Maybe the Church has modified the Bible, but has not power to modify the Torah.<quoted text>
The Jews never worshipped the golden calf. That is a Christian lie spread by the Church against the Jews.
Those, who made the golden calf and worshipped it were a group of people, whom Moses had brought out along with the Hebrews. Moses did not just bring out only the Hebrews.
Many other pagans, foreigners and immigrant workers belonging to other tribes had also followed Moses. I believe they were the members of the tribes of Esau and other brothers of Joseph, who had given up the religion of Abraham over centuries.
So let's take a quick look at what the Torah says about who made and worshipped the egel hazahav (golden calf).
1.When the people saw that Moses was late in coming down from the mountain, the people gathered against Aaron, and they said to him: "Come on! Make us gods that will go before us, because this man Moses, who brought us up from the land of Egypt we don't know what has become of him."
2.Aaron said to them, "Remove the golden earrings that are on the ears of your wives, your sons, and your daughters and bring them [those earrings] to me."
3.And ALL the people stripped themselves of the golden earrings that were on their ears and brought them to Aaron.
4.He took [them] from their hand[s], fashioned it with an engraving tool, and made it into a molten calf, upon which they said: "These are your gods, O Israel, who have brought you up from the land of Egypt!"
5.When Aaron saw [this], he built an altar in front of it, and Aaron proclaimed and said: "Tomorrow shall be a festival to the Lord."
It's obvious from there that Aaron made the golden calf and proclaimed festival to the lord (pictured as a golden calf). The third verse reveal to us who were these people "And all the people", i.e. Israelities and foreigners.
But let's move on, if it were true, as you said, that only a certain group of people, mainly foreigners, worshiped the golden calf then god would have punished them and not also all the Israelities, right?
7.And the Lord said to Moses: "Go, descend, for your people that you have brought up from the land of Egypt have acted corruptly.
8.They have quickly turned away from the path that I have commanded them; they have made themselves a molten calf! And they have prostrated themselves before it, slaughtered sacrifices to it, and said:'These are your gods, O Israel, who have brought you up from the land of Egypt.'
9. And the Lord said to Moses: "I have seen this people and behold! they are a stiff necked people.
10. Now leave Me alone, and My anger will be kindled against them so that I will annihilate them, and I will make you into a great nation."
It seems pretty evident that YHVH was mad and wanted to punish Israel and not to a certain group of people, as you stated.
You are wrong over anything you said. And you are the one who said to have read and studied the Bible? LOL