The glory of the Marehan

Posted in the Somalia Forum

33th crown prince of Sade

London, UK

#1 May 13, 2013


Print Copy of the Biography:
http://i166.photobucket.com/albums/u111 ... ujahid.jpg

Nur ibn Mujahid ibn ‘Ali ibn ‘Abdullah al Dhuhi Suha (literally ‘the morning star’), of the Ahl Suhawyan clan of the Somali tribe of Marehan, Darod group, was a notable Emir of Harar in the 16th century. Marrying the Widow of Ahmad Ibn Ibrahim (q.v.), or Gran, he also succeeded him as leader of the Muslim forces of fighting Christian Ethiopia.

Considered the patron saint of Harar, he was called the Sahib al-Fath at-Thani, or Master of the Second Conquest. When Ahmed ibn Ibrahim, the leader of the Muslim expansion into Ethiopia which began in 1527, was killed in 1543, the Muslim forces fell back in confusion upon Harar. Nur, the dead leader’s sister’s son, married Gran’s firebrand widow, Bati del Wanbara (q.v.), and undertook to renew the fortunes of the Muslim city, which had been sacked in 1550. Named Emir in about 1550-51, he spent the next two years reorganizing his forces, and construction the wall which still surrounds the city.

In 1554-55, Nur departed on a Jihad, or Holy War, in the eastern Ethiopian lowlands of Charchar, Arusi, and Hadeya. In 1559, he invaded Fatajar, where he fought against the Ethiopian emperor Galawdewos (q.v.)[reigned 1540-59], and killed him. Nur kept fighting for 12 years untill, according to legend, at Gibe he said “Kaffa!”, or “Enough!”, and returned to Harar. The province is called Kaffa to this day.

During Nur’s absence, Harar witnessed internal power struggles, and the unlucky city was disturbed by encroaching Galla tribes (i.e. Oromo tribes). By 1567, repeated Galla raids had brought famine to the city. Nur left the city in 1568 for a punitive raid against the Galla. On his return he found a plague raging in Harar, and he himself died of typhus.

Contemporaries described Nur as a man of noble conduct, who was just, strong, and highly principled. He was noted for the buildings he erected in Harar, and for protecting its inhabitants from invaders. His tomb stands on a hill surrounded by houses and courtyards, and is popular place of pilgrimage in Harar.

Bibliography:

1. R.Basset (editor, Histoire de la conquete de l’Abyssinie (“History of the Conquest of Abyssinia”), Paris, 1897-1901;

2. Dr. E. Cerulli,“Documenti arabi per la storia dell’Ethiopia,” Memoria della Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Vol. 4, No. 2, Rome, 1931

3. Dr. E. Cerulli, La lingua e la storia di Harar (“The Language and History of Harar”), Rome, 1936

4. Dr. E. Cerulli,“Gli Emiri di Harar dal secolo XVI alla conquista agiziana”(“The Mirs of Harar From the 16th Century to the Egyptian Conquest”),

5. Dr. E. Cerulli, Rassegna di Studi Ethiopici, Vol. 2, Rome, 1942

6. Hadj Yusuf AbdulRahman (editor), Kitab Rabi’a al-Qulub fi Dhikr Manaqib wa Fada’il Sayyidina as Sheikh Nur Hussein (“The Springtime of Hearts in Memory of the Virtues and Merits of Our Lord the Sheikh Nur Hussein”), Cairo, 1927

7. J. Spencer Trimingham, Islam in Ethiopia, London, 1952

8. K. Wndt,“Amharische Geschichte eines Emirs von Harar in XVI Jahrhundert,”(“An Ahmhari History of One of the Emirs of 16th Century of Harar”), Orientalia, Vol. 6, No.¾, Rome, 1937

emir nuur grave
http://img153.imageshack.us/img153/2184/tombq...
33th crown prince of Sade

London, UK

#2 May 13, 2013
13 century first emir of harar and grand father of alot of marehans
http://somaliswiss.files.wordpress.com/2009/0...
Emir Sheikh Abadir Musa Warwaje’le
By Mohammed Ibrahim Shire
Abadir ibn Musa ibn Warwa’Jecle (Somali: Abaadir Muuse Warwaajecle) dubbed as the principal patron saint and first Emir of Harar, was the most celebrated Somali figure and one of the earliest propagators of Islam in the city of Harar. He introduced Islam at a very early period, before the Abyssinians (Ethiopians) first gained a footing there.
Abadir with a group of companions entered Harar in the mid-13th century with the primary purpose of proselytizing the local inhabitants. After marrying a Harari woman, he subsequently built the famous mosque, known as the Jamia site, which until this day stands tall albeit renovated.
After years of preaching, he instructed the converted local tribes to elect one of his companions as their leader, an direct instruction that agitated and ignited the non-Muslim tribes to take up arms, due fear of Islam’s rapid expansion.
Abadir crushed the rebellion with the aid of his followers and after the final victory; he transferred the control of the conquered land to this companions, whilst staking a claim to the town of Harar for himself. According to oral tradition it was Abadir who created the five district neighbourhoods associated to the five city gates from which their names are derived.

Abadir used his influence to revamp the region’s social structure. Abadir renamed the land to “Harar” or “Bander Abadir” and its inhabitants “Hararis”. This was in an effort to unite the local Muslim ethnic populace in to a single umbrella identity, the “Harari Muslim”. Abadir was instrumental in forming the confederation of Muslim states called Zayla, which stretched from Shoa (south of Wello) to Somalia (including Djibouti), and had Harar as its capitol.
In 1234/35, Abadir and several of his companions left Harar for a pilgrimage to Mecca, where they stayed until 1279. Prior to his departure, Abadir handed the emirate over to his brother Abdurahim Musa WarWaje’le (Somali: Cabdiraxiin Muuse Warwaajecle) and some of his companions to govern the region in his absence.
Upon his return, he found the region devastated by the Portuguese and its inhabitants engulfed and weakened by internal strives. Some of his companions including his brother fell in the wars against the “Portuguese” or died in other ways. Abadir re-united and re-organized the demoralised Harari troops and pushed the Portuguese back beyond the boundaries of Zayla.

There is some uncertainty about his death. Local accounts dictate that he died the natural death whilst other reports mention that he assassinated. However, what is indisputable is that Abadir achieved a fame and status that extended far beyond the Harar region in Muslim Ethiopia. In Harar, several songs in veneration of Abadir are still extant.
Bibliography:
1. R. Paret,“Eine fragwütdige arabische Chronik von Harar,” IV Congresso Internationale di Studi Etiopici, Roma 1972, Vol. I (Roma, 1974).
2. P. Paulitschke,“Harar Forschungsreise nach den Somâl- und Galla-Ländern Ost-Afrikas”, Leipzig Brockhaus 1888
3. S. Uhlig,“Encyclopaedia Aethiopica”, Harrassowitz, 2003
4. Società geografica italiana,“Bollettino della Società geografica italiana”, 1891
5. Goverment publications,“Nuova antologia”, 1894
Mohammed Ibrahim Shire
33th crown prince of Sade

London, UK

#3 May 13, 2013
Print Copy of the Biography:
http://i166.photobucket.com/albums/u111 ... ujahid.jpg

Nur ibn Mujahid ibn ‘Ali ibn ‘Abdullah al Dhuhi Suha (literally ‘the morning star’), of the Ahl Suhawyan clan of the Somali tribe of Marehan, Darod group, was a notable Emir of Harar in the 16th century. Marrying the Widow of Ahmad Ibn Ibrahim (q.v.), or Gran, he also succeeded him as leader of the Muslim forces of fighting Christian Ethiopia.

Considered the patron saint of Harar, he was called the Sahib al-Fath at-Thani, or Master of the Second Conquest. When Ahmed ibn Ibrahim, the leader of the Muslim expansion into Ethiopia which began in 1527, was killed in 1543, the Muslim forces fell back in confusion upon Harar. Nur, the dead leader’s sister’s son, married Gran’s firebrand widow, Bati del Wanbara (q.v.), and undertook to renew the fortunes of the Muslim city, which had been sacked in 1550. Named Emir in about 1550-51, he spent the next two years reorganizing his forces, and construction the wall which still surrounds the city.

In 1554-55, Nur departed on a Jihad, or Holy War, in the eastern Ethiopian lowlands of Charchar, Arusi, and Hadeya. In 1559, he invaded Fatajar, where he fought against the Ethiopian emperor Galawdewos (q.v.)[reigned 1540-59], and killed him. Nur kept fighting for 12 years untill, according to legend, at Gibe he said “Kaffa!”, or “Enough!”, and returned to Harar. The province is called Kaffa to this day.

During Nur’s absence, Harar witnessed internal power struggles, and the unlucky city was disturbed by encroaching Galla tribes (i.e. Oromo tribes). By 1567, repeated Galla raids had brought famine to the city. Nur left the city in 1568 for a punitive raid against the Galla. On his return he found a plague raging in Harar, and he himself died of typhus.

Contemporaries described Nur as a man of noble conduct, who was just, strong, and highly principled. He was noted for the buildings he erected in Harar, and for protecting its inhabitants from invaders. His tomb stands on a hill surrounded by houses and courtyards, and is popular place of pilgrimage in Harar.

Bibliography:

1. R.Basset (editor, Histoire de la conquete de l’Abyssinie (“History of the Conquest of Abyssinia”), Paris, 1897-1901;

2. Dr. E. Cerulli,“Documenti arabi per la storia dell’Ethiopia,” Memoria della Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Vol. 4, No. 2, Rome, 1931

3. Dr. E. Cerulli, La lingua e la storia di Harar (“The Language and History of Harar”), Rome, 1936

4. Dr. E. Cerulli,“Gli Emiri di Harar dal secolo XVI alla conquista agiziana”(“The Mirs of Harar From the 16th Century to the Egyptian Conquest”),

5. Dr. E. Cerulli, Rassegna di Studi Ethiopici, Vol. 2, Rome, 1942

6. Hadj Yusuf AbdulRahman (editor), Kitab Rabi’a al-Qulub fi Dhikr Manaqib wa Fada’il Sayyidina as Sheikh Nur Hussein (“The Springtime of Hearts in Memory of the Virtues and Merits of Our Lord the Sheikh Nur Hussein”), Cairo, 1927

7. J. Spencer Trimingham, Islam in Ethiopia, London, 1952

8. K. Wndt,“Amharische Geschichte eines Emirs von Harar in XVI Jahrhundert,”(“An Ahmhari History of One of the Emirs of 16th Century of Harar”), Orientalia, Vol. 6, No.¾, Rome, 1937

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