You are starting to get the idea, NORAD does not focus on transponders for ID! SO WHAT DID THEY SEE?<quoted text>
So a Soviet bomber in the 80's could not be tracked over the US if it turned off its transponder?
Who ever needed stealth technology, right?
Insults Are Easier
Yes, That is why there is a NORAD Liaison at ATC to transmit information from what ATC sees to NORAD, NOW, WHAT DID NORAD SEE ON THEIR BOARDS FOR ALL COMMERCIAL AIRLINERS ON 9/11 AND BEFORE, and what form of communication did ATC and NORAD use to tell each other what they were seeing.
(Hint, the problem was fixed about a year latter because of 9/11.