Literally? No, they cannot.Religious beliefs cannot be analyzed under a microscope.
But they can be analyzed nevertheless. For example, the claim that there was an exodus of Hebrews from Egypt corresponding to the biblical account can be analyzed, and it has been. One of the problem for the biblical claims, for example, is that Hebrew campsites don't have pork bone in them. A crowd of several thousand nomads wandering over a large expanse of desert for forty years doesn't leave no trace of themselves.