Ans.I'm only going to touch on the second point because you are more knowledgeable about Islam than I.
It was my impression that Mohammed would have liked that it was possible for a woman to travel alone safely without a male guardian. But he was pragmatic in that it was not possible during his time.
I have nothing to back that up other than what I've heard. So I'm asking you if there's any Islamic text behind that.
Our prophet did in "every thing" which was "golden mean" between Two extremes.
One extreme was "prohibiting" women from traveling from one city to another city.
Another extreme was to give them "total freedom" to do what they wish and decide.
He chose the "medium path" to allow her to travel in the company of a Male guardian.
That "Golden mean" approach you will find in almost every rule of Islamic Jurisprudence.
Allah Knows Best!!