reader

Swindon, UK

#117 Dec 30, 2012
The legendary Hồng Bàng Dynasty of the Hùng kings is considered the first Vietnamese state, known in Vietnamese as Văn Lang. In 257 BC, the last Hùng king was defeated by Thục Phán, who consolidated the Lạc Việt and Âu Việt tribes to form the Âu Lạc, proclaiming himself An Dương Vương. In 207 BC, a Chinese general named Zhao Tuo defeated An Dương Vương and consolidated Âu Lạc into Nanyue. However, Nanyue was itself incorporated into the empire of the Chinese Han Dynasty in 111 BC.

For the next thousand years, Vietnam remained mostly under Chinese rule.[23] Early independence movements, such as those of the Trưng Sisters and Lady Triệu, were only temporarily successful, but the region did become independent as Vạn Xuân under the Anterior Lư Dynasty between 544 and 602 AD. By the early 10th century, Vietnam had gained autonomy, but not independence, under the Khúc family.


Map of Vietnam showing the conquest of the south (the Nam tiến), 1069–1757.

The Imperial City in Huế.
In 938 AD, the Vietnamese lord Ngô Quyền defeated the Chinese forces of the Southern Han state at Bạch Đằng River and regained independence after a millennium of Chinese domination.[24] Renamed as Đại Việt (Great Viet), the nation enjoyed a golden era under the Lư and Trần Dynasties. During the rule of the Trần Dynasty, Đại Việt repelled three Mongol invasions.[25] Meanwhile, Buddhism flourished and became the state religion.

Following the brief rule of the Hồ Dynasty, Vietnamese independence was briefly interrupted by the Chinese Ming Dynasty, but was restored by Lê Lợi, the founder of the Lê Dynasty. The Vietnamese dynasties reached their zenith in the Lê Dynasty of the 15th century, especially during the reign of Emperor Lê Thánh Tông (1460–1497). Between the 11th and 18th centuries, Vietnam expanded southward in a process known as nam tiến ("southward expansion"),[26] eventually conquering the kingdom of Champa and part of the Khmer Empire.[27][28]

From the 16th century onwards, civil strife and frequent political infighting engulfed much of Vietnam. First, the Chinese-supported Mạc Dynasty challenged the Lê Dynasty's power. After the Mạc Dynasty was defeated, the Lê Dynasty was nominally reinstalled, but actual power was divided between the northern Trịnh Lords and the southern Nguyễn Lords, who engaged in a civil war for more than four decades before a truce was called in the 1670s. During this time, the Nguyễn expanded southern Vietnam into the Mekong Delta, annexing the central highlands of Tay Nguyen and the Khmer lands in the Mekong Delta.

The division of the country ended a century later when the Tây Sơn brothers established a new dynasty. However, their rule did not last long, and they were defeated by the remnants of the Nguyễn Lords, led by Nguyễn Ánh and aided by the French.[29] Nguyễn Ánh unified Vietnam, and established the Nguyễn Dynasty, ruling under the name Gia Long.
reader

Swindon, UK

#118 Dec 30, 2012
Vietnam's independence was gradually eroded by France – aided by large Catholic collaborator militias – in a series of military conquests between 1859 and 1885, after which the entire country became part of French Indochina. The French administration imposed significant political and cultural changes on Vietnamese society. A Western-style system of modern education was developed, and Roman Catholicism was propagated widely in Vietnamese society. Most of the French settlers in Indochina were concentrated in Cochinchina – the southern third of Vietnam – based around the city of Saigon.[30]

Developing a plantation economy to promote the export of tobacco, indigo, tea and coffee, the French largely ignored increasing calls for Vietnamese self-government and civil rights. A nationalist political movement soon emerged, with leaders such as Phan Boi Chau, Phan Chu Trinh, Phan Dinh Phung, Emperor Hàm Nghi and Ho Chi Minh fighting or calling for independence. However, the royalist Can Vuong was defeated in the 1890s after a decade of resistance, and the 1930 Yen Bai mutiny of the Viet Nam Quoc Dan Dang was put down easily. The French maintained control of their colonies until World War II, when the war in the Pacific led to the Japanese invasion of French Indochina in 1941.

With the defeat of France in Europe in 1940, the French Third Republic was replaced by the Vichy Regime, to which the colony remained loyal. Heavily dependent on Nazi Germany, Vichy France was forced to surrender control of French Indochina to Germany's ally, Japan. The natural resources of Vietnam were exploited for the purposes of the Japanese Empire's military campaigns into the British Indochinese colonies of Burma, the Malay Peninsula and India. The Japanese occupation was a key cause of the Vietnamese Famine of 1945, which caused around two million deaths, equivalent to as much as 10% of the contemporary population.[31]
reader

Swindon, UK

#119 Dec 30, 2012
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam

In 1941, the Viet Minh – a communist and nationalist liberation movement – emerged under the Marxist-Leninist revolutionary Ho Chi Minh, who sought independence for Vietnam from France and the end of the Japanese occupation. Following the military defeat of Japan and the fall of its puppet Empire of Vietnam in August 1945, the Viet Minh occupied Hanoi and proclaimed a provisional government, which asserted national independence on 2 September.[32]


A French-marked USAF C-119 flown by CIA pilots over Dien Bien Phu in 1954.
In the same year, the Provisional French Republic sent the French Far East Expeditionary Corps – originally created to fight the Japanese occupation forces – to pacify the Vietnamese liberation movement and to restore French colonial rule. On 23 November 1946, French vessels bombarded the port city of Hai Phong, and the Viet Minh's guerrilla campaign against French forces began soon after. The resulting First Indochina War lasted until 20 July 1954.

Despite taking fewer losses during the course of the war – the Expeditionary Corps suffered one-third of the casualties of the Chinese and Soviet-backed Viet Minh – the French and Vietnamese loyalists eventually suffered a major strategic setback at the Siege of Dien Bien Phu, which allowed Ho Chi Minh to negotiate a ceasefire from a favorable position at the Geneva Conference of 1954. The colonial administration ended and French Indochina was dissolved under the Geneva Accords of 1954, which separated the forces of former French supporters and communist nationalists at the 17th parallel north with the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone. A 300-day period of free movement was given, during which almost a million northerners, mainly Catholic, moved south, fearing persecution by the communists.

The partition of Vietnam, with Ho Chi Minh's Democratic Republic of Vietnam in North Vietnam, and Emperor Bảo Đại's State of Vietnam in South Vietnam, was not intended to be permanent by the Geneva Accords, and the Accords expressly forbade the interference of third powers. However, in 1955, the State of Vietnam's Prime Minister, Ngo Dinh Diem, toppled Bảo Đại in a fraudulent referendum organised by his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu, and proclaimed himself president of the Republic of Vietnam. The Accords mandated nationwide elections by 1956, which Diem refused to hold, despite repeated calls from the North for talks to discuss elections.[33
reader

Swindon, UK

#120 Dec 30, 2012
The pro-Hanoi Vietcong began a guerrilla campaign in the late 1950s to overthrow Diem's government, which an official Vietcong statement described as a "disguised colonial regime."[33] In the North, the communist government massacred landowners and peasant rebels in a series of purges, with credible estimates of the death toll ranging from 200,000 to 300,000.[34][35][36][37][38][3 9][40][41] In the South, Diem went about crushing political and religious opposition, imprisoning or killing tens of thousands.[42]


A Vietcong soldier stands guard during a prisoner exchange with American forces in 1973.
In 1963, Buddhist discontent with Diem's pro-Catholic regime erupted into mass demonstrations following the banning of the Buddhist flag and the Hue Vesak shootings. With Diem unwilling to compromise, Nhu orchestrated the Xa Loi Pagoda raids; estimates of the death toll range into the hundreds. As a result, America's relationship with Diem broke down, resulting in the 1963 coup that saw Diem and Nhu assassinated.

Diem was followed by a series of corrupt military regimes that often lasted only months before being toppled by other military officers. With South Vietnam paralyzed by instability, the communists began to gain ground. There were more than a dozen South Vietnamese governments between 1961 and 1965, before the pairing of Air Marshal Nguyen Cao Ky and General Nguyễn Văn Thiệu took control in mid-1965. Thieu gradually outmaneuvered Ky and cemented his grip on power in fraudulent elections in 1967 and 1971.[43]

To support South Vietnam's struggle against the communist insurgency, the United States began increasing its contribution of military advisers, using the controversial 1964 Tonkin Gulf incident as a pretext for such intervention. US forces became embroiled in ground combat operations in 1965, and at their peak they numbered more than 500,000.[44][45] The US also engaged in a sustained aerial bombing campaign. Communist forces attacked major targets in South Vietnam en masse during the 1968 Tet Offensive, and although their campaign failed militarily, it shocked the American establishment, and turned US public opinion against the war.[46] Communist forces supplying the Vietcong carried supplies along the Ho Chi Minh trail, which passed through Laos and Cambodia. US presidents Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon authorized Operation Commando Hunt and Operation Menu, Strategic Air Command bombing campaigns in Laos and Cambodia, about which only high-ranking Congressional officials were informed.[47]

Its own casualties mounting, and facing opposition to the war at home and condemnation abroad, the US began withdrawing from ground combat roles according to the Nixon Doctrine; the process was subsequently called Vietnamization. The effort had mixed results, ultimately failing to stabilize South Vietnam. The Paris Peace Accords of 27 January 1973 formally recognized the sovereignty of Vietnam "as recognized by the 1954 Geneva Agreements." Under the terms of the accords, all American combat troops were withdrawn by 29 March 1973. Limited fighting continued, before North Vietnam captured the province of Phuoc Long in December 1974 and started a full-scale offensive, culminating in the Fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. South Vietnam briefly came under the nominal rule of a Provisional Revolutionary Government while under military occupation by North Vietnam. On 2 July 1976, North and South Vietnam were merged to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.[1] The war left Vietnam devastated, with the total death toll standing at between 1 million and 4 million, and many thousands more crippled by the use of chemical weapons such as napalm and Agent Orange.[48]
reader

Swindon, UK

#121 Dec 30, 2012
In the aftermath of the war, under Lê Duẩn's administration, the government embarked on a mass campaign of collectivization of farms and factories. This caused an economic collapse and resulted in triple-digit inflation. Reconstruction of the war-ravaged country was slow, and serious humanitarian and economic problems confronted the communist regime. At least one million South Vietnamese were sent to reeducation camps, with an estimated 165,000 prisoners dying.[49][50] Between 100,000[49][51][52] and 200,000[53] South Vietnamese were executed.[54] R.J. Rummel, an analyst of political killings, estimated that about 50,000 South Vietnamese deported to "New Economic Zones" died performing hard labor,[55] out of the 1 million that were sent.[49] In the late 1970s and early 1980s, millions of people fled the country in crudely built boats, creating an international humanitarian crisis.[56][57]

In 1978, the Vietnamese military invaded Cambodia to remove from power the Khmer Rouge, who had been razing Vietnamese border villages and massacring the inhabitants.[58] Vietnam was victorious, installing a regime in Cambodia whose leaders ruled until 1989.[59] This action worsened relations with the Chinese, who launched a brief incursion into northern Vietnam in 1979.[60] This conflict caused Vietnam to rely even more heavily on Soviet economic and military aid.

At the Sixth National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam in December 1986, reformist politicians upset by the country's lack of economic progress replaced the "old guard" government with new leadership.[61][62] The reformers were led by 71-year-old Nguyen Van Linh, who became the party's new general secretary.[62] Linh was a native of northern Vietnam who had served in the south both during and after the Vietnam War.[61][62] In a historic shift, Linh and the reformers implemented a series of free-market reforms – known as Đổi Mới (Renovation)– which carefully managed the transition from a planned economy to a "socialist-oriented market economy".[63][64]

Though the authority of the state remained unchallenged, the government encouraged private ownership of farms and factories, economic deregulation and foreign investment, while maintaining control over strategic industries.[64] The Vietnamese economy subsequently achieved rapid growth in agricultural and industrial production, construction, exports and foreign investment. However, these reforms have also caused a rise in income inequality and gender disparities.[14][15][16]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam
epep

Swindon, UK

#122 Dec 31, 2012
Americans r IGNORANT wrote:
WHY ARE VIETNAMESE HATED and look down upon in the USA, CANADA and AUSTRALIA?
I observed most overseas Vietnamese community in AMERICA, CANADA, and AUSTRALIA are notoriously known for PROSTITUTIONS, GANG BANGERS, HUMAN TRAFFICKERS, and DRUG DEALERS.
Whereas their counterpart in VIETNAMESE community in England, France, Germany and many parts of Europe are hard workers, overachievers in education, and commit very little crime. But I also noticed many of them can speaks Chinese as well....
those vietnamese people that have immigrated to america, canada, australia are most probably ethnically vietnamese people.

if any vietnamese people speak vietnamese then they are most probably ethnically vietnamese people.

if any " vietnamese " people speak chinese well then they are most probably chinese people that have, in the past, emmigrated to vietnam, and then those chinese people emmigrated to england, germany and many other parts of Europe.
SpongeBob

Brampton, Canada

#123 Jan 1, 2013
epep wrote:
<quoted text>
those vietnamese people that have immigrated to america, canada, australia are most probably ethnically vietnamese people.
if any vietnamese people speak vietnamese then they are most probably ethnically vietnamese people.
if any " vietnamese " people speak chinese well then they are most probably chinese people that have, in the past, emmigrated to vietnam, and then those chinese people emmigrated to england, germany and many other parts of Europe.
If that is the case, just consider the first waves of Chinese immigrants to North America. These first generations of Chinese immigrants were subjects to abuses, hard labours, sweatshops, disvrimation, head taxes and Exclusion Acts....Compare to first waves of Vietnamese in North America, it's obviously host Governments DO NOT LIKE CHINESE. Wahahahahhaa! Listen to waht you said, I would move back home to mainland, to eat....grass if I were Chinese. Wahahahhahaha!
Viet Admirer

Canada

#124 Jan 1, 2013
I admire Viets because they do anything they want here in Calgary.

Drugs, prostitution, robbery, no respect of any city by-laws, or environmental conservation laws.
SpongeBob

Mississauga, Canada

#126 Jan 1, 2013
Viet Admirer wrote:
I admire Viets because they do anything they want here in Calgary.
Drugs, prostitution, robbery, no respect of any city by-laws, or environmental conservation laws.
If that is the case, Viets must be assimilated ...TOO WELL in Foreign land, look at the positive aspect. Unlike Chinks, they are still belonged to third world mailand no matter how long they have been....over-sea. Wahahahaahhaa!
Drgunzet

Boise, ID

#127 Jan 1, 2013
Why Americans HATE the VIETNAMESE? Because the Chinese dare not say it directly. It's a typical behavior of a conquered, enslaved race who are indirect and submissive.

I noticed the superior races such as the Brits or Germans are direct, "Hey, we own. You surrender now!"

The women are submissive, and indirect when they talk to men. The Chinese men are submissive and indirect when they talk to the superior Whites. Those who talked directly and openly to the Mongolians or Manchurians were all killed long ago. What's left are sissy guys.

I am a big and tough Chinese. Chinese women just went nuts after me. For awhile I thought they were after my US citizenship but now I realize...they were after my big bawls of steel.

You can see the huge different between me and other Chinese on the forum. LoL, it's obvious who was raised by the superior German American and who were raised as wimps under the CCP.

“we are central empire”

Since: Sep 12

Changsha, China

#128 Jan 5, 2013
Vietnamese are monkeys and Philippinos are dogs, we Chinese consider like that.
Why do American help them? Because they are humans most loyal friends. LOL LOL~~~
epep

Swindon, UK

#129 Jan 6, 2013
VIVA CHINA wrote:
Vietnamese are monkeys and Philippinos are dogs, we Chinese consider like that.
Why do American help them? Because they are humans most loyal friends. LOL LOL~~~
chinese should not be enemies with vietnamese. because vietnamese generally have done no wrong to chinese people. and chinese people would not want to be enemies with vietnamese, because vietnamese have the ability to maim and murder people without much hesitation. but if you do not bother the vietnamese, then the vietnamese will not be much viscious to you. so for chinese people's own safety chinese people should not be enemies with vietnamese.

but i personally want to avoid vietnamese because vietnamese have the ability to maim and murder people without much hesitation.

and because of that, i do not admire vietnamese. i want to avoid vietnamese.
epep

Swindon, UK

#130 Jan 6, 2013
VIVA CHINA wrote:
Vietnamese are monkeys and Philippinos are dogs, we Chinese consider like that.
Why do American help them? Because they are humans most loyal friends. LOL LOL~~~
chinese should not be enemies with vietnamese. because vietnamese generally have done no wrong to chinese. and chinese would not want to be enemies with vietnamese, because vietnamese have the ability to maim and murder people without much hesitation. but if chinese do not bother the vietnamese, then the vietnamese will generally not bother chinese. so for chinese people's own safety chinese people should not be enemies with vietnamese.

i personally only want to avoid vietnamese because vietnamese have the ability to maim and murder people without much hesitation.

“we are central empire”

Since: Sep 12

Changde, China

#131 Jan 6, 2013
epep wrote:
<quoted text>
chinese should not be enemies with vietnamese. because vietnamese generally have done no wrong to chinese. and chinese would not want to be enemies with vietnamese, because vietnamese have the ability to maim and murder people without much hesitation. but if chinese do not bother the vietnamese, then the vietnamese will generally not bother chinese. so for chinese people's own safety chinese people should not be enemies with vietnamese.
i personally only want to avoid vietnamese because vietnamese have the ability to maim and murder people without much hesitation.
Looks like lyrics, doesn't it?
vietnamese guys have an exaggerated opnioon of their abilities, they are nits who were ruled by Chinese for over 2000 years, and it was until the end of WII that they had an independence. what a group of wretches.
They cannot win in China, they can only depend on the US and be deprived autonomy by Uncle Sam step by step.
they went anti-China but so what? Adults won't pay attention to naive children.
trouble makers should control their acts.
Snowflake

San Francisco, CA

#132 Jan 6, 2013
Why we hate VCs and VNs, 55,000 dead Americans and over one million traumatized Americans. Many Americans shot down by them and were kept in an illegal prison called "Hanoi Hilton". They do not played by the rules, the Geneva Convention
NATO

Canada

#133 Jan 6, 2013
Snowflake wrote:
Why we hate VCs and VNs, 55,000 dead Americans and over one million traumatized Americans. Many Americans shot down by them and were kept in an illegal prison called "Hanoi Hilton". They do not played by the rules, the Geneva Convention
Viet men and women also gang raped the POWs in public to humiliate them.
Snowflake

San Francisco, CA

#134 Jan 6, 2013
How low can these Viets get, raped in front of public, no wonder Drgunzet, Sponge, Egg roll, Clarksville, Venice et al are like that. Low class scums.
NATO

Canada

#135 Jan 6, 2013
Snowflake wrote:
How low can these Viets get, raped in front of public, no wonder Drgunzet, Sponge, Egg roll, Clarksville, Venice et al are like that. Low class scums.
Middle aged people should be familiar with such reports. When traumatized ex-POWs were interviewed by US army psychologists and TV reporters, they cried and many were still in shock when they recollected their terrible dehumanizing experience in Hanoi Hilton camps.

They had seen their peers executed in front of them by VC's.

Some of them recall the insulting experience that even kids and old men and women urinated into the rice bowls which were used to feed the prisoners.
Drgunzet

Boise, ID

#136 Jan 6, 2013
Snowflake wrote:
How low can these Viets get, raped in front of public, no wonder Drgunzet, Sponge, Egg roll, Clarksville, Venice et al are like that. Low class scums.
See, Chinese are nasty. Look at this Chinese who pretends to be a White, but he is a Chinese and pro-China.

I am on the other hand, born a superior Chinese and was rescued by the superior Whites. My gene flip made me equivalent to the Germans. I am direct, honest and frank, totally opposite of the evil Chinese who have been bred by the Manchurian. Under 300 years rule of the Manchurian, the Chinese became short, small, with wimpy chests and small skulls.

That's why the Manchurian shaved the Hans guys' heads to see who had big skulls to be culled. Go a head and check the history to see if what I said true. And that's why now day, Hans people have inferior genes, no match to the superior Whites.

I don't know how many hundred of years would be needed to fix this pathetic GIANT gene pool.
McFooBar

Montréal, Canada

#137 Jan 6, 2013
Snowflake wrote:
Why we hate VCs and VNs, 55,000 dead Americans and over one million traumatized Americans. Many Americans shot down by them and were kept in an illegal prison called "Hanoi Hilton". They do not played by the rules, the Geneva Convention
Snowflake ! The Geneva convention was not involved. The American government did not declare war with Vietnam so technically war did not occur. They simply sent troops to south Vietnam and said they were invited by the South Vietnamese to come to protect South Vietnam.

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