Stroke

stroke is a disease that affects the blood vessels that supply blood to the brain. It occurs when a blood vessel that brings oxygen and nutrients to the brain either bursts or is clogged by a blood clot or some other mass. The former is called as the hemorrhagic stroke and the later an ischemic stroke.

When the rupture or blockage of the blood vessel takes place, there is no enough blood supply and hence, no enough nutrients and oxygen to that part of brain. This damages the nerve cells and may lead to their (cells) death.

As a result, that part of the brain is damaged which results in improper functioning of those body parts which are under the control of damaged brain area.

How is a stroke diagnosed?

Time is critical in diagnosing and treating a stroke. The first step will be a physical exam and tests of your brain function, followed by a type of X-ray called a CT scan of the brain to establish the type of stroke-ischemic or hemorrhagic.

This distinction is critical because the medicine given for an ischemic stroke (tissue plasminogen activator, or t-PA) could be life-threatening if given to someone with a hemorrhagic stroke (bleeding in the brain). A prompt diagnosis is also crucial because t-PA should be given within 3 hours of when your symptoms began.

Stroke treatment has shown rapid advances over the last decade or so. Proven therapies include management of acute stroke patients in a stroke unit, intravenous thrombolysis (rtPA), use of aspirin within 48 h and decompressive surgery for malignant middle cerebral artery infarction. Effective measures for secondary prevention are the use of antiplatelets, warfarin in atrial fibrillation, endarterectomy for carotid

Stroke is the third leading cause of death heart disease and cancer.[1] In our country, stroke is perhaps the second commonest cause of death and probably the most common cause of disability.

In the INTER-HEART study, abnormal lipids, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, abdominal obesity, psychosocial factors, lesser consumption of fruits and vegetables, alcohol, and physical inactivity accounted for most of the risk of myocardial infarction.

The guidelines are concerned with the management of patients who present with a new clinical event that might be stroke. Stroke in this context is defined as a clinical syndrome characterized by rapidly developing signs and symptoms of focal or at times global loss (as in sub arachnoid hemorrhage or brain stem involvement) of cerebral brain functions, lasting more than 24 hours or leading to death,

EC/IC bypass surgery

EC/IC bypass surgery is a procedure that restores blood flow to a blood-deprived area of brain tissue by rerouting a healthy artery in the scalp to the area of brain tissue affected by a blocked artery. A clinical study sponsored by NIH has showed that, in the long run, EC/IC does not seem to prevent recurrent strokes in stroke patients with atherosclerosis. The surgery is still performed occasionally for patients with aneurysms, some types of small artery disease, and certain vascular abnormalities.