The only false flag is the counterfeit American Flag made in China covering his window.
“Twoof, a true act of ignorance”
Since: Jun 09
#255915 May 29, 2013
#255916 May 29, 2013
I'd be glad to give it to you when you show me your sources which I have asked for in these matters.
1. 100 percent of intercepts have been successful and Norad over North America has intercepted at least one plane in less than a hour and twenty minutes.
2. Ever inch of the Pentagon is filmed.
3. The FR participates in gold transactions.
#255917 May 29, 2013
They don't! LMFAO, That is one lame attempt at a rebuttal. Any proof, of course not.
#255918 May 29, 2013
A: Any link on that, show one over North America, by him or anyone else that took less that 1H20M.
B: Try to pay attention, one of you fellow tin foilers claims that there was a test of 20 commercial pilots and 19 of them could not hit the WTC (but oddly could land).
#255919 May 29, 2013
Silverstein has lost 1.6 Billion and counting.
In its court papers, Swiss Re shows how Silverstein first tried to buy just $1.5 billion in property damage and business-interruption coverage. When his lenders objected, he discussed buying a $5 billion policy. Ultimately, he settled on the $3.5 billion figure, which was less than the likely cost of rebuilding.
The actual court ruling awarded Silverstein 4.68 Billion, not factoring in attorneys fees.
And of course this isn't profit for Silverstein. The money is being provided for him to rebuild the WTC complex, and it turns out that's quite expensive ($6.3 billion in April 2006)
$4.7 billion in insurance money,$6.3 billion in costs?
Silverstein Properties and the Port Authority continue to be guided by a lease each signed six weeks before the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks. The lease stipulates that should the complex be destroyed, Silverstein must continue to pay the $120 million a year rent in order to maintain the right to rebuild. Mr. Silverstein has tried to persuade the Port Authority that his closely held company is capable of rebuilding while meeting its massive rent payments. The rent is currently being paid from insurance proceeds, draining the amount available for rebuilding.
$120 million dollars a year? So in the five years between the attacks and that article being written, Silverstein has paid out over $600 million on rent alone
6.3 billion in costs, 600 million in rent for ground with no building or revenue, almost 7 Billion in cost and 4.7 Billion in a insurance payout,
In a recent settlement the Port Authority agreed to pay half of the rebuilding cost which results in…..
A loss of about 1.6 billion for Larry Silverstein what a moneymaker!
Since: Aug 11
#255920 May 29, 2013
Hey that's the pilot talking. Why do you take exception too this site? It gives part of the picture. Besides, your post is just a typical straw-man meant to divert attention from the facts.
Since: Aug 11
#255921 May 29, 2013
Yea, real moneymakers there. For the lawyers.
“Dying 4 ur sins-so tell me”
Since: Jan 09
#255923 May 29, 2013
Ok ,you want to talk facts .
Fact , nist factually states their ncstar 1 report is fabricated from evidence not directly related to the structures being investigated .
Fact ,Simulations from a computer do not qualify as real world investigation.
Fact , "Probable collapse sequence " in no way means "real world collapse" nor does it mean "only collapse sequence" . It means "possible collapse sequence "
Fact , nist states because congressional funding took to long, most of the evidence was destroyed or removed and discarded.
Fact , the ncstar 1 report specifically says all damage to the core columns and any interior damage such as fire proof insulation being knock the trusses ,were determined by computer driven "simulations" of which they used the ones that support their theory.
Fact, the ncstar 1 report is incomplete. At best it's an educated Guess.
Fact ,The ncstar 1 reports purpose was to determine the order of events from "impact" to "collapse initiation ", then provide recommendations for safer more structurally sound high rise buildings.
Fact once the planes "impacted the towers " nist had their "impact to initiation " requirements fulfilled . Everything they wrote after the impact of the planes would be an eminence front for the sake of the controlled , entertained masses foolish enough to believe this fictional literature. 1200 pages of bullshit may look impressive but when it comes to the nut cutting it fails miserably as the official story.
Fact , You cannot prove flight 77 hit the pentagon.If you have verifiable proof I'll be glad to look into it but as of yet every fu*kin one of ya'll saying this alleged aircraft impacted the pentagon have not provided any thing but circumstantial evidence. Not one picture of said plane has been produced , no one has provided an "official " link to these "witnesses" interviews .
Fact , any one supporting the official story do not live in a real world society and should stay home in their computerized virtual world where two planes can cause the "global collapse " of two 110 story high rises and a forty seven story structurally reinforced building.And ya'll say twoofers are stupid?
Feel free to debunk anything I stated here . Please refer to the ncstar1 report for references ,Aside from the pentagon statements ,as this is where I got most of my information .
#255924 May 29, 2013
LMFAO, All evidence points to 77, nothing points to anything else and you are going with something else.
#255925 May 29, 2013
#255926 May 29, 2013
I witnessed the jet hit the Pentagon on September 11.
From my office on the 19th floor of the USA TODAY building in Arlington, Va., I have a view of Arlington Cemetery, Crystal City, the Pentagon, National Airport and the Potomac River...
Shortly after watching the second tragedy, I heard jet engines pass our building, which, being so close to the airport is very common. But I thought the airport was closed. I figured it was a plane coming in for landing. A few moments later, as I was looking down at my desk, the plane caught my eye.
It didn't register at first. I thought to myself that I couldn't believe the pilot was flying so low. Then it dawned on me what was about to happen. I watched in horror as the plane flew at treetop level, banked slightly to the left, drug it's wing along the ground and slammed into the west wall of the Pentagon exploding into a giant orange fireball. Then black smoke. Then white smoke.
James Madison University Alumni, October 1 2001
Like millions of people in this shocked nation, Deb Anlauf spent Tuesday morning staring in disbelief at a TV screen, watching smoke billow from the World Trade Center in New York City.
Then, at about 8:40 a.m. CDT, the largest terrorist action in this country's history hit closer to home for Anlauf and her husband, Jeff. The couple, who moved to Colfax from Australia four months ago, were at the Sheraton National Hotel in Arlington, Va., less than two blocks from the Pentagon when Deb Anlauf saw "a sight I never imagined I'd see."
Anlauf was watching TV coverage of the Trade Center burning shortly before 9:30 a.m. when she decided to return to her 14th-floor room from another part of the hotel. Once in her room, she heard a "loud roar" and looked out the window to see what was going on.
"Suddenly I saw this plane right outside my window," Anlauf said during a telephone interview from her hotel room this morning. "You felt like you could touch it; it was that close. It was just incredible.
"Then it shot straight across from where we are and flew right into the Pentagon. It was just this huge fireball that crashed into the wall (of the Pentagon). When it hit, the whole hotel shook."
Leader-Telegram, September 12 2001
As an Army officer, Stuart Artman said he's seen the results of terrorist attacks in Somalia, Honduras and Nicaragua. Tuesday, he saw an attack first hand.
Artman, now a lieutenant colonel in the Army Reserve and the engineer for the city of Winter Haven, was in Washington attending a conference.
About 9:45 a.m., as he walked with a friend near the Washington Monument, he saw a plane fly low over the city. That wasn't unusual. Planes fly low over the city so often no one pays any attention to them, said Artman.
But this wasn't just any plane. "I saw the plane that hit the Pentagon," he said. "It went behind some trees." Then he saw the smoke from the Pentagon.
"It was hysteria -- cops, unmarked cars were everywhere," Artman, 44, said. "People were standing around. Nobody knew what was going on. As soon as I saw the Pentagon catch on fire, I thought,'it's time to go."
Ledger (Lakeland, FL)
Inside the Pentagon, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld had just raced to his office after hearing of the World Trade Center attack. On a house porch a little more than a mile away, Ralph Banton, 79, was enjoying a crystal-clear morning.
Then Banton heard a jet flying directly overhead, very low.
"It sounded like it was jetting instead of slowing down," he said.
Seconds later, American Flight 77, hijacked while carrying 64 people from Washington to Los Angeles, tore into the side of the Pentagon in a shocking terrorist attack aimed at the building that represents America's military power worldwide.
The Topeka-Capital Journal Online, September 11 2001
#255927 May 29, 2013
"Usually, there are a lot of people walking around with a smile on their face," said David Battle, surveying an almost empty Pennsylvania Avenue, just a couple blocks from the White House. "Today, it seems like everyone is in a state of shock."
Earlier Tuesday, Battle, an office worker at the Pentagon, was standing outside the building and just about to enter when the aircraft struck. "It was coming down head first," he said. "And when the impact hit, the cars and everything were just shaking."
Scripps Howard News Service
Bauer witnessed the attack on the Pentagon on Sept. 11.
“I happened to be driving into Washington, D.C. that morning. I was going to be doing a press conference on Capitol Hill about the issue of Sudan, where there is terrible Christian persecution taking place. In fact, there is a radical Islamic government in power. Millions of people have been killed. A number of groups in town felt that not enough was being done about that, so we were going to hold a press conference, put a little bit of pressure on the administration and on the Congress.
“I was in a massive traffic jam, hadn’t moved more than a hundred yards in twenty minutes. My office called to tell me about the first plane in New York, the reaction was ‘horrible accident.’ And then they called about the second plane, and clearly that meant something much worse was going on. It was only then that I really noticed where I was in that traffic jam. I was going past the Pentagon, really inching a yard or so every couple of minutes. I had just passed the closest place the Pentagon is to the exit on 395 ... when all of a sudden I heard the roar of a jet engine.
“I looked at the woman sitting in the car next to me. She had this startled look on her face. We were all thinking the same thing. We looked out the front of our windows to try to see the plane, and it wasn’t until a few seconds later that we realized the jet was coming up behind us on that major highway. And it veered to the right into the Pentagon. The blast literally rocked all of our cars. It was an incredible moment.
Massachusetts News, December 2001
WS: On the morning of Sept 11 you were in your car. Did you literally see the plane go into the Pentagon?
GB: Yeah. I was heading into Washington to take part in a press conference on the issue of Sudan, where there is a radical Muslim government, and I was sitting in a traffic jam just outside the Pentagon. The traffic jam hadn't gone 100 yards in 20 minutes when I got the first call about a plane crashing into the World Trade Center, which at the time people thought was an accident. Then -- not that long after, which made it clear it wasn't an accident -- another plane hit, and it was at that moment when I realized I was sitting at the closest point on the road that you could get to the Pentagon. I was less than 100 yards away at that particular exit and many of us in the traffic jam had our windows down. We were comparing notes -- what radio stations we were listening to -- when all of a sudden we heard a roar of a jet engine. I looked out of my front window and I saw movement over to the side. I turned and looked and the plane came from behind us and banked to the right and went into the Pentagon. That blast literally moved our cars, so it was a fairly dramatic moment.
I knew what had happened in New York and I had just seen what happened to the Pentagon. On the radio they were reporting there was flames and fire near the White House. There were a lot of false reports on DC radio stations that morning, so it was clear -- in a dramatic way -- that this was the most significant day that I had ever experienced.
The Charlotte World
#255928 May 29, 2013
Sergeant Maurice L. Bease
Sergeant Maurice L. Bease had worked around Marine aviation long enough to know what a fly-by was, and it sounded like one as he stood outside his office near the Pentagon on Sept. 11. Turning around expecting to see a fighter jet fly over, he saw only a split-second glimpse of a white commercial airliner streaking low toward the building, and him! He did not even have time to duck before it plowed into the side of the Pentagon around the corner and about 200 yards from where he stood.
Immediately, a ball of flame shot up the side of the building, followed by smoke, lots of it. People began to flood out into the parking lot.
Marine Corps Association, 2001
Paul Begala, a Democratic consultant, said he witnessed an explosion near the Pentagon. "It was a huge fireball, a huge, orange fireball," he said in an interview on his mobile phone.
He said another witness told him a helicopter exploded.
The Guardian, September 12 2001
Singleton Electric was the Wedge One electrical contractor and had just completed some punch-list work in wedge (one of five) when at 9:45 a.m.(EDT) American Airlines Flight 77 plowed into the western wall of Pentagon with 64 passengers and crew aboard. The jet, which had just taken off from Dulles Airport en route to Los Angles, set the world´s largest office building ablaze between the first and second wedges.
The jet came in from the south and banked left as it entered the building, narrowly missing the Singleton Electric trailer and the on-site foreman, Mickey Bell. Bell had just left the trailer when he heard a loud noise. The next thing he recalled was picking himself off the floor, where he had been thrown by the blast.
Bell, who had been less than 100 feet from the initial impact of the plane, was nearly struck by one of the plane´s wings as it sped by him. In shock, he got into his truck, which had been parked in the trailer compound, and sped away. He wandered around Arlington in his truck and tried to make wireless phone calls. He ended up back at Singleton´s headquarters in Gaithersburg two hours later, according to President Singleton, not remembering much.
The full impact of the closeness of the crash wasn´t realized until coworkers noticed damage to Bell´s work vehicle. He had plastic and rivets from an airplane imbedded in its sheet metal, but Bell had no idea what had happened.
National Electrical Contractors Association, September 13 2001
#255929 May 29, 2013
Richard Benedetto was in his car on his way to work, stuck in traffic just outside the Pentagon. He was listening -- in horror -- to an account of what had just happened at the World Trade Center in New York. "Then the plane flew right over my head. I said to myself, boy, that plane is going awfully fast," Benedetto said. "That plane is going to crash." The jet knocked over several light posts before it smashed into the Pentagon. Other observers said it seemed to come in full throttle with no attempt to slow down. "The noise was like an artillery shell, not an explosion like a bomb," Benedetto said. Then he saw a giant billow of smoke followed by a huge fireball, presumably the exploding fuel from the crashed plane. "You couldn't even see the building because there was so much smoke," said Benedetto.
Hartford Courant, September 12, 2001
"I heard an airplane. A very loud airplane.... I heard the airplane coming from behind me.... So I looked up, and I saw this airplane coming, heading straight down toward the ground. It was an American Airlines airplane, I could see it very clearly.... The plane went down and for a split second it was out of my line of vision because there was a bridge there and a hill.... I didn't actually see the impact... I didn't see any flaps, it looked like the plane was just in a normal flying mode but heading straight down, sharply down. It was straight. No flopping. It was going pretty straight.... The only thing we saw on the ground outside there was a piece of a - the tail of a lamp post."Quoted here
Susan Bergen was sitting in a [Ritz Carlton] hotel room near the Pentagon on Tuesday morning, glued to TV news coverage of the World Trade Center attack.
Out of the corner of her eye, she saw a plane outside the window of her 11th floor room. She turned just in time to see a big jetliner skim the treetops and slam into the side of the Pentagon, less than a half mile from her hotel room. It looked like the plane sped up just before hitting the building, she said.
Plastics News, September 17 2001
"I just looked up and I saw the big nose and the wings of the aircraft coming right at us and I just watched it hit the building," Air Traffic Controller and Pentagon tower chief Sean Boger said. "It exploded. I fell to the ground and covered my head. I could actually hear the metal going through the building."
The Pentagram, November 16 2001
Donald R. Bouchoux
I was driving down Washington Boulevard (Route 27) along the side of the Pentagon when the aircraft crossed about 200 yards in front of me and impacted the side of the building. There was an enormous fireball, followed about two seconds later by debris raining down. The car moved about a foot to the right when the shock wave hit. I had what must have been an emergency oxygen bottle from the airplane go flying down across the front of my Explorer and then a second piece of jagged metal come down on the right side of the car.
The Washington Post, September 20 2001
Defense Protective Service officers were the first on the scene of the terrorist attack. One, Mark Bright, actually saw the plane hit the building. He had been manning the guard booth at the Mall Entrance to the building.
"I saw the plane at the Navy Annex area," he said. "I knew it was going to strike the building because it was very, very low -- at the height of the street lights. It knocked a couple down." The plane would have been seconds from impact -- the annex is only a few hundred yards from the Pentagon.
He said he heard the plane "power-up" just before it struck the Pentagon. "As soon as it struck the building I just called in an attack, because I knew it couldn't be accidental," Bright said. He jumped into his police cruiser and headed to the area.
American Forces Press Service, September 24 2001
#255930 May 29, 2013
Pam Branstetter, of the Staff Judge Advocate's Office, stops by. Like most MTMC Headquarters employees these days, she has a story to tell.
"My husband actually saw the plane crash into the Pentagon," said the administrative officer. "He works at the Navy Annex, and the plane was flying so low he thought it was going to hit his building.
Her husband of 29 years, Ross Branstetter, watched the next split seconds in horror, she said.
"He said it was like a movie," said Branstetter. "He saw the plane disappear and then there was a fireball. He was pretty shaken."
Journal of Military Transportation Management, Sept-Oct 2001
Omar Campo, a Salvadorean, was cutting the grass on the other side of the road when the plane flew over his head.
"It was a passenger plane. I think an American Airways plane," Mr Campo said. "I was cutting the grass and it came in screaming over my head. I felt the impact. The whole ground shook and the whole area was full of fire. I could never imagine I would see anything like that here."
The Guardian, September 12 2001
Captain Joseph Candelario
Captain Joseph Candelario, USA a first year student in the Family Nurse Practitioner Program began Tuesday, 11 September like most people. It was a clinical day, which meant getting up early and making the trip in to Ft. McNair to start seeing patients at 0630. He was first alerted that the day was drastically changing when one of the medics told him that a plane hit the World Trade Center. While watching the tower burn, another plane hit the second tower. Thinking that this was a very serious terrorist attack, I went outside to the river to take a break. As I was looking across the river towards the direction of the Pentagon, I noticed a large aircraft flying low towards the White House. This aircraft then made a sharp turn and flew towards the Pentagon and seconds later crashed into it.
Graduate School of Nursing Highlights
I was standing on the platform high above the [Washington Reagan] airport awaiting a Metro subway train to my office in the heart of the district, on Constitution Avenue, admiring the lovely blue skies when I saw the plane hit and the fireball and explosion at the Pentagon.
Jacksonville.com , September 11 2002
#255931 May 29, 2013
Mike Chappell, 31, Deputy chief of staff, Rep. Charles 'Chip' Pickering, R-Miss.
We live in Springfield, Virginia, and I was cruising into town and listening to a radio station, and they were getting reports a plane had crashed into the World Trade Center. About 9:30, I was in the left-hand lane of the HOV, kind of looking down on the Pentagon. I was looking at the roof, wondering if I would see guys on the roof with binoculars, just looking. I didn't see anybody up there, so I just kept cruising along. The Pentagon was on my left, and I saw this plane. I heard it, and it scared the piss out of me. It was so loud and throttled-up. I saw it come over the road, and it was like parallel. I could see the windows go by. Some of the shades were down, others were open. And it was close enough that it felt like if there were people in there, I would have seen faces, but I couldn't see anything.
You could tell how the pilot, he really kind of maneuvered the plane. The plane kind of banked side to side. He got over the parking lot and he just dipped it down, and you could visibly see the plane dive. It went below the highway and I couldn't see the actual impact, but the explosion was just massive and the fireball just towered over the Pentagon another 100 feet. You could feel the heat from the blast. The smell and the heat just came all over you.
I slammed on the brakes and pulled over to the side of the road, and I hopped out and grabbed my cell and called Pickering Chief of Staff Susan Butler. The receptionist said she was sitting there talking to somebody, and I said get her on the phone now. And so Susan picked up, and I said, "A plane just crashed at the Pentagon, get out of the office now." And she hung up and told people to evacuate. I tried to call my wife, who's an elementary counselor with the Fairfax County schools. I got her voice mail and said, "Please be careful today. There are a lot of weird things going on. I'm fine. I'll call you later."
I hung up and looked across at the Pentagon. You could see there was furniture on fire. The smell was very strong. It was noxious, like when you are behind a diesel truck, that kind of acrid smell.
The National Journal, August 31 2002
Andrea: Don Chauncey, are you there? Don: Yes I am
Andrea: You witnessed what happened at the Pentagon. What did you see?
Don: From my office I was able to see ah A white jet, like a gulf-stream type commuter jet, I guess, just came at a high rate of speed, uhm, I can see National Airport’s tower from our office, and it just increased its speed as it got closer to the Pentagon, and then I just saw the big yellow ball of fire
Andrea: Don exactly where is your office, from where are you watching this?
Don:…ah, we’re, our, offices are off Brannon (?) and St. Barnabas? at the Beltway, so I overlook the Beltway from my office.
Mike: Could you tell Don, did the plane come out of National?
Don: No. No, absolutely not. There was a, it appeared to be a US Air commuter jet that went over the top of our building, which is a normal flight pattern, I guess for the commuters. And this looked like it was coming, from, I’m guessing, coming down Columbia Pike in Arlington, down that way, and then just picked up a high rate of speed, I mean from my desk right now I can see, the Pentagon, basically where the metro station is, and the buses, I can see that and to the right, but I can’t see the, I guess, the south parking area.
#255932 May 29, 2013
Jim R. Cissell
Sitting in his car on Washington Boulevard next to the Pentagon Tuesday morning, Jim R. Cissell saw the plane coming a couple of hundred yards to his left.
The Clifton native watched it cross over the road, then plow into the side of the Pentagon.
Mr. Cissell, son of Hamilton County Clerk of Courts Jim C. Cissell, said he doesn't even remember the sound of the explosion.
He remembers, though, muttering “oh my God” as the plane hit, and the fireball was unforgettable. Mr. Cissell said he never thought for a second that the crash was anything but intentional.
“It's as though he picked a spot on the building and that's what he was going straight for,” he said.
Mr. Cissell drives past the Pentagon every day on his way to work at the Newseum in Arlington, Va., where he heads its Web site.
"Out of my peripheral vision, I saw this plane coming in and it was low - and getting lower. If you couldn't touch it from standing on the highway, you could by standing on your car. I thought,'This isn't really happening. That is a big plane. Then I saw the faces of some of the passengers on board," Cissell said. "I remember thinking, The World Trade Center was just the beginning, there's going to be more." He remembers the helipad the plane flew over before smacking into the Pentagon was close enough to him that "I could have thrown a baseball at it and hit it." While he remembers seeing the crash, Cissell remembers none of the sounds. "It came in in a perfectly straight line," he said. "It didn't slow down. I want to say it accelerated. It just shot straight in."
#255933 May 29, 2013
The Cincinatti Post, quoted here
As former Cincinnatian James R. Cissell sat in traffic on a Virginia interstate by the Pentagon Tuesday morning, he saw the blur of a commercial jet and wondered why it was flying so low. Right about the time it was crossing over the highway, it kind of dawned on me what was happening, said Cissell, son of Hamilton County Clerk of Courts Jim Cissell.
In the next blink of an eye, he realized he had a front-row seat to history, as the plane plowed into the Pentagon, sending a fireball exploding into the air and scattering debris - including a tire rim suspected of belonging to the airplane - past his car.
"I've been in life and death situations before ... You can't count your thoughts. It was very surreal. It wasn't slo-mo. It was surreal. I think I was in kind of a state of shock," Cissell said.
A former photojournalist who, for the last three years, has worked for the Freedom Forum Museum in Arlington, Va., Cissell was listening to his car radio and the news of the planes slamming into the World Trade Center while sitting in traffic.
"I was thinking,'If anything happens to the Pentagon right now, I don't have my (photo) gear with me," he said today.
He usually cuts through the Pentagon parking lot to get to work, but was stuck on Interstate 110 because of extra security at the Pentagon following the attack on the World Trade Center.
"Out of my peripheral vision," Cissell said, "I saw this plane coming in and it was low - and getting lower."
"If you couldn't touch it from standing on the highway, you could by standing on your car."
In the next seconds dozens of things flashed through his mind.
"I thought,'This isn't really happening. That is a big plane.' Then I saw the faces of some of the passengers on board," Cissell said.
"I remember thinking,'The World Trade Center was just the beginning, there's going to be more.' "
He remembers the helipad the plane flew over before smacking into the Pentagon was close enough to him that "I could have thrown a baseball at it and hit it."
Then the plane, which was taking out telephone and power lines on its way in, hit the building.
While he remembers seeing the crash, Cissell remembers none of the sounds.
"It came in in a perfectly straight line," he said.
"It didn't slow down. I want to say it accelerated. It just shot straight in."
The Cincinatti Post, Online Edition, September 12 2001
#255934 May 29, 2013
Not that I am calling you stupid, but I am.
28. Why didn’t NIST conduct large-scale/small-scale tests to evaluate the response of the WTC towers structures to the aircraft impact and the fires in the buildings?
For studying the impact on a 110-story building by an actual Boeing 767 aircraft, a full-scale test was not feasible. For a test to capture the response of the towers as a system, it would have been necessary to construct a test assembly that included the core columns, exterior columns, floors and hat truss. Even to replicate experimentally the response of the floors near and above the impact zones would have required test assemblies of about 20 stories for WTC 1 and 30 stories for WTC 2. No facility exists to conduct such a test, either with fire or in the absence of fire; and, indeed, such tests are not conducted in current engineering practice.
Therefore, NIST relied on high-fidelity finite element modeling of the aircraft impact event and subsequent fires. The analyses were calibrated against the observed structural response of the towers upon impact (videos, photographs, and physical evidence) and the evolution of the ensuing fires.
NIST did not conduct reduced-scale system-level tests because there are no generally accepted scaling laws that apply to fire propagation, temperature evolution, and structural response.
Furthermore, fire test facilities with the capability to apply arbitrary fire exposures (in contrast to the standard time-temperature exposure) and arbitrary loads to structural components did not exist in the United States at the time of the investigation. Even had such a facility been existent, each large-scale structural fire test would have evaluated only a single set of conditions, e.g., structural system, fire exposure, amount of fireproofing, etc. Even a modest parametric series of such tests would have been prohibitively expensive.
NIST did conduct full-scale fire tests of single and multiple workstations. These tests were of sufficient size to properly capture the combustion physics. These tests established burning histories, mass burning rates, and heat release rates. The results were used to validate the fire dynamics calculations for fire growth and spread (see NIST NCSTAR 1-5E). NIST also conducted full-scale fire tests exposing insulated and bare structural elements to real fires to validate the fire and thermal modeling approaches (see NIST NCSTAR 1-5B).
#255935 May 29, 2013
25. Why wasn’t physical evidence collected immediately following the collapse of the WTC towers?
The complete collapse of the WTC towers destroyed virtually all physical evidence except the major pieces of steel and mechanical equipment. In the initial days and weeks following the WTC disaster, the emphasis was on rescue and later on recovery, necessitating the removal of steel and disturbing the collapse site. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), which had launched its Building Performance Assessment Team (BPAT) Study in early October 2001, sent a team of experts to review the steel at the WTC site and the salvage yards. These experts, including one from NIST, identified pieces of steel of potential interest to a follow-on investigation. Beginning in February 2002, NIST, on its own initiative, began identifying additional steel pieces of potential interest at the salvage yards and transporting them to NIST to preserve and secure the evidence in anticipation of launching its own investigation, which it announced in August 2002. NIST NCSTAR 1-3 fully documents the steel recovered from the site.
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