It's the Guns, Stupid

Apr 20, 2007 Full story: Truthdig 103,347

“And that's the end of the issue”

Why do we have the same futile argument every time there is a mass killing? Advocates of gun control try to open a discussion about whether more reasonable weapons statutes might reduce the number of violent ... via Truthdig

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kkkk

Guayaquil, Ecuador

#98009 Jan 22, 2013
Penguins have a thick layer of insulating feathers that keeps them warm in water (heat loss in water is much greater than in air). The Emperor Penguin (the largest penguin) has the largest body mass of all penguins, which further reduces relative surface area and heat loss. They also are able to control blood flow to their extremities, reducing the amount of blood that gets cold, but still keeping the extremities from freezing. In the extreme cold of the Antarctic winter, the females are at sea fishing for food leaving the males to brave the weather by themselves. They often huddle together to keep warm and rotate positions to make sure that each penguin gets a turn in the center of the heat pack.

They can drink salt water because their supraorbital gland filters excess salt from the bloodstream.[36][37][38] The salt is excreted in a concentrated fluid from the nasal passages.

The Great Auk of the Northern Hemisphere, now extinct, was superficially similar to penguins, and the word "penguin" was originally used for that bird, centuries ago. They are not related to the penguins at all, but are an example of convergent evolution.[39]

Isabelline penguins


Isabelline Adélie Penguin on Gourdin Island.
Perhaps one in 50,000 penguins (of most species) are born with brown rather than black plumage. These are called isabelline penguins. Isabellinism is different from albinism. Isabelline penguins tend to live shorter lives than normal penguins, as they are not well-camouflaged against the deep, and are often passed over as mates.

Distribution and habitat

See also: List of Sphenisciformes by population

Although all penguin species are native to the southern hemisphere, they are not found only in cold climates, such as Antarctica. In fact, only a few species of penguin actually live so far south. At least 10[verification needed] species live in the temperate zone; one, the Galápagos Penguin, lives as far north as the Galápagos Islands, but this is only made possible by the cold, rich waters of the Antarctic Humboldt Current that flows around these islands.[40]

Several authors have suggested that penguins are a good example of Bergmann's Rule [41][42] where larger bodied populations live at higher latitudes than smaller bodied populations. There is some disagreement about this, and several other authors have noted that there are fossil penguin species that contradict this hypothesis and that ocean currents and upwellings are likely to have had a greater effect on species diversity than latitude alone.[43][44]

Major populations of penguins are found in Antarctica, Argentina, Australia, Chile, New Zealand, and South Africa.[45][46]
kkkk

Guayaquil, Ecuador

#98013 Jan 22, 2013
Anatomy and physiology


Orcas swim by an iceberg with Adelie Penguins in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. The Drygalski ice tongue is visible in the background.
Penguins are superbly adapted to aquatic life. Their vestigial wings have become flippers, useless for flight in the air. In the water, however, penguins are astonishingly agile. Penguins' swimming looks very similar to bird's flight in the air.[31] Within the smooth plumage a layer of air is preserved, ensuring buoyancy. The air layer also helps insulate the birds in cold waters. On land, penguins use their tails and wings to maintain balance for their upright stance.

All penguins are countershaded for camouflage – that is, they have black backs and wings with white fronts.[32] A predator looking up from below (such as an orca or a leopard seal) has difficulty distinguishing between a white penguin belly and the reflective water surface. The dark plumage on their backs camouflages them from above.

Diving penguins reach 6 to 12 km/h (3.7 to 7.5 mph), though there are reports of velocities of 27 km/h (17 mph)(which are more realistic in the case of startled flight).[citation needed] The small penguins do not usually dive deep; they catch their prey near the surface in dives that normally last only one or two minutes. Larger penguins can dive deep in case of need. Dives of the large Emperor Penguin have been recorded reaching a depth of 565 m (1,870 ft) for up to 22 minutes.

Penguins either waddle on their feet or slide on their bellies across the snow, a movement called "tobogganing", which conserves energy while moving quickly. They also jump with both feet together if they want to move more quickly or cross steep or rocky terrain.

Penguins have an average sense of hearing for birds;[33] this is used by parents and chicks to locate one another in crowded colonies.[34] Their eyes are adapted for underwater vision, and are their primary means of locating prey and avoiding predators; in air it has been suggested that they are nearsighted, although research has not supported this hypothesis.[35

Since: Dec 10

Brisbane, Australia

#98014 Jan 22, 2013
Dr Freud wrote:
<quoted text>
"not realising you are a republic and admitting that it is a failed system..."
Republics fail on the backs of their citizens, who've let themselves become slaves to what it was that they thought was their 'saving grace.'
Entirely EVIL men, and women, connive at every turn, and every instance which is afforded to them by way of 'leaky' government and laws which allow them to take advantage.
But hey: YOU would know about that, inasmuch as YOU have taken such UNFAIR advantage just to pursue YOUR particular VILE, and HIDEOUS goals as to ENSLAVE ALL OF HUMANITY in the name of COMMUNISM!
Communism is the essence of RAPE, ROBBERY, and MURDER!
Feeling proud?
LOL, now you have really lost the plot haven't you!
Your citizens have allowed themselves to be enslaved by refusing to back your government when the aim was to effect change for the better ie: taxing the rich, gun control, and by preventing your government the power to curb hate groups like the KKK or white supremists etc...It is of great importance to any country that they get behind their government when it acts in the best interest of the country, because even democracy has it's limits to remain a democracy they must protect the goal....Americans have failed in part to do this because their system is steeped in hatred of government through power. Fear has dominated a people and allowed corrupt and greedy bussinesses to thrive and evade away your priviledges and rights to the point where companies conspired to decieve a nation of people with get rich quick schemes that brought America to the brink and crippled world finance.The subprime mortgage crises was instigatory in altering your countries classes to a two tiered status, the super rich and the battlers .....too late cried lady liberty.
Teaman

Mount Holly, NJ

#98015 Jan 22, 2013
GoGoBar wrote:
<quoted text>
Revamp your tax system America.
Every other country did so 40 years ago.
http://www.economywatch.com/economic-statisti...
Did you nitice that the Japs have started a currency war and stimulus program?
Germany wants it's gold back also.
You had better kick those Congressmen in the backside quick.
If you look at your marginal tax rate timeline you might see the decade where most people would like the USA to return to.
Tea parties and other groups have been pushing for a flat tax or a fair tax that remove all of the write offs, loop holes, credits, deductions that favor the upper incomes.

Both parties are bought and paid for.

kkkk

Guayaquil, Ecuador

#98016 Jan 22, 2013
Penguins have a thick layer of insulating feathers that keeps them warm in water (heat loss in water is much greater than in air). The Emperor Penguin (the largest penguin) has the largest body mass of all penguins, which further reduces relative surface area and heat loss. They also are able to control blood flow to their extremities, reducing the amount of blood that gets cold, but still keeping the extremities from freezing. In the extreme cold of the Antarctic winter, the females are at sea fishing for food leaving the males to brave the weather by themselves. They often huddle together to keep warm and rotate positions to make sure that each penguin gets a turn in the center of the heat pack.

They can drink salt water because their supraorbital gland filters excess salt from the bloodstream.[36][37][38] The salt is excreted in a concentrated fluid from the nasal passages.

The Great Auk of the Northern Hemisphere, now extinct, was superficially similar to penguins, and the word "penguin" was originally used for that bird, centuries ago. They are not related to the penguins at all, but are an example of convergent evolution.[39]

Isabelline penguins


Isabelline Adélie Penguin on Gourdin Island.
Perhaps one in 50,000 penguins (of most species) are born with brown rather than black plumage. These are called isabelline penguins. Isabellinism is different from albinism. Isabelline penguins tend to live shorter lives than normal penguins, as they are not well-camouflaged against the deep, and are often passed over as mates.

Distribution and habitat

See also: List of Sphenisciformes by population

Although all penguin species are native to the southern hemisphere, they are not found only in cold climates, such as Antarctica. In fact, only a few species of penguin actually live so far south. At least 10[verification needed] species live in the temperate zone; one, the Galápagos Penguin, lives as far north as the Galápagos Islands, but this is only made possible by the cold, rich waters of the Antarctic Humboldt Current that flows around these islands.[40]

Several authors have suggested that penguins are a good example of Bergmann's Rule [41][42] where larger bodied populations live at higher latitudes than smaller bodied populations. There is some disagreement about this, and several other authors have noted that there are fossil penguin species that contradict this hypothesis and that ocean currents and upwellings are likely to have had a greater effect on species diversity than latitude alone.[43][44]

Major populations of penguins are found in Antarctica, Argentina, Australia, Chile, New Zealand, and South Africa

Since: Feb 11

Newmarket, UK

#98017 Jan 22, 2013
Dr Freud wrote:
<quoted text>
Well, they did: Article V:
"The Congress, whenever two thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the legislatures of two thirds of the several states, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three fourths of the several states, or by conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress; provided that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article; and that no state, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate."
http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/artic...
The communists, and the fascists, will simply enact laws contrary to that statement, and pretend that their laws 'override,' without question.
And ANYONE questioning any of that, is summarily arrested, stuffed into a jail cell to be raped, and/or murdered, with the communofascists denying that anything ever happened.
America, you see, has become the land of the enslaved, and the home of the communofascist.
Want proof? Guantanamo, and the over 700 'FEMA' camps which have been constructed throughout the U.S., many of which have incinerators to dispose of the future protestors.
http://www.thecommonsenseshow.com/2012/11/12/...
I may well be wrong, but I don't think any of the framers were true communists or facists, therefore NO allowance was made for such a controling influence. So it follows that any attempt in that direction would be an act of treason. The document stands for freedom, for law abiding citizens.
kkkk

Guayaquil, Ecuador

#98018 Jan 22, 2013
Penguins generally only lay one brood; the exception is the Little Penguin, which can raise two or three broods in a season.[51]

Penguin eggs are smaller than any other bird species when compared proportionally to the weight of the parent birds; at 52 g (2 oz), the Little Penguin egg is 4.7% of its mothers' weight, and the 450 g (1 lb) Emperor Penguin egg is 2.3%.[49] The relatively thick shell forms between 10 and 16% of the weight of a penguin egg, presumably to minimise risk of breakage in an adverse nesting environment. The yolk, too, is large, and comprises 22–31% of the egg. Some yolk often remains when a chick is born, and is thought to help sustain it if parents are delayed in returning with food.[52]

When mothers lose a chick, they sometimes attempt to "steal" another mother's chick, usually unsuccessfully as other females in the vicinity assist the defending mother in keeping her chick.[citation needed] In some species, such as Emperor Penguins, young penguins assemble in large groups called crèches.

Penguins and humans


Cook on the Endurance preparing a penguin for consumption
Penguins seem to have no special fear of humans, and have approached groups of explorers without hesitation. This is probably because penguins have no land predators in Antarctica or the nearby offshore islands. Instead, penguins are at risk at sea from predators such as the leopard seal. Typically, penguins do not approach closer than about 3 meters (10 ft) at which point they become nervous. This is also the distance that Antarctic tourists are told to keep from penguins (tourists are not supposed to approach closer than 3 meters, but are not expected to withdraw if the penguins come closer).

In June 2011, a penguin came ashore on New Zealand's Peka Peka Beach, 3200km off course on its journey to Antarctica.[53] Nicknamed Happy Feet, after the movie of the same name, it was suffering from heat exhaustion and had to undergo a number of operations to remove objects like driftwood and sand from its stomach.[54] Happy Feet was a media sensation, with extensive coverage on TV and the web, including a live stream that had thousands of views[55] and a visit from English actor Stephen Fry.[56]

Once he had recovered, Happy Feet was released back into the water south of New Zealand.[57]

In popular culture
kkkk

Guayaquil, Ecuador

#98019 Jan 22, 2013
Main article: Penguins in popular culture

Penguins are popular around the world, primarily for their unusually upright, waddling gait and (compared to other birds) lack of fear of humans. Their striking black-and-white plumage is often likened to a tuxedo suit. Mistakenly, some artists and writers have penguins based at the North Pole. This is incorrect, as there are almost no wild penguins in the northern hemisphere, except the small group on the northernmost of the Galápagos. The cartoon series Chilly Willy helped perpetuate this myth, as the title penguin would interact with northern-hemisphere species such as polar bears and walruses.

Penguins have been the subject of many books and films such as Happy Feet, Surf's Up and The Penguins of Madagascar, all CGI films; March of the Penguins, a documentary based on the migration process of the Emperor Penguin; and a parody titled Farce of the Penguins. Mr. Popper's Penguins is a children's book written by Richard & Florence Atwater; it was named a Newbery Honor Book in 1939. Penguins have also found their way into a number of cartoons and television dramas; perhaps the most notable of these is Pingu, created by Silvio Mazzola in 1986 and covering more than 100 short episodes. Entertainment Weekly put it on its end-of-the-decade, "best-of" list, saying, "Whether they were walking (March of the Penguins), dancing (Happy Feet), or hanging ten (Surf's Up), these oddly adorable birds took flight at the box office all decade long."[58]

Several pro, minor, college and high school sport teams have named themselves after the species, with the Pittsburgh Penguins team in the National Hockey League and the Youngstown State Penguins being the most recognizable.

The tendency of penguins to form large groups feeds the stereotype that they all look exactly alike, a popular notion exploited by cartoonists such as Gary Larson.

Penguins featured regularly in the cartoons of UK cartoonist Steve Bell in his strip in The Guardian Newspaper, particularly during and following the Falklands War.

In the mid-2000s, penguins became one of the most publicized species of animals that form lasting homosexual couples. A children's book, And Tango Makes Three, was written about one such penguin family in the New York Zoo.
kkkk

Guayaquil, Ecuador

#98020 Jan 22, 2013
Footnotes

1.^ a b c "PINGOUIN : Etymologie de PINGOUIN". Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicales. Retrieved 2010-01-25.
2.^ Crofford 1989, p. 10
3.^ Online Etymology Dictionary Accessed 2010-01-25
4.^ Diccionario de la lengua española Accessed on 2010-01-25.
5.^ Oxford English Dictionary. Accessed 2007-03-21
6.^ American Heritage Dictionary at wordnik.com Accessed 2010-01-25
7.^ Century Dictionary at wordnik.com Accessed 2010-01-25
8.^ Merriam-Webster Accessed 2010-01-25
9.^ Williams,(1995).
10.^ Davis & Renner,(2003).
11.^ Banks et al.(2002).
12.^ Clarke et al.(2003)
13.^ "Platydyptes novaezealandiae; holotype". Collections Online. Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
14.^ Simpson, G.G.(1946). "Fossil penguins". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 81.
15.^ Olson, S.L.(1985). "Faunal Turnover in South American Fossil Avifaunas: The Insufficiencies of the Fossil Record". Evolution 39 (5): 1174–1177. doi:10.2307/2408747. JSTOR 2408747.
16.^ E.g. Clarke et al.(2003), Ksepka et al.(2006)
17.^ a b Clarke et al.(2003).
18.^ a b Bertelli & Giannini,(2005).
19.^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Baker et al.(2006).
20.^ a b c Ksepka et al.(2006).
21.^ a b c d e Slack et al.(2006).
22.^ The exact divergence dates according to Baker et al.(2006) mentioned in this section are not as precisely resolved as it appears to be due to uncertainties of the molecular clock used.
23.^ Contra Baker et al.(2006).
24.^ Jadwiszczak,(2006).
25.^ Christidis L, Boles WE (2008). Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. Canberra: CSIRO Publishing. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-643-06511-6.
26.^ Ksepka, D. T. B., Sara; Giannini, Norberto P; (2006). "The phylogeny of the living and fossil Sphenisciformes (penguins)". Cladistics 22 (5): 412–441. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2006.0 0116.x.
27.^ In fact, it is fairly likely that during the Bartonian, there was a near-synchronous but allopatric split between the ancestors of Aptenodytes, Pygoscelis, and the common ancestor of all remaining genera [Baker et al.(2006)].
28.^ a b Baker, A., Pereira, SL, Haddrath, OP, Edge, KA (2006). "Multiple gene evidence for expansion of extant penguins out of Antarctica due to global cooling". Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 273.
29.^ Fain & Houde,(2004).
30.^ Mayr,(2005).
31.^ Penguin swimming under water, Galapagos — Youtube video
32.^ Buskey, Theresa. "The Antarctic Polar Region". In Alan Christopherson, M.S.. The Polar Regions. LIFEPAC. 804 N. 2nd Ave. E., Rock Rapids, IA: Alpha Omegan Publications, Inc. ISBN 978-1-58095-156-2.
33.^ Wever et al.(1969).
34.^ Jouventin et al.(1999).
35.^ Sivak et al.(1987).
36.^ "Animal Fact Sheets". Retrieved 2006-07-21.
37.^ "Humboldt Penguin: Saint Louis Zoo". Retrieved 2006-07-21.
38.^ "African Penguins and Penguins of the World". Retrieved 2006-07-21.
39.^ Convergence and divergence in the evolution of aquatic birds by Marcel Van Tuinen, Dave Brian Butvill, John A. W. Kirsch and S. Blair Hedges.
40.^ Piper, Ross (2007), Extraordinary Animals: An

Since: Feb 11

Ely, UK

#98021 Jan 22, 2013
Tm Clmns wrote:
<quoted text>
You forgot to mention that martians are going to convert all earthly money into green cheese to build the NWO headquarters in Dubai.
Be more specific....
Obama's T levels are just fine, unfortunately for many..
Wrong.

The martians are trying to convert all earthly money to euros.

Since: Dec 10

Brisbane, Australia

#98022 Jan 22, 2013
Teaman wrote:
<quoted text>
That may have been a stretch, but I feel we are slowly losing the republic. We are near a tipping point of no return. As long as the public is dummied down with the state monopoly in education and a partisan press/media, I don't see it changing back.
Both parties are,in reality, the same party. They both expand federal power to the detriment of a constitutional republic.
This is the case in all democratic governments, and America is not different to us in that respect...but the aim is to remove the speck that a lot of ignorants have and realise the government should and does work for you and if you are not happy you do have the power to effect change and not be feared of supporting your government when it makes the right choices even though they are often hard to see when they make so many mistakes....take the gun issue for example...the gun lobbyist and NRA want fear and lies and ignorance to protect their bussiness and make it stronger.....The government cannot ignore the second ammendment....but it is up to you to see where bias towards that amendment has made you unrealistic in your attitude to what your president wants for his country....Congress....when so many of your Senators are bought and paid for by various interests you have to work hard to pick the one that will work for the betterment of the country and not tobacco or the NRA or Religious belief or anything that will damage the republic...and that is what is occuring here...soon no President will have the ability or strength to oppose congress because big bussiness is the ruling force behind all your senators...look for a moderator in all things and not fanatics...it can only lead to too greater shift often in the wrong direction...a moderate on guns a moderate on big bussiness etc...and protest and raise your voice loudly when this is not done....this and this alone is what stopped the war in vietnam...and disenchantment over Afghanistan and the war has done the same......think like a moderate and be willing to compromise..do not think like a fanatic, fanatisism is the road to a hell no one wants.
good

Guayaquil, Ecuador

#98023 Jan 22, 2013
36.^ "Animal Fact Sheets". Retrieved 2006-07-21.
37.^ "Humboldt Penguin: Saint Louis Zoo". Retrieved 2006-07-21.
38.^ "African Penguins and Penguins of the World". Retrieved 2006-07-21.
39.^ Convergence and divergence in the evolution of aquatic birds by Marcel Van Tuinen, Dave Brian Butvill, John A. W. Kirsch and S. Blair Hedges.
40.^ Piper, Ross (2007), Extraordinary Animals: An Encyclopedia of Curious and Unusual Animals, Greenwood Press.
41.^ Ashton, K.(2002). "Patterns of within-species body size variation of birds: strong evidence for Bergmann's rule". Global Ecology and Biogeography 11 (6): 505–523. doi:10.1046/j.1466-822X.2002.0 0313.x.
42.^ Meiri S, D. T.(2003). "On the validity of Bergmann's rule". Journal of Biogeography 30 (3): 331–351. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2699.2003.0 0837.x.
43.^ Clarke, J. A., Ksepka, Daniel T., Stucchie, Marcelo, Urbina, Mario, Giannini, Norberto, Bertelli, Sara, Narvez, Yanina, Boyd, Clint A.(2007). "Paleogene equatorial penguins challenge the proposed relationship between biogeography, diversity, and Cenozoic climate change". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104 (28): 11545–11550. doi:10.1073/pnas.0611099104. PMC 1913862. PMID 17601778.
44.^ Gohlich, U. B.(2007). "The oldest fossil record of the extant penguin genus Spheniscus-- a new species from the Miocene of Peru". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 52: 285–298.
45.^ Penguins of Australia and New Zealand
46.^ Jadwiszczak, P.(2009). "Penguin past: The current state of knowledge". Polish Polar Research 30: 3–28.
47.^ Williams (The Penguins) p. 17
48.^ a b Williams (The Penguins) p. 57
49.^ a b Williams (The Penguins) p. 23
50.^ Numata, M; Davis, L & Renner, M (2000) "Prolonged foraging trips and egg desertion in little penguins (Eudyptula minor)". New Zealand Journal of Zoology 27: 291-298
51.^ Reilly PN, Balmford P (1975). "A breeding study of the little penguin, Eudyptula minor, in Australia". In Stonehouse, Bernard. The Biology of Penguins. London: Macmillan. pp. 161–87. ISBN 0-333-16791-0.
52.^ Williams (The Penguins) p. 24
53.^ "Emperor penguin not out of the woods yet". 3 News NZ. June 25, 2011.
54.^ "Happy Feet pulls through third operation". 3 News NZ. June 27, 2011.
55.^ "The truth about Happy Feet's home". 3 News NZ. August 8, 2011.
56.^ "Stephen Fry visits Happy Feet". 3 News NZ. August 11, 2011.
57.^ "VIDEO: Happy Feet starts the long journey home". 3 News NZ. August 29, 2011.
58.^ Geier, Thom; Jensen, Jeff; Jordan, Tina; Lyons, Margaret; Markovitz, Adam; Nashawaty, Chris; Pastorek, Whitney; Rice, Lynette; Rottenberg, Josh; Schwartz, Missy; Slezak, Michael; Snierson, Dan; Stack, Tim; Stroup, Kate; Tucker, Ken; Vary, Adam B.; Vozick-Levinson, Simon; Ward, Kate (December 11, 2009), "THE 100 Greatest MOVIES, TV SHOWS, ALBUMS, BOOKS, CHARACTERS, SCENES, EPISODES, SONGS, DRESSES, MUSIC VIDEOS, AND TRENDS THAT ENTERTAINED US OVER THE PAST 10 YEARS". Entertainment Weekly.(1079/1080):74-8
good

Guayaquil, Ecuador

#98024 Jan 22, 2013
Footnotes

1.^ a b c "PINGOUIN : Etymologie de PINGOUIN". Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicales. Retrieved 2010-01-25.
2.^ Crofford 1989, p. 10
3.^ Online Etymology Dictionary Accessed 2010-01-25
4.^ Diccionario de la lengua española Accessed on 2010-01-25.
5.^ Oxford English Dictionary. Accessed 2007-03-21
6.^ American Heritage Dictionary at wordnik.com Accessed 2010-01-25
7.^ Century Dictionary at wordnik.com Accessed 2010-01-25
8.^ Merriam-Webster Accessed 2010-01-25
9.^ Williams,(1995).
10.^ Davis & Renner,(2003).
11.^ Banks et al.(2002).
12.^ Clarke et al.(2003)
13.^ "Platydyptes novaezealandiae; holotype". Collections Online. Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
14.^ Simpson, G.G.(1946). "Fossil penguins". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 81.
15.^ Olson, S.L.(1985). "Faunal Turnover in South American Fossil Avifaunas: The Insufficiencies of the Fossil Record". Evolution 39 (5): 1174–1177. doi:10.2307/2408747. JSTOR 2408747.
16.^ E.g. Clarke et al.(2003), Ksepka et al.(2006)
17.^ a b Clarke et al.(2003).
18.^ a b Bertelli & Giannini,(2005).
19.^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Baker et al.(2006).
20.^ a b c Ksepka et al.(2006).
21.^ a b c d e Slack et al.(2006).
22.^ The exact divergence dates according to Baker et al.(2006) mentioned in this section are not as precisely resolved as it appears to be due to uncertainties of the molecular clock used.
23.^ Contra Baker et al.(2006).
24.^ Jadwiszczak,(2006).
25.^ Christidis L, Boles WE (2008). Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. Canberra: CSIRO Publishing. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-643-06511-6.
26.^ Ksepka, D. T. B., Sara; Giannini, Norberto P; (2006). "The phylogeny of the living and fossil Sphenisciformes (penguins)". Cladistics 22 (5): 412–441. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2006.0 0116.x.
27.^ In fact, it is fairly likely that during the Bartonian, there was a near-synchronous but allopatric split between the ancestors of Aptenodytes, Pygoscelis, and the common ancestor of all remaining genera [Baker et al.(2006)].
28.^ a b Baker, A., Pereira, SL, Haddrath, OP, Edge, KA (2006). "Multiple gene evidence for expansion of extant penguins out of Antarctica due to global cooling". Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 273.
29.^ Fain & Houde,(2004).
30.^ Mayr,(2005).
31.^ Penguin swimming under water, Galapagos — Youtube video
32.^ Buskey, Theresa. "The Antarctic Polar Region". In Alan Christopherson, M.S.. The Polar Regions. LIFEPAC. 804 N. 2nd Ave. E., Rock Rapids, IA: Alpha Omegan Publications, Inc. ISBN 978-1-58095-156-2.
33.^ Wever et al.(1969).
34.^ Jouventin et al.(1999).
35.^ Sivak et al.(1987).
36.^ "Animal Fact Sheets". Retrieved 2006-07-21.
37.^ "Humboldt Penguin: Saint Louis Zoo". Retrieved 2006-07-21.
38.^ "African Penguins and Penguins of the World". Retrieved 2006-07-21.
39.^ Convergence and divergence in the evolution of aquatic birds by Marcel

Since: Feb 11

Ely, UK

#98025 Jan 22, 2013
Dr Freud wrote:
<quoted text>
"I suspect your view is the same as mine, but Perhaps you would relate your opinion on Mr Obama's desire for the UK to remain in the EU."
I suspect likewise!
However 'Mr. Obama' has a lesser amount testosterone than his wife.
As regards his opinion? Well, let me say just this: His opinion is 'given' to him on a daily basis, which he is wont to regurgitate for fear that if he doesn't, he'll no longer be.
Such has been the case since at least the Wilson administration.
Aside from that, here's a read of which you might give some time:
http://tomatobubble.com/fh1.html
Some of the other posters would benefit from a little reading and adherence.
the word

Guayaquil, Ecuador

#98026 Jan 22, 2013
Penguins
Penguins are birds that do not fly.
Penguins swim very well.
Some penguins live in cold places.
Penguins find food in the sea.
Penguins nest on land.

What are penguins?
Penguins are birds that cannot fly, but they swim very well and spend most of their lives in the sea. They swim fast underwater or leap across the top of the waves, like the Chinstrap penguin on the right. However, they lay their eggs and raise their chicks on land. All penguins live in the Southern Hemisphere.Some species, or kinds, of penguin spend as much as 75% of their lives in the water.

Habitat
Penguin habitats range from frozen Antarctica to warmer tropical waters as far north as the Galapagos Islands, on the equator. They are quite defenceless birds, so they usually live in remote places.

There are 17 species, or kinds, of penguin.
Four species, the Adelie, the Emperor, the Chinstrap and the Gentoo, breed in Antarctica. Several other species are found in the Antarctic: about 24 million penguins visit the continent. The penguin colonies on Antarctica are huge; for example, there are millions of pairs of Chinstrap penguins, the most numerous creatures in the area.
The largest penguins are Emperor Penguins, the smallest are Little Penguins (sometimes called Fairy penguins) found only in Australia and New Zealand.

Bodies
All penguins have a big head and a short, thick neck. Their bodies are a streamlined shape with a short, wedge-shaped tail. They have heavy bones which allow them to stay underwater. Their wings have developed into flippers. They dive deep into the water and 'fly' underwater at great speed. They have webbed feet which are used when swimming.

Penguins have a lighter color on the belly and a darker color on their back, which helps camouflage them when they are in the water. When swimming, the dark colour is on top, making them hard to see from above. When predators underwater look up at the penguins, the white part is hard so see against the light.

Their bodies have a thick layer of fat to help keep them warm and shiny, and waterproof feathers to keep their skin dry. Penguins have more feathers than most other birds - about 70 feathers every 5 square cm. They produce oil from a gland near the tail, and they use this to coat their feathers to keep them waterproof. Some penguins, such as the Macaroni penguin and the Rockhopper penguin, have a feathery crest on their heads.

Like most birds, penguins have very little sense of smell and a limited sense of taste. Scientists think penguins may be shortsighted on land but that their eyesight is better when they are underwater.

Diet
Penguins feed in the ocean. They eat fish, crustaceans (such as krill and shrimp), and squid.

Life Cycle
Penguins are very social birds. Rookeries (nesting areas) may contain thousands of individual birds. Even at sea, they tend to swim and feed in groups.

Being birds, female penguins lay eggs after mating. Most species of penguins build nests, but the nests may consist only of a pile of rocks or scrapings or hollows in the dirt. Emperor penguins do not build nests; males hold the egg on top of their feet under a fold of skin called a brood patch. Penguin chicks have big appetites and grow quickly, many soon becoming almost as big as their parents. Penguin chicks have a short time before they are independent of adults.

Find out about penguins of the Antarctic:
Emperor Penguins
Adelie, Gentoo, Chinstrap & Other Antarctic Penguins

Some penguin words and what they mean:
http://www.d81.w-cook.k12.il.us/kennedy/asmit...
the word

Guayaquil, Ecuador

#98027 Jan 22, 2013
Penguins
Penguins are birds that do not fly.
Penguins swim very well.
Some penguins live in cold places.
Penguins find food in the sea.
Penguins nest on land.

What are penguins?
Penguins are birds that cannot fly, but they swim very well and spend most of their lives in the sea. They swim fast underwater or leap across the top of the waves, like the Chinstrap penguin on the right. However, they lay their eggs and raise their chicks on land. All penguins live in the Southern Hemisphere.Some species, or kinds, of penguin spend as much as 75% of their lives in the water.

Habitat
Penguin habitats range from frozen Antarctica to warmer tropical waters as far north as the Galapagos Islands, on the equator. They are quite defenceless birds, so they usually live in remote places.

There are 17 species, or kinds, of penguin.
Four species, the Adelie, the Emperor, the Chinstrap and the Gentoo, breed in Antarctica. Several other species are found in the Antarctic: about 24 million penguins visit the continent. The penguin colonies on Antarctica are huge; for example, there are millions of pairs of Chinstrap penguins, the most numerous creatures in the area.
The largest penguins are Emperor Penguins, the smallest are Little Penguins (sometimes called Fairy penguins) found only in Australia and New Zealand.

Bodies
All penguins have a big head and a short, thick neck. Their bodies are a streamlined shape with a short, wedge-shaped tail. They have heavy bones which allow them to stay underwater. Their wings have developed into flippers. They dive deep into the water and 'fly' underwater at great speed. They have webbed feet which are used when swimming.

Penguins have a lighter color on the belly and a darker color on their back, which helps camouflage them when they are in the water. When swimming, the dark colour is on top, making them hard to see from above. When predators underwater look up at the penguins, the white part is hard so see against the light.

Their bodies have a thick layer of fat to help keep them warm and shiny, and waterproof feathers to keep their skin dry. Penguins have more feathers than most other birds - about 70 feathers every 5 square cm. They produce oil from a gland near the tail, and they use this to coat their feathers to keep them waterproof. Some penguins, such as the Macaroni penguin and the Rockhopper penguin, have a feathery crest on their heads.

Like most birds, penguins have very little sense of smell and a limited sense of taste. Scientists think penguins may be shortsighted on land but that their eyesight is better when they are underwater.

Diet
Penguins feed in the ocean. They eat fish, crustaceans (such as krill and shrimp), and squid.

Life Cycle
Penguins are very social birds. Rookeries (nesting areas) may contain thousands of individual birds. Even at sea, they tend to swim and feed in groups.

Being birds, female penguins lay eggs after mating. Most species of penguins build nests, but the nests may consist only of a pile of rocks or scrapings or hollows in the dirt. Emperor penguins do not build nests; males hold the egg on top of their feet under a fold of skin called a brood patch. Penguin chicks have big appetites and grow quickly, many soon becoming almost as big as their parents. Penguin chicks have a short time before they are independent of adults.

Find out about penguins of the Antarctic:
Emperor Penguins
Adelie, Gentoo, Chinstrap & Other Antarctic Penguins

Some penguin words and what they mean:
http://www.d81.w-cook.k12.il.us/kennedy/asmit ...
Dr Freud

UK

#98028 Jan 22, 2013
spider1954 wrote:
<quoted text>
I may well be wrong, but I don't think any of the framers were true communists or facists, therefore NO allowance was made for such a controling influence. So it follows that any attempt in that direction would be an act of treason. The document stands for freedom, for law abiding citizens.
"The document stands for freedom, for law abiding citizens."

EXACTLY! FREEDOM of the individual, citizen, or otherwise!
LIBERTY!!!!!!
LIBERTY!!!!!!
LIBERTY!!!!!!
LIBERTY!!!!!!
LIBERTY!!!!!!
LIBERTY!!!!!!
LIBERTY!!!!!!
LIBERTY!!!!!!
LIBERTY!!!!!!
Need I repeat my self?
;-)
HEY BEADY and sock puppet

Guayaquil, Ecuador

#98030 Jan 22, 2013
HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)
HEY BEADY and sock puppet

Guayaquil, Ecuador

#98031 Jan 22, 2013
HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course) HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)HEY BEADY!!(and sock puppets, of course)

Since: Dec 10

Brisbane, Australia

#98032 Jan 22, 2013
Teaman wrote:
<quoted text>
Obama has caused more division in this country since the Vietnam war.
The founders didn't want slavery and since the founding of the country, congress was very careful about keeping slave states in equal numbers to free states in order to prevent slave states from gaining a majority.
Obama hasn't caused it, those with differing opinions have been the cause....
And though the founding fathers might not have wanted slavery many stop short of oulawing it...so their racist ideals remained...

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/126...

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