It's the Guns, Stupid

It's the Guns, Stupid

There are 103330 comments on the Truthdig story from Apr 20, 2007, titled It's the Guns, Stupid. In it, Truthdig reports that:

“And that's the end of the issue”

Why do we have the same futile argument every time there is a mass killing? Advocates of gun control try to open a discussion about whether more reasonable weapons statutes might reduce the number of violent ... via Truthdig

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Spocko

Oakland, CA

#97965 Jan 22, 2013
okimar wrote:
<quoted text>How incredibly gullible when one believes government is the answer to all problems.
I know isn't it, why is that only right-wing morons ever bring it up?
Teaman

Mount Holly, NJ

#97966 Jan 22, 2013
Ahomana wrote:
<quoted text>
BEWARE: A 'true' democracy is to be avoided like the plague, for in its essence, it is the very quintessence of the tyranny of the majority, where the minority become SLAVES, or worse yet? They are slaughtered!
A: And yet America a constitutional republic, not a democracy has given birth to the greatest disproportionate amounts of wealth in the world, it has given birth to company monopolies that dominate the wealth and government and world where they use that wealth to decide policy to oppress it's citizens to renew the class system to exploit Blacks and hispanics and lower class white's alike... who serve their masters and do the bidding of those with the power....Viva the Constitutional Republica!
Therefore, a republic is the VERY BEST form of government, just as long as the MAJORITY are NEVER afforded the leeway to FORCE ANYONE to act against his will.
A: No it isn't, you have failed in your effort to promote a sense of fairness and justice where you are no longer ruled or governed by foreign body but by midgen of rich Americans.....where a handful of people( who aren't the government) have 90% of America's wealth...but you have your guns right, so that makes everything equal. The minority have the say and they alone are the richest people in your country...the majority do not rule, it seema your republic has shown at it worst it allows dictatorship through wealth. It is ALWAYS better for the majority to have a voice, than a minority, a majority at least is in the best interest of most...don't you think!
Restore the republic. Repeal the 16th and 17th amendments. Those were passed during a progressive dominated era.

Since: Dec 10

Brisbane, Australia

#97967 Jan 22, 2013
Teaman wrote:
<quoted text>
That's correct. The nature of man and especially the nature of powerful men hasn't changed in thousands of years.
Accept unlike the first president Obama is seeking a united and equal America regardles of race creed or colour...look out!....Georgie boy failed to foresee blacks as anything other than slaves to assist his countrymen gain wealth, or the Indians anything other than a thorn in the side of progress.....man HAS evolved and it took a Black president to seek equality....you should be so proud!
kkkk

Jakarta, Indonesia

#97968 Jan 22, 2013
Spheniscus
For prehistoric genera, see Systematics


Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are a group of aquatic, flightless birds living almost exclusively in the southern hemisphere, especially in Antarctica. Highly adapted for life in the water, penguins have countershaded dark and white plumage, and their wings have evolved into flippers. Most penguins feed on krill, fish, squid and other forms of sealife caught while swimming underwater. They spend about half of their lives on land and half in the oceans.

Although all penguin species are native to the southern hemisphere, they are not found only in cold climates, such as Antarctica. In fact, only a few species of penguin live so far south. Several species are found in the temperate zone, and one species, the Galápagos Penguin, lives near the equator.

The largest living species is the Emperor Penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri): on average adults are about 1.1 m (3 ft 7 in) tall and weigh 35 kg (75 lb) or more. The smallest penguin species is the Little Blue Penguin (Eudyptula minor), also known as the Fairy Penguin, which stands around 40 cm tall (16 in) and weighs 1 kg (2.2 lb). Among extant penguins, larger penguins inhabit colder regions, while smaller penguins are generally found in temperate or even tropical climates (see also Bergmann's Rule). Some prehistoric species attained enormous sizes, becoming as tall or as heavy as an adult human. These were not restricted to Antarctic regions; on the contrary, subantarctic regions harboured high diversity, and at least one giant penguin occurred in a region not quite 2,000 km south of the equator 35 mya, in a climate decidedly warmer than today.


Contents
[hide] 1 Etymology
2 Systematics and evolution 2.1 Living species and recent extinctions
2.2 Fossil genera
2.3 Taxonomy
2.4 Evolution 2.4.1 The basal fossils
2.4.2 Palaeeudyptines
2.4.3 Origin and systematics of modern penguins
2.4.4 Relationship to other bird orders


3 Anatomy and physiology 3.1 Isabelline penguins

4 Distribution and habitat
5 Behaviour 5.1 Breeding

6 Penguins and humans 6.1 In popular culture

7 References 7.1 Footnotes
7.2 Bibliography

8 External links


Etymology

The word "Penguin" first appears in the 16th century as a synonym for Great Auk.[1] It may be derived from the Welsh pen gwyn "white head", although the etymology is debated. When European explorers discovered what are today known as penguins in the Southern Hemisphere, they noticed their similar appearance to the Great Auk of the northern hemisphere, and named them after this bird, although they are not related.[2]

The etymology of the word "penguin" is still debated. The English word is not apparently of French,[1] nor of Breton[3] or Spanish[4] origin (both attributed to the French word pingouin "auk"), but first appears in English or Dutch.[1]

Some dictionaries suggest a derivation from Welsh pen, "head" and gwyn, "white", including the Oxford English Dictionary,[5] the American Heritage Dictionary,[6] the Century Dictionary[7] and Merriam-Webster,[8] on the basis that the name was originally applied to the great auk, either because it was found on White Head Island (Welsh Pen Gwyn) in Newfoundland, or because it had white circles around its eyes (though the head was black).

An alternative etymology links the word to Latin pinguis which means "fat". In Dutch the alternative word for penguin is 'fat-goose'('vetgans' see: Dutch wiki or dictionaries under Pinguďn), and would indicate this bird received its name from its appearance.
kkkk

Jakarta, Indonesia

#97969 Jan 22, 2013
During the Late Eocene and the Early Oligocene (40–30 mya), some lineages of gigantic penguins existed. Nordenskjoeld's Giant Penguin was the tallest, growing nearly 1.80 meters (6 ft) tall. The New Zealand Giant Penguin was probably the heaviest, weighing 80 kg or more. Both were found on New Zealand, the former also in the Antarctic farther eastwards.

Traditionally, most extinct species of penguins, giant or small, had been placed in the paraphyletic subfamily called Palaeeudyptinae. More recently, with new taxa being discovered and placed in the phylogeny if possible, it is becoming accepted that there were at least two major extinct lineages. One or two closely related ones occurred in Patagonia, and at least one other—which is or includes the paleeudyptines as recognized today – occurred on most Antarctic and subantarctic coasts.

But size plasticity seems to have been great at this initial stage of penguin radiation: on Seymour Island, Antarctica, for example, around 10 known species of penguins ranging in size from medium to huge apparently coexisted some 35 mya during the Priabonian (Late Eocene).[24] It is not even known whether the gigantic palaeeudyptines constitute a monophyletic lineage, or whether gigantism was evolved independently in a much restricted Palaeeudyptinae and the Anthropornithinae – whether they were considered valid, or whether there was a wide size range present in the Palaeeudyptinae as delimited as usually done these days (i.e., including Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi).[20] The oldest well-described giant penguin, the 5-foot (1.5 m)-tall Icadyptes salasi, actually occurred as far north as northern Peru about 36 mya.

In any case, the gigantic penguins had disappeared by the end of the Paleogene, around 25 mya. Their decline and disappearance coincided with the spread of the Squalodontoidea and other primitive, fish-eating toothed whales, which certainly competed with them for food, and were ultimately more successful.[19] A new lineage, the Paraptenodytes, which includes smaller but decidedly stout-legged forms, had already arisen in southernmost South America by that time. The early Neogene saw the emergence of yet another morphotype in the same area, the similarly sized but more gracile Palaeospheniscinae, as well as the radiation that gave rise to the penguin biodiversity of our time.

Since: Dec 10

Brisbane, Australia

#97970 Jan 22, 2013
Teaman wrote:
<quoted text>
Restore the republic. Repeal the 16th and 17th amendments. Those were passed during a progressive dominated era.
You are a Constitutional Republic now...and where has it got you?
kkkk

Jakarta, Indonesia

#97971 Jan 22, 2013
Penguins are superbly adapted to aquatic life. Their vestigial wings have become flippers, useless for flight in the air. In the water, however, penguins are astonishingly agile. Penguins' swimming looks very similar to bird's flight in the air.[31] Within the smooth plumage a layer of air is preserved, ensuring buoyancy. The air layer also helps insulate the birds in cold waters. On land, penguins use their tails and wings to maintain balance for their upright stance.

All penguins are countershaded for camouflage – that is, they have black backs and wings with white fronts.[32] A predator looking up from below (such as an orca or a leopard seal) has difficulty distinguishing between a white penguin belly and the reflective water surface. The dark plumage on their backs camouflages them from above.

Diving penguins reach 6 to 12 km/h (3.7 to 7.5 mph), though there are reports of velocities of 27 km/h (17 mph)(which are more realistic in the case of startled flight).[citation needed] The small penguins do not usually dive deep; they catch their prey near the surface in dives that normally last only one or two minutes. Larger penguins can dive deep in case of need. Dives of the large Emperor Penguin have been recorded reaching a depth of 565 m (1,870 ft) for up to 22 minutes.

Penguins either waddle on their feet or slide on their bellies across the snow, a movement called "tobogganing", which conserves energy while moving quickly. They also jump with both feet together if they want to move more quickly or cross steep or rocky terrain.

Penguins have an average sense of hearing for birds;[33] this is used by parents and chicks to locate one another in crowded colonies.[34] Their eyes are adapted for underwater vision, and are their primary means of locating prey and avoiding predators; in air it has been suggested that they are nearsighted, although research has not supported this hypothesis.[35]


Gentoo Penguin swimming underwater at Nagasaki Penguin Aquarium.
Penguins have a thick layer of insulating feathers that keeps them warm in water (heat loss in water is much greater than in air). The Emperor Penguin (the largest penguin) has the largest body mass of all penguins, which further reduces relative surface area and heat loss. They also are able to control blood flow to their extremities, reducing the amount of blood that gets cold, but still keeping the extremities from freezing. In the extreme cold of the Antarctic winter, the females are at sea fishing for food leaving the males to brave the weather by themselves. They often huddle together to keep warm and rotate positions to make sure that each penguin gets a turn in the center of the heat pack.

They can drink salt water because their supraorbital gland filters excess salt from the bloodstream.[36][37][38] The salt is excreted in a concentrated fluid from the nasal passages.

The Great Auk of the Northern Hemisphere, now extinct, was superficially similar to penguins, and the word "penguin" was originally used for that bird, centuries ago. They are not related to the penguins at all, but are an example of convergent evolution.[39]
2
kkkk

Jakarta, Indonesia

#97972 Jan 22, 2013
Penguins for the most part breed in large colonies, the exceptions being the Yellow-eyed and Fiordland species; these colonies may range in size from as few as a 100 pairs for Gentoo Penguins, to several hundred thousand in the case of King, Macaroni and Chinstrap Penguins.[47] Living in colonies results in a high level of social interaction between birds, which has led to a large repertoire of visual as well as vocal displays in all penguin species.[48] Agonistic displays are those intended to confront or drive off, or alternately appease and avoid conflict with, other individuals.[48]

Penguins form monogamous pairs for a breeding season, though the rate the same pair recouples varies drastically. Most penguins lay two eggs in a clutch, although the two largest species, the Emperor and the King Penguins, lay only one.[49] With the exception of the Emperor Penguin, where the male does it all, all penguins share the incubation duties.[50] These incubation shifts can last days and even weeks as one member of the pair feeds at sea.

Penguins generally only lay one brood; the exception is the Little Penguin, which can raise two or three broods in a season.[51]

Penguin eggs are smaller than any other bird species when compared proportionally to the weight of the parent birds; at 52 g (2 oz), the Little Penguin egg is 4.7% of its mothers' weight, and the 450 g (1 lb) Emperor Penguin egg is 2.3%.[49] The relatively thick shell forms between 10 and 16% of the weight of a penguin egg, presumably to minimise risk of breakage in an adverse nesting environment. The yolk, too, is large, and comprises 22–31% of the egg. Some yolk often remains when a chick is born, and is thought to help sustain it if parents are delayed in returning with food.[52]

When mothers lose a chick, they sometimes attempt to "steal" another mother's chick, usually unsuccessfully as other females in the vicinity assist the defending mother in keeping her chick.[citation needed] In some species, such as Emperor Penguins, young penguins assemble in large groups called crčches.
kkkk

Jakarta, Indonesia

#97973 Jan 22, 2013
Penguins are popular around the world, primarily for their unusually upright, waddling gait and (compared to other birds) lack of fear of humans. Their striking black-and-white plumage is often likened to a tuxedo suit. Mistakenly, some artists and writers have penguins based at the North Pole. This is incorrect, as there are almost no wild penguins in the northern hemisphere, except the small group on the northernmost of the Galápagos. The cartoon series Chilly Willy helped perpetuate this myth, as the title penguin would interact with northern-hemisphere species such as polar bears and walruses.

Penguins have been the subject of many books and films such as Happy Feet, Surf's Up and The Penguins of Madagascar, all CGI films; March of the Penguins, a documentary based on the migration process of the Emperor Penguin; and a parody titled Farce of the Penguins. Mr. Popper's Penguins is a children's book written by Richard & Florence Atwater; it was named a Newbery Honor Book in 1939. Penguins have also found their way into a number of cartoons and television dramas; perhaps the most notable of these is Pingu, created by Silvio Mazzola in 1986 and covering more than 100 short episodes. Entertainment Weekly put it on its end-of-the-decade, "best-of" list, saying, "Whether they were walking (March of the Penguins), dancing (Happy Feet), or hanging ten (Surf's Up), these oddly adorable birds took flight at the box office all decade long."[58]

Several pro, minor, college and high school sport teams have named themselves after the species, with the Pittsburgh Penguins team in the National Hockey League and the Youngstown State Penguins being the most recognizable.

The tendency of penguins to form large groups feeds the stereotype that they all look exactly alike, a popular notion exploited by cartoonists such as Gary Larson.
kkkk

Jakarta, Indonesia

#97974 Jan 22, 2013
Penguins seem to have no special fear of humans, and have approached groups of explorers without hesitation. This is probably because penguins have no land predators in Antarctica or the nearby offshore islands. Instead, penguins are at risk at sea from predators such as the leopard seal. Typically, penguins do not approach closer than about 3 meters (10 ft) at which point they become nervous. This is also the distance that Antarctic tourists are told to keep from penguins (tourists are not supposed to approach closer than 3 meters, but are not expected to withdraw if the penguins come closer).

In June 2011, a penguin came ashore on New Zealand's Peka Peka Beach, 3200km off course on its journey to Antarctica.[53] Nicknamed Happy Feet, after the movie of the same name, it was suffering from heat exhaustion and had to undergo a number of operations to remove objects like driftwood and sand from its stomach.[54] Happy Feet was a media sensation, with extensive coverage on TV and the web, including a live stream that had thousands of views[55] and a visit from English actor Stephen Fry.[56]

Once he had recovered, Happy Feet was released back into the water south of New Zealand.[57]
Teaman

Mount Holly, NJ

#97975 Jan 22, 2013
Ahomana wrote:
<quoted text>
No it doesn't, it doesn't protect the rights of anyone who is black, hispanic, Native Indian....because the founding fathers were racist who conjured up the constitution...and bill or rights....you can't have equality if it is not refering to all Americans regarless of race creed or colour....it is not worth the paper it is written on for the majority of Americans....it is in truth, a lie.
What century are you living in?

Civil rights legislation was passed back in the sixties by republicans against a democrat filibuster. The 14th amendment was intended to extend the 5th amendment's equal protection into state jurisdictions.

The founders, although some owned slaves, were against slavery. They compromised with southern states (colonies)in order to create a country. They simply kicked the can down the road. The issue at hand at the time was forming a country.
Teaman

Mount Holly, NJ

#97976 Jan 22, 2013
Ahomana wrote:
<quoted text>
You are a Constitutional Republic now...and where has it got you?
No we're not. Not since the early twentieth century. The left has been pushing democracy for a hundred years. Their idea of a democracy is the minority serving the dictatorship of the majority in economic terms.
Dr Freud

UK

#97977 Jan 22, 2013
Ahomana wrote:
<quoted text>
I have just prove there is no such thing as communism enacted in the world and that it can't possible exist, so you go on a rant to try to say that I am one because you know how the ignorant yanks think...ie: ooh she is a communist, so she is like the Russians....are you children? as you clearly have the concentration span of gnats...
You have simply been proven wrong and instead of being an intelligent human being and apologising or admitting you erred you resort to ignorance and bigotry. The world has enough to deal with seeing that America has spread lies and fear about a political system that has never existed and will never exist as it is the most idealistic political system there is, fantastical to say the least...where everyone plays nicey and noone suffers starvation or oppression or homelessness, where there are no rich or poor etc.....a fantasy nothing more or less....Grow the feck up!
http://dbzer0.com/blog/misunderstanding-commu...
BUT YOU admit to BEING A COMMUNIST, and WANTING to FORCE that polity upon EVERYONE ELSE!
Thank you for THAT admission!
Dr Freud

UK

#97978 Jan 22, 2013
Ahomana wrote:
<quoted text>
You are a Constitutional Republic now...and where has it got you?
BUT YOU admit to BEING A COMMUNIST, and WANTING to FORCE that polity upon EVERYONE ELSE!
Thank you for THAT admission!
Dr Freud

UK

#97979 Jan 22, 2013
Ahomana wrote:
<quoted text>
LOL.....at least I know there are two sane people on this site that understand what communism actually is and are not bullied by lies, fear and yankee paranoia and propaganda...it is America you should fear not the rest of the world it is they that inflict oppression on their people through lies....the rest of the world just laughs at your ignorance and red, white and blue rhetoric. You need to grow a brain doc....
BUT YOU admit to BEING A COMMUNIST, and WANTING to FORCE that polity upon EVERYONE ELSE!
Thank you for THAT admission!
Dr Freud

UK

#97980 Jan 22, 2013
Ahomana wrote:
<quoted text>
No it doesn't, it doesn't protect the rights of anyone who is black, hispanic, Native Indian....because the founding fathers were racist who conjured up the constitution...and bill or rights....you can't have equality if it is not refering to all Americans regarless of race creed or colour....it is not worth the paper it is written on for the majority of Americans....it is in truth, a lie.
BUT YOU admit to BEING A COMMUNIST, and WANTING to FORCE that polity upon EVERYONE ELSE!
Thank you for THAT admission!
Dr Freud

UK

#97981 Jan 22, 2013
Spocko wrote:
<quoted text>
I know isn't it, why is that only right-wing morons ever bring it up?
Because YOU 'left wing morons' are ALWAYS attempting to SHOVE YOUR POLITY down everyone else's throats, that's why!

Since: Dec 10

Brisbane, Australia

#97982 Jan 22, 2013
Teaman wrote:
<quoted text>
Restore the republic. Repeal the 16th and 17th amendments. Those were passed during a progressive dominated era.
PS. It amazes me how clueless the MAJORITY of yanks are.....not realising you are a republic and admitting that it is a failed system...you would have had a fairer system under the british monarchy... that way you could at least had a fairer elitist system and been able to follow it's reasoning and to some extent manage to keep the classes in order.....This way all you did was kick out and elitist system and replaced it with a worse type of super greed elitism....where most of you will be moving toward poor status...while still being fed (falsely) that you have a chance to make it big in yankeeland....You have encouraged a system whereby the wealthy have so much of your wealth that it there is no longer a middle class....and it is too late to reverse that situation as the wealthy have your balls in a vice and now dictate the terms by which you live your pathetic existence.........I wonder if your forefathers foresaw that?
Dr Freud

UK

#97983 Jan 22, 2013
Ahomana wrote:
<quoted text>
You are a Constitutional Republic now...and where has it got you?
Well, a WHOLE LOT FARTHER than where YOU are at, YOU COMMUNIST BITCH!
kkkk

Jakarta, Indonesia

#97984 Jan 22, 2013
Modern penguins consititute two undisputed clades and another two more basal genera with more ambiguous relationships.[18] The origin of the Spheniscinae lies probably in the latest Paleogene, and geographically it must have been much the same as the general area in which the order evolved: the oceans between the Australia-New Zealand region and the Antarctic.[19] Presumedly diverging from other penguins around 40 mya,[19] it seems that the Spheniscinae were for quite some time limited to their ancestral area, as the well-researched deposits of the Antarctic Peninsula and Patagonia have not yielded Paleogene fossils of the subfamily. Also, the earliest spheniscine lineages are those with the most southern distribution.

The genus Aptenodytes appears to be the basalmost divergence among living penguins[25][26] they have bright yellow-orange neck, breast, and bill patches; incubate by placing their eggs on their feet, and when they hatch the chicks are almost naked. This genus has a distribution centered on the Antarctic coasts and barely extends to some subantarctic islands today.

Pygoscelis contains species with a fairly simple black-and-white head pattern; their distribution is intermediate, centered on Antarctic coasts but extending somewhat northwards from there. In external morphology, these apparently still resemble the common ancestor of the Spheniscinae, as Aptenodytes' autapomorphies are in most cases fairly pronounced adaptations related to that genus' extreme habitat conditions. As the former genus, Pygoscelis seems to have diverged during the Bartonian,[27] but the range expansion and radiation that led to the present-day diversity probably did not occur until much later; around the Burdigalian stage of the Early Miocene, roughly 20–15 mya.[19]

The genera Spheniscus and Eudyptula contain species with a mostly subantarctic distribution centered on South America; some, however, range quite far northwards. They all lack carotenoid coloration, and the former genus has a conspicuous banded head pattern; they are unique among living penguins by nesting in burrows. This group probably radiated eastwards with the Antarctic Circumpolar Current out of the ancestral range of modern penguins throughout the Chattian (Late Oligocene), starting approximately 28 mya.[19] While the two genera separated during this time, the present-day diversity is the result of a Pliocene radiation, taking place some 4–2 mya.[19]

The Megadyptes–Eudyptes clade occurs at similar latitudes (though not as far north as the Galapagos Penguin), has its highest diversity in the New Zealand region, and represent a westward dispersal. They are characterized by hairy yellow ornamental head feathers; their bills are at least partly red. These two genera diverged apparently in the Middle Miocene (Langhian, roughly 15–14 mya), but again, the living species of Eudyptes are the product of a later radiation, stretching from about the late Tortonian (Late Miocene, 8 mya) to the end of the Pliocene.[19]

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