Part 2<quoted text>Do you believe that Germ Theory is going to be reversed at any point?
Do you believe that Gravitation Theory is going to be reverse at any point?
Do you believe that the Thermodynamic Theory is going to be reverse at any point?
"Still a theory" implies that it is an unfounded guess.
That's not the case. A scientific theory unifies existing evidence and mechanisms and makes accurate predictions about future evidence.
There has never, in the history of science, been a more comprehensive and effective theory than Evolution.
Nothing anywhere even comes close.
The universe doesn't have enough particles
For the mathematics of string theory to work, physicists have to assume a
symmetry in nature called supersymmetry, which creates a correspondence
between different types of particles. One problem with this is that instead of
the 18 fundamental particles in the Standard Model, supersymmetry requires
at least 36 fundamental particles (which means that nature allows 18 par-
ticles that scientists have never seen!). 44 Part I: Introducing String Theory
In some ways, string theory does make things simpler -- the fundamental
objects are strings and branes or, as predicted by matrix theory, zero-
dimensional branes called partons. These strings, branes, or possibly partons
make up the particles that physicists have observed (or the ones they hope to
observe). But that's on a very fundamental level; from a practical standpoint,
string theory doubles the number of particles allowed by nature from 18 to 36.
One of the biggest possible successes for string theory would be to experi-
mentally detect these missing supersymmetric partner particles. The hope of
many theoretical physicists is that when the Large Hadron Collider particle
accelerator at CERN in Switzerland goes fully online, it will detect super-
Even if successful, proof of supersymmetry doesn't inherently prove string
theory, so the debate would continue to rage on, but at least one major
objection would be removed. Supersymmetry might well end up being true,
whether or not string theory as a whole is shown to accurately describe
Dark energy: The discovery string
theory should have predicted
Astronomers found evidence in 1998 that the expansion of the universe
was actually accelerating. This accelerated expansion is caused by the dark
energy that appears so often in the news. Not only did string theory not pre-
dict the existence of dark energy, but attempts to use science's best theories
to calculate the amount of dark energy comes up with a number that's vastly
larger than the one observed by astronomers. The theory just absolutely
failed to initially make sense of dark energy.
Claiming this as a flaw of string theory is a bit more controversial than the
other two, but there's some (albeit questionable) logic behind it. The goal of
string theory is nothing less than the complete rewriting of gravitational law,
so it's not unreasonable to think that string theory should have anticipated
dark energy in some way. When Einstein constructed his theory of general rela-
tivity, the mathematics indicated that space could be expanding (later proved
to be true). When Paul Dirac formulated a quantum theory of the electron, the
mathematics indicated an antiparticle existed (later proved to actually exist).
A profound theory like string theory can be expected to illuminate new facts
about our universe, not be blind-sided by unanticipated discoveries.
Of course, no other theory anticipated an accelerating expansion of the uni-
verse either. Prior to the observational evidence (some of which is still con-
tested, as you find out in Chapter 19), cosmologists (and string theorists) had
no reason to assume that the expansion rate of space was increasing. Years