from the superhot gas pool in contrails or equatorial cooling flows. The number of big cD galaxies condensing gas in cluster cores however is increasing with time (watch those spaces). Have a nice day: Ag  (Monday Sep 15 | post #1)


Mystery behind brightest objects in universe solved

Easy really. NGC 5128: relatively low feed rate, view side on. Cygnus A: high feed rate, view side on. M87: low feed rate view pole on. 3C 273: high feed rate view pole on (All 4 classic radio galaxy structure, can see M87 right down to the core, both M87 & 3C 273 show relativistic catch up effects & blueshift to visible range in jets). BL lacertae: high feed rate, view exactly pole on. (appears as variable *) No idea of low feed rate pole on quasar yet but lots of bright starlike objects that should fit the bill. Only hard part is listing of the mass of the black hole in the core (hard to do in a pole on system). Have a nice day: Ag  (Monday Sep 15 | post #1)

Volcanic Eruption

NASA satellite captures incredible extent of Tavurvur vol...

Nice pics. I like that one. Have a nice day: Ag  (Monday Sep 8 | post #1)


An artist's impression of a Dreadnoughtus issued by Drexe...

Good week for geoscience. This one fills in a gap in the history of the region. Should now have enough species for a Titanosaur sucession ladder. may also be able now to produce a carnosaur succession ladder associated with the big sauropods. Sizes may go up & down with time. Environment in the plot indicates a fertile floodplain with lots of veg but not too swampy. Carcasses may have resulted from flood event river distributary avulsion. Have a nice day: Ag  (Monday Sep 8 | post #1)


MGNOnline/ Wikimedia Commons

Fun & games. For a meteorite to survive to the ground & leave a small crater indicates that it probably an iron or an iron with floating olivine/Mg othopyroxene crystal mush. Anything made of rock would likely not have survived passage through the atmosphere in a size capable of producing a crater (in that case it would have detonated in the lower atmosphere producing a strewn field & large airshock). Look also very closely @ the ejecta field (if it contains old shell casings & rusty military small arms the cause of the "boom" & crater could be far more mundane; (lots of that in Nicaragua's past too). Will find lots of iron in that case as well, so a metal detector is your must have for the week in that dot on the map. Have a nice day: Ag  (Monday Sep 8 | post #1)


A look at the Hawaii volcano sending lava toward some rur...

Oops again. Current eruption duration @ Kilauea is actually 30 years. Volumetrics sum is currenly over 1Km3 but have not seen the sum total postings from HVO for 4 years now, (needs an update). Have a nice day: Ag  (Monday Sep 8 | post #2)


A look at the Hawaii volcano sending lava toward some rur...

Again an interesting one. Saw the overflight on the "no comments" newsbite on Euronews (lots of chopper noise & the odd pilot squawk). About time Kilauea filled in the surface gaps in the rift zone. Not sure what age they were but the trees are pretty big so probably older than the Puu Oo cone formation event & precursor slide quake. Currently there is no sign of the formation of a major flow down the NNE flank toward the Hilo region, (since it is land, Kilauea has done this in the past), last time of big NNE flow appears to have been shortly before formation of Kilauea caldera, so SE flank may have top grow a bit more before that happens. Looks like Puu Oo will eventually form one of the low shields & big pit craters that currently dot the upper flanks along the Chain of craters road. Looks like the current eruption is about halfway through its duration (about 20 years so far). Will keep watching that space. have a nice day: Ag  (Monday Sep 8 | post #1)


Earthquake shakes Iceland volcano, still no ash

Oops.. Typo alert; 0.25Km4 should actually be 0.25Km3,(Typing on the clunky library machine keyboard)does cause missed keys. have a nice day: Ag  (Monday Sep 8 | post #2)


Earthquake shakes Iceland volcano, still no ash

Definitely interesting. Volcano world (Via iceland) issued a note that the caldera in Bardarbunga has subsided by 15m (volume loss ~0.25Km3), which is the approx size of the magma volume in the shunt & fissure in the Loki fissure swarm leading to the vent @ Holuhraun. A GPS plot overlay has also been posted indicating that the shoulders of the volcano around the caldera have not subsided. It appears that the caldera is currently Hawaiian in type (due to magma withdrawal). I still have no idea of whether there is a connection to the magma disc @ the base of the crust. Being a big volcano, the basalt magma chamber under the rhyolite cap in Bardarbunga is bigger than the average icelandic volcano, so withdrawal of 0.25Km4 of magma will not really alter the geography or reservior volume that much. The same is true of injection of new magma into the chamber, so the eruption will have to run for a while to work out whether the magma flow is active or passive. I can @ least for the moment rule out a major active magma injection as the GPS/levelling pic would have shown a major rise of the outer caldera shoulders of the system (which is mostly neutral @ present or a very slight rise). One note is that the quakes in the initial stage when the shunt first formed show up as a drop on the outer rim flank on the NNE side where the dry rifting intersected the flank of the cone. Holuhraun fissure vent is producing a nice long Aa flow into the Jokulsa a Fjollum river outwash plain @ present. The new outbreak (probably the result of a "lava hammer" backwave due to further fissure propagation failure on approach to the relaxed & intruded Askja), appears to be fairly small but is the main point where gas in the newly formed dike blows off (lava fountains are bigger, and lava volume is smaller). This small fissure vent will be the bit to watch if active deep magma injection has taken place as it will be the first point in the output system where gas rich magma reaches the surface, it will probably develop into a cinder cone cluster. Will continue to watch that space. Have a nice day: Ag  (Monday Sep 8 | post #1)

Q & A with Adrian Godsafe MSc


Geologist [I'm Climate Change]




Warwickshire UK

Local Favorites:

NEIC global earthquake list. Smithsonian Inst: Global volcanism program. Local area sites in geological event areas (see believe in).

I Belong To:

nobody at all:(this following a science blacklist under New labour since 1999, and a 100% employment blacklist by the same idiots since 2001).

When I'm Not on Topix:

on web gathering science info (Geology & Meteorology). Also now preparing to emigrate with father to new EX UK address.

Read My Forum Posts Because:

Completely independent science graduate.

I'm Listening To:


Read This Book:

Stephen King: Under the dome

Favorite Things:

Gardening: shrubs arboriculture. naturetrail. Meteorology ie, enso events, astronomy etc. all 4 climate modes.

On My Mind:

Survival versus local idiot cartel(s) until relocation.

Blog / Website / Homepage: (emailer)

I Believe In:

Absolutely nothing at all. B.Sc 2:ii Geology, Aberystwyth 1987 P.G.Diploma Advanced manufacturing Technology, Nottingham Trent Univ. 1989 M.Sc DIC Petroleum Geology, Imperial college 1999. I am emigrating in response to the Blair/Brown/Bush employment blacklist versus science/engineering since 1997, and its discovery in 2005 preventing employment in all but their lowest level criminal rehab (refused then & now).