Big bang, when did it happen? How old is our earth?
What were the effects of early collision of our earth with another planet?
What re the two most abundant elements in our earth’s core/ crust?
Isotope/ polymorph
Mass number, atomic number. Given the atomic number and mass number how to calculate number of electronics, protons and neutrons.
Know how to calculate number of electrons in different shells – also the same in an ion (cation, positively charged will have lesser number of electrons that the atomic number, anions will have more)
Definition of a mineral, examples of minerals and non-minerals
Mineral groups with examples, silicate groups with examples, moh’s scale (know the two softest and the two hardest). Mafic, felsic à how different properties change from mafic to felsic?
Know the classification of igneous rocks, know the igneous plutons (e.g., dyke, sill, batholith, stock etc)
Aa, Pahoehoe and pillow lavas – what are these and indicate what condition?
Examples and differences between Shield and Stratovolcanoes.
Brittle and ductile deformation – effects of pressure, temp and strain rate, depth
Know the different types of fault – should be able to tell the fault given the nature of net slip and movement direction of hanging wall with respect to the footwall.
Know what is axial plane and plunge, know syncline, anticline and recumbent fold.
Classification of clastic sediments
Different types of biogenic sedimentary rocks – and what each is made of? Know radiolarian, chert, foraminifera…
, Know laws of superposition, original horizontality etc.
Know the different types of unconformities
Know the periods of Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Know the present day eon, era, period, and epoch
Simple isotopic problem. I will give you number of parent and daughter isotopes and half life, you have to find the age of the sample
Know the table of minerals arranged according to their resistance to weathering . I might give a bunch and ask you to arrange.
Know the different types of chemical weathering and their products.
Know what is regolith, the characteristics and names of different soil horizon, Zones of leaching and accumulation. The three major types of soil, their characteristics and climate that produces these soils.
Know slump, creep. Solifluction,-- what kind of mass wasting these indicate: bent tree, tilted tombstones; talus; scarp?
Typical geothermal gradients, how pressure changes with depth? Different types of metamorphism . What kind of metamorphism (name, P,T condition, tectonic setting) these indicate: greenstone, mylonite, hornfels..
What is blue schist, why is it blue, where is it found, what kind of metamorphic condition (P,T) produces blue schist? What is Hornfels? Different types of foliations and their grades of metamorphism.
Index minerals of contact and regional metamorphism, isograd. Know the metamorphic facies – you should be able to point each facies in a metamorphic facies diagram.
Features and examples of divergent and convergent plate margins
Saltation, Traction, bed load, suspended load
Graded stream, longitudinal profile, point bar, cut bank (where do these form?)
Lag time, calculations of flood probability
Equation for discharge in a stream, point bar, natural levee, channelization
Porosity and permeability how porosity is related to grain size, roundness and sorting of grains.
Ground water table, Perched water Table, Darcy’s Law, Artesian aquifer
Consequences of excessive ground water withdrawal.