Huygens (1690) describes the propagation of light using waves formed by the motion of an ethereal matter. Fresnel (1819) describes diffraction using light-waves formed by the vibration of an elastic fluid (aether).

In Maxwell's theory (1864), Maxwell describes an electromagnetic theory of light, that is based on Faraday induction theory since induction is optical. Faraday-Hertz conduction spark is an induction effect since electrons are emitted from the conductor when the spark is produced. Also, Maxwell describes polarization using light-waves formed by the motion of an elastic medium (aether), composed of matter, that exists in vacuum.

Lorentz (1899) reverses the negative result of Michelson's experiment (1881), using a transformation, to prove the aether exists in vacuum. In Lorentz transformation, the earth's yearly motion (p) produces a constant velocity affect on the earth's daily motion, of Michelson's experiment; consequently, Lorentz's constant translational velocity proves the aether, composed of matter, exists in vacuum.

Lenard's photoelectric effect (1902) proves light is composed of light particles which proves Maxwell's electromagnetic field, based on Faraday's induction theory, is a particle effect. Wien's displacement law (1893) is used to justifies Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light since the blackbody radiation effect emits electromagnetic radio waves and light that Planck-Einstein represent with a discrete energy.

In Einstein's paper, "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies" (1905), Einstein uses Maxwell's equations. In Einstein's paper "The Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity" (1916), Einstein uses Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light. In Einstein's paper "Relativity: Special and General Theory" (1917), Einstein reverses the negative result of Michelson-Morley experiment (1887), using Lorentz's transformation, to prove the aether exists in vacuum and justify Maxwell's wave theory of light.

de Broglie's probability wave (1925) is based on a position probability that forms a negative value that is used to represent interference. Davission-Germer electron scattering (1927) represents interference, using the destructive interference of electrons, to form the non-electron fringes, of the electron scattering pattern.

Lorentz and Einstein have created a theoretical physics based on Copernicus theory.