The early Church was called BOTH "Orthodox" and "Catholic." St. Ignatius of Antioch, a disciple of the Apostles, calls the Church by both these names as early as A.D. 107. The word Orthodox in Greek is orthódoxos meaning right in religion, or straight teaching; and the word Catholic is katholikós meaning general and/or kathól(ou) meaning universally. >>>>><quoted text> http://www.orthodoxresearchinstitute.org/arti...
Also, the word katholikos literally means the whole in every part. It is commonly translated universal.
Here is what Ignatius says:
"You must all follow the bishop as Jesus Christ follows the Father, and the presbytery as you would the Apostles. Reverence the deacons as you would the command of God. Let no one do anything of concern to the Church
without the bishop. Let that be considered a valid Eucharist which is celebrated by the bishop, or by one whom he appoints. Wherever the bishop appears, let the people be there; just as wherever Jesus Christ is, there is THE CATHOLIC CHURCH." (he didn't say Orthodox Church)(Ignatius of Antioch to the Smyrnaeans)
Ignatius point is that the TRUE Church (the CATHOLIC Church the Church as it is known in all parts of the world) is found locally with the bishop, as opposed to Gnostic cults and other false sects which claimed to be the true Church. Ergo, here as early as A.D. 107, the Church was already known as the Catholic Church. It would have been known by that name (Catholic) while the Apostle John was still alive, since he died only about 7 years earlier than the time when Ignatius is writing. Also, as I said, the term the Way was only used by Jewish Christians when speaking to other Jews.