Hamas entrenched in Gaza after 5 years of rule

Jun 23, 2012 | Posted by: roboblogger | Full story: The State

In five years of rule in the Gaza Strip, Hamas has established a functioning, authoritarian mini-state with a strong Islamic flavor, so firmly in control that nothing short of an unlikely Israeli military takeover seems capable of dislodging the militants.

Comments

Showing posts 1 - 14 of14
SHIRO

New York, NY

|
Report Abuse
|
Judge it!
|
#1
Jun 23, 2012
 

Judged:

1

1

1

Bombing civilian ,killing children is a crime against God and Humanity .
Huistory will never forgive the Zionist, they breaking new record in human thugery...
Ayreshire

Albuquerque, NM

|
Report Abuse
|
Judge it!
|
#3
Jun 23, 2012
 

Judged:

1

1

1

SHIRO wrote:
Bombing civilian ,killing children is a crime against God and Humanity .
Huistory will never forgive the Zionist, they breaking new record in human thugery...
Filthy LIAR! HOW MANY WAR CRIMES DID PALESTINIAN HAMAS COMMIT EVERY TIME THEY FIRE A ROCKET INTO ISRAEL OR SEND IN A SUICIDE BOMBER?? NOW TIMES THAT BY TEN THOUSAND!! YOU ARE A BLOOMING FILTHY LYING SCUMBAG!! What I don't like is the continued bashing of Israel that you clowns love to do. You're all a bunch of crazed Muslims with nothing better to do than to use your childish mentality to demean the ONLY country in the Middle East that doesn’t take OUR Foreign Aid and bank the money in private accounts while their people suffer (Remember Arafat??), support terrorists, harbor terrorists, buy arms for terrorists or use it for building Mosques as they incite hatred toward the good old USA. The outright lies, distortions and propaganda are what I'm going after. When Israel attacks Hamas it is retaliation for attacks on them dummy!! Hamas used women and children as human shields. So when Women and children die, you clowns start foaming at the mouth!! They only Attack HAMAS or those responsible for suicide and rocket attack on Israel Dummy!! Israel does not attack for no reason and never has. It is only after they have been provoked!! Learn your History and stop making yourself look like a fool!! The Arabs have muddied the world for decades with their furious protest that their land has been “stolen” from them. One might take seriously such a statement if it came from a pacifist people such as the Tibetans, who had quietly inhabited their land for ages before it was seized by the Communist Chinese in 1950. The claim is laughable coming from the Arabs, who in the early Middle Ages conquered and reduced to slavery and penury ancient peoples and civilizations stretching from the borders of Persia to the Atlantic; who in 1947 rejected an Arab state in Palestine alongside a Jewish state and sought to obliterate the nascent Jewish state; who never called for a distinct Palestinian Arab state until the creation of the terrorist PLO in 1964—sixteen years after the founding of the state of Israel; and who to this moment continue to seek Israel’s destruction, an object that would be enormously advanced by the creation of the Arab state they demand. The Arab claim to sovereign rights west of the Jordan is only humored today because of a fatal combination of world need for Arab oil, leftist Political Correctness that has cast the Israelis as “oppressors,” and, of course, good old Jew-hatred.
Uzi

Israel

|
Report Abuse
|
Judge it!
|
#4
Jun 23, 2012
 
Hammas terror sure works in Gaza.
Pappy

Las Vegas, NV

|
Report Abuse
|
Judge it!
|
#5
Jun 23, 2012
 
What's worse is when Hamas attacks and provokes innocent civilians then puts it's innocent people in harms way and using the media to cry foul. Just sick.
SHIRO wrote:
Bombing civilian ,killing children is a crime against God and Humanity .
Huistory will never forgive the Zionist, they breaking new record in human thugery...
ocxz

Reunion

|
Report Abuse
|
Judge it!
|
#7
Jun 24, 2012
 
Uzi wrote:
Hammas terror sure works in Gaza.
That is the result of Israeli Mossad supporting Hamas against Fatah to ensure that the peace talks derailed.

Good job.
ocxz

Reunion

|
Report Abuse
|
Judge it!
|
#8
Jun 24, 2012
 

Judged:

1

1

1

Pappy wrote:
What's worse is when Hamas attacks and provokes innocent civilians then puts it's innocent people in harms way and using the media to cry foul. Just sick.
<quoted text>
In "harms" way ?
Why are you using such a chast word which denotes with you usual blunt language ?
Let me rephrase it correctly.

What's worse is that Hamas (whose leaders / followers are very well known and monitored by Israel secret services) provokes Tsahal (both Hamas and IDF they don't give a shit about "innocent" people civilians, just playing their usual game) then puts it's "innocent civilians" in Israel Army way and use the media to cry fool.

Man you don't have a clue.

Mossad and Hamas have no benefit in peace.
Hamas would be de facto out if there was an agreement for a normal government in Gaza, but Gaza is no country has no nationality.
So the Palestinian / Israel conflict is a well maintained status quo by both sides that have no interest in peace (i'm not talking about the majority of people from both sides that want a settlement).

Benefit for Hamas as they keep the power in Gaza and get financial support from other Arab / Muslims countries so that they can stash the money in their pockets.
Benefit for Israel as long as the peace process in out they can colonize the territories little by little, whilee getting financial support from the USA and also stash money in their pockets.

This is called real-politics.
Israel HAS supported Hamas financially against Arafat.
ocxz

Reunion

|
Report Abuse
|
Judge it!
|
#9
Jun 24, 2012
 

Judged:

1

1

1

part 1

Hamas History Tied To Israel

By Richard Sale
UPI Terrorism Correspondent

06/18/02 "UPI" ----- In the wake of a suicide bomb attack Tuesday on a crowded Jerusalem city bus that killed 19 people and wounded at least 70 more, the Islamic Resistance Movement, Hamas, took credit for the blast.

Israeli officials called it the deadliest attack in Jerusalem in six years.

Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon immediately vowed to fight "Palestinian terror" and summoned his cabinet to decide on a military response to the organization that Sharon had once described as "the deadliest terrorist group that we have ever had to face."

Active in Gaza and the West Bank, Hamas wants to liberate all of Palestine and establish a radical Islamic state in place of Israel. It is has gained notoriety with its assassinations, car bombs and other acts of terrorism.

But Sharon left something out.

Israel and Hamas may currently be locked in deadly combat, but, according to several current and former U.S. intelligence officials, beginning in the late 1970s, Tel Aviv gave direct and indirect financial aid to Hamas over a period of years.

Israel "aided Hamas directly -- the Israelis wanted to use it as a counterbalance to the PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization)," said Tony Cordesman, Middle East analyst for the Center for Strategic Studies.

Israel's support for Hamas "was a direct attempt to divide and dilute support for a strong, secular PLO by using a competing religious alternative," said a former senior CIA official.

According to documents United Press International obtained from the Israel-based Institute for Counter Terrorism, Hamas evolved from cells of the Muslim Brotherhood, founded in Egypt in 1928. Islamic movements in Israel and Palestine were "weak and dormant" until after the 1967 Six Day War in which Israel scored a stunning victory over its Arab enemies.

After 1967, a great part of the success of the Hamas/Muslim Brotherhood was due to their activities among the refugees of the Gaza Strip. The cornerstone of the Islamic movements success was an impressive social, religious, educational and cultural infrastructure, called Da'wah, that worked to ease the hardship of large numbers of Palestinian refugees, confined to camps, and many who were living on the edge.

"Social influence grew into political influence," first in the Gaza Strip, then on the West Bank, said an administration official who spoke on condition of anonymity.

According to ICT papers, Hamas was legally registered in Israel in 1978 by Sheikh Ahmed Yassin, the movement's spiritual leader, as an Islamic Association by the name Al-Mujamma al Islami, which widened its base of supporters and sympathizers by religious propaganda and social work.

According to U.S. administration officials, funds for the movement came from the oil-producing states and directly and indirectly from Israel. The PLO was secular and leftist and promoted Palestinian nationalism. Hamas wanted to set up a transnational state under the rule of Islam, much like Khomeini's Iran.

What took Israeli leaders by surprise was the way the Islamic movements began to surge after the Iranian revolution, after armed resistance to Israel sprang up in southern Lebanon vis-&#65533;-vis the Hezbollah, backed by Iran, these sources said.

"Nothing provides the energy for imitation as much as success," commented one administration expert.
ocxz

Reunion

|
Report Abuse
|
Judge it!
|
#10
Jun 24, 2012
 

Judged:

1

1

1

part 2

A further factor of Hamas' growth was the fact the PLO moved its base of operations to Beirut in the '80s, leaving the Islamic organization to grow in influence in the Occupied Territories "as the court of last resort," he said.

When the intifada began, Israeli leadership was surprised when Islamic groups began to surge in membership and strength. Hamas immediately grew in numbers and violence. The group had always embraced the doctrine of armed struggle, but the doctrine had not been practiced and Islamic groups had not been subjected to suppression the way groups like Fatah had been, according to U.S. government officials.

But with the triumph of the Khomeini revolution in Iran, with the birth of Iranian-backed Hezbollah terrorism in Lebanon, Hamas began to gain in strength in Gaza and then in the West Bank, relying on terror to resist the Israeli occupation.

Israel was certainly funding the group at that time. One U.S. intelligence source who asked not to be named said that not only was Hamas being funded as a "counterweight" to the PLO, Israeli aid had another purpose: "To help identify and channel towards Israeli agents Hamas members who were dangerous terrorists."

In addition, by infiltrating Hamas, Israeli informers could only listen to debates on policy and identify Hamas members who "were dangerous hard-liners," the official said.

In the end, as Hamas set up a very comprehensive counterintelligence system, many collaborators with Israel were weeded out and shot. Violent acts of terrorism became the central tenet, and Hamas, unlike the PLO, was unwilling to compromise in any way with Israel, refusing to acquiesce in its very existence.

But even then, some in Israel saw some benefits to be had in trying to continue to give Hamas support: "The thinking on the part of some of the right-wing Israeli establishment was that Hamas and the others, if they gained control, would refuse to have any part of the peace process and would torpedo any agreements put in place," said a U.S. government official who asked not to be named.

"Israel would still be the only democracy in the region for the United States to deal with," he said.

All of which disgusts some former U.S. intelligence officials.

"The thing wrong with so many Israeli operations is that they try to be too sexy," said former CIA official Vincent Cannestraro.

According to former State Department counter-terrorism official Larry Johnson, "the Israelis are their own worst enemies when it comes to fighting terrorism."

"The Israelis are like a guy who sets fire to his hair and then tries to put it out by hitting it with a hammer."

"They do more to incite and sustain terrorism than curb it," he said.

Aid to Hamas may have looked clever, "but it was hardly designed to help smooth the waters," he said. "An operation like that gives weight to President George Bush's remark about there being a crisis in education."

Cordesman said that a similar attempt by Egyptian intelligence to fund Egypt's fundamentalists had also come to grief because of "misreading of the complexities."

An Israeli defense official was asked if Israel had given aid to Hamas said, "I am not able to answer that question. I was in Lebanon commanding a unit at the time, besides it is not my field of interest."

Asked to confirm a report by U.S. officials that Brig. Gen. Yithaq Segev, the military governor of Gaza, had told U.S. officials he had helped fund "Islamic movements as a counterweight to the PLO and communists," the official said he could confirm only that he believed Segev had served back in 1986.

The Israeli Embassy press office referred UPI to its Web site when asked to comment.
Ayreshire

Albuquerque, NM

|
Report Abuse
|
Judge it!
|
#11
Jun 24, 2012
 
ocxz wrote:
part 1
Hamas History Tied To Israel
By Richard Sale
UPI Terrorism Correspondent
06/18/02 "UPI" ----- In the wake of a suicide bomb attack Tuesday on a crowded Jerusalem city bus that killed 19 people and wounded energy for imitation as much as success," commented one administration expert.
What a moron! Never said it was all at once now have you??? It doesn't matter clown. If you were talking about WWII I could understand but NO!! You've got to exaggerate figures just to feel good about yourself. Your idiotic figures are way off and beyond comprehension and if you did one once of research you'd know that but you could care less as long as you can make it sound a thousand times worse than it actually is. Stop the lying and get educated especially your history clueless.

It's funny how you never mention anything about the atrocities of Palestinian Hamas. Why is that??? Next prove that Israel has committed many war crimes and inhumane acts against the Palestinians. Prove it clueless wonder girl! If it's been retaliation for Hamas SUICIDE BOMBERS and ROCKET ATTACKS killing innocent women, children and babies then that fool is NOT war crimes and inhumane acts. They go after Hamas and those responsible. That’s it. PERIOD! When Hamas uses women and children as human shields (which they do on a regular basis) then blame them. NOT Israel! This only gives you clowns an excuse to blame Israel.
By the way, that so-called little boy was caught trying to assist Hamas with more of their terror against the Israeli innocents. It was one event by Israel compared to the thousands of atrocities perpetrated by Palestinians and especially Hamas. All for a land they do not own and their goal to wipe out Israel which happens to be a Sovereign Nation!
Ayreshire

Albuquerque, NM

|
Report Abuse
|
Judge it!
|
#12
Jun 24, 2012
 
There is a propaganda war going on now with regard to the term “Palestine. by anti-Jewish nutjobs like oczx. At one time it might have been argued that Palestine was an innocuous designation of the Middle Eastern area that is generally thought of as the Holy Land. During the last few decades, however, the term Palestine has been adopted by Arabs living in Israel in the area west of the Jordan River. It is specifically employed to avoid the use of the name Israel, and must be considered an anti-Israel term. In all Arab maps published in Jordan, Egypt, etc., the area west of the Jordan River is called Palestine, without any reference to Israel. Palestine is the term now used by those who want to deny the legitimate existence of Israel as a genuine nation among the family of nations. The term Palestine is rarely used in the Old Testament, and when it is, it refers specifically to the southwestern coastal area of Israel occupied by the Philistines. It is a translation of the Hebrew word “Pelesheth.” The term is never used to refer to the whole land occupied by Israel. Before Israel occupied the land, it would be generally accurate to say that the southwestern coastal area was called Philistia (the Way of the Philistines, or Palestine), while the central highlands were called Canaan. Both the Canaanites and the Philistines had disappeared as distinct peoples at least by the time of the Babylonian Captivity of Judea (586 B.C.), and they no longer exist.
Where did the term Palestine originate from? How did the world and the church get into the habit of calling the land of Israel “Palestine”? One of the guides we use in our tours to Israel is Zvi Rivai, an Israeli Messianic believer, who has done considerable research on this subject. Zvi informs us that before 135 A.D., the Romans used the terms Judea and Galilee to refer to the Land of Israel. When Titus destroyed Jerusalem in 70 A.D., the Roman government struck a coin with the phrase “Judea Capta,” meaning Judea has been captured. The term Palestine was never used in the early Roman designations.
It was not until the Romans crushed the second Jewish revolt against Rome in 135 A.D. under Bar Kochba that Emperor Hadrian applied the term Palestine to the Land of Israel. Hadrian, like many dictators since his time, realized the propaganda power of terms and symbols. He replaced the shrines of the Jewish Temple and the Sepulchre of Christ in Jerusalem with temples to pagan deities. He changed the name of Jerusalem to Aelia Capitalina, and changed the name of Israel and Judea to Palestine. Hadrian’s selection of Palestine was purposeful, not accidental. He took the name of the ancient enemies of Israel, the Philistines, Latinized it to Palestine, and applied it to the Land of Israel. He hoped to erase the name Israel from all memory. Thus, the term Palestine as applied to the Land of Israel was invented by the inveterate enemy of the Bible and the Jewish people, Emperor Hadrian.
It is interesting to note that the original Philistines were not Middle Eastern at all. They were European peoples from the Adriatic sea next to Greece. It may have pleased Hadrian to utilize this Hellenistic term for the Jewish land. In any case, the original “Palestinians” had nothing to do, whatsoever, with any Arabs.
Ayreshire

Albuquerque, NM

|
Report Abuse
|
Judge it!
|
#13
Jun 24, 2012
 
ocxz wrote:
part 2
A further factor of Hamas' growth was the fact the PLO moved its base of operations to Beirut in the '80s, leaving the Islamic organization curb it," he said.
Aid to terweight to the PLO and communists," the official said he could confirm only that he believed Segev had served back in 1986.
The Israeli Embassy press office referred UPI to its Web site when asked to comment.
How many suicide bombers and Hamas rocket attacks have killed innocent Israeli men women and children since Palestinians moved into Israeli owned Gaza and claimed it to be their own little piece of land??? Let's see. 1,571 rockets and 1,531 mortar bombs fired from the Gaza Strip struck southern Israel just in 2008. If this is not justification for Israel to attack Gaza namely Hamas what is? How would you like your neighbor lobbing rockets into your house on a day to day basis as you sit at your computer condemning Israel? Luckily these rockets have not been accurate otherwise the death toll would be in the thousands. While Palestinians do face many hardships, Israel’s actions in the West Bank and Gaza are solely intended to prevent the continuous onslaught of Palestinian terrorist attacks against Israeli civilians. The Palestinians have indeed suffered, but unlike the Jews of Warsaw during WWII, they have a choice to live in peace and security with Israel. They have NOT!! Years ago, Yasser Arafat, the president of the Palestinian Authority had swiped $20 million in British aid intended to build housing for the poor of Gaza, using the money instead to build luxury flats for Arafat's military and bureaucratic elite. After a day of pleasantries, representatives of 43 nations had pledged $3 billion in new aid to the Palestinian Authority, including an extra $400 million from U.S. president George Bush. The truth is that the international community is helping the Palestinians to the tune of hundreds of millions of dollars a year. It is just that the people do not benefit because this money is siphoned into the pockets of corrupt officials or used to fund terrorism. Now we find out that the Palestinian Authority is spending more than $5 million per month in salaries for 5,500 convicted and alleged terrorists imprisoned in Israel; payments that defy congressional rules for U.S. funding to the PA, according to a new report from an Israeli research institute.
Now, let's look at some quotes from you friends:

"Peace for us means the destruction of Israel. We are preparing for an all out war, a war which will last for generations.

~Yasser Arafat~
~~~~~~~~~~
"The Palestinian people have no national identity. I, Yasser Arafat, man of destiny, will give them that identity through conflict with Israel."

~ Yasser Arafat ~
~~~~~~~~~~
"The Palestinian people does not exist. The creation of a Palestinian state is only a means for continuing our struggle against the state of Israel. For our Arab unity. In reality today there is no difference between Jordanians, Palestinians, Syrians and Lebanese. Only for political and tactical reasons do we speak today about the existence of Palestinian people, since Arab national interest demand that we posit the existence of a distinct 'Palestinian people' to oppose Zionism".

~ Zahir Muhse'in ~
Ayreshire

Albuquerque, NM

|
Report Abuse
|
Judge it!
|
#14
Jun 24, 2012
 
ocxz wrote:
part 1
Hamas History Tied To Israel
By Richard Sale
UPI Terrorism Correspondent
06/18/02 said.
"Nothing provides the energy for imitation as much as success," commented one administration expert.
Palestinians have had many chances to have their own identity but have refused every offer Israel has given them. This is what the article is about and NOT your anti-Semitic garbage!
Nobody can seriously argue that Israel has not been committed to fruitful negotiations, or the painful concessions which they invariably entail. Generous offers of Palestinian statehood were forthcoming from Ehud Barak in 2000 and Ehud Olmert in 2008, and they were met with rejection on both occasions.
Even Benjamin Netanyahu - a "hawk" by many people's standards - made the unprecedented step of freezing settlement construction for ten months, though that too failed to entice the Palestinian negotiators.
To all but those blinded by their hatred for the Jewish state, it is abundantly clear that the Palestinian Authority - not Israel - has killed the Oslo Accords.
Thus, Israel is both legally and morally unbound by its previous obligations. And in the absence of a framework for peace to which the Palestinians are willing to adhere, it is the prerogative of the Israeli people to act in their own best interests.
For their part, Palestinians will have to live with the consequences of their leaders' transgression.
http://www.thecommentator.com/article/477/the ...
Ayreshire

Albuquerque, NM

|
Report Abuse
|
Judge it!
|
#15
Jun 24, 2012
 
ocxz wrote:
<quoted text>
In "harms" way ?
Why are you using such a chast word which denotes with you usual blunt language ?
Let me This is called real-politics.
Israel HAS supported Hamas financially against Arafat.
Hey dummy!! Israel continues to exercise control, although indirectly, over Palestinian movement in the Rafah crossing – the only exit outside of Gaza to countries other than Israel – namely Egypt.
Israel continues to exercise control over the movement of Palestinians, as well as goods, in the Kerem Shalom, Erez, Karni and Sufa crossings.
Israel continues to have exclusive control over the airspace and the seashore.
Israel continues to regulate movement between the Gaza Strip and the West Bank.
The Gaza Strip and the West Bank are recognised by Israel in the Oslo Agreements and therefore function de facto as one territorial unit. Therefore, Israel’s continued control over movement between the two areas reflects the effective control over what happens in these two areas.
Read more about the Oslo Agreements
Israel maintains control by means of heavy shelling.
Israel retains the ability to effectively conduct land incursions, as stated in the Disengagement plan itself.
Israel controls a buffer zone in the northern part of the Gaza Strip and does not allow Palestinian movement within 150 meters (de facto 500 meters) from the northern and eastern parts of the fence surrounding the Gaza Strip.
Since June 2007 ("Operation Summer Rains"), there is Israeli Army (IDF) presence in the Gaza Strip.
Israel continues to control principal government and administrative functions, such as the population registry of Gaza and West Bank residents, electromagnetic fields (which impact Radio, TV and telecommunications), migration, trade, tax system, currency policies, water and electricity supply.
The PA's work, also in the Gaza Strip, is undermined by the above-mentioned continued Israeli administrative and government functions.
http://www.diakonia.se/sa/node.asp...
w wman uk

Manchester, UK

|
Report Abuse
|
Judge it!
|
#16
Jun 24, 2012
 
Ayreshire wrote:
<quoted text>How many suicide bombers and Hamas rocket attacks have killed innocent Israeli men women and children since Palestinians moved into Israeli owned Gaza and claimed it to be their own little piece of land??? Let's see. 1,571 rockets and 1,531 mortar bombs fired from the Gaza Strip struck southern Israel just in 2008. If this is not justification for Israel to attack Gaza namely Hamas what is? How would you like your neighbor lobbing rockets into your house on a day to day basis as you sit at your computer condemning Israel? Luckily these rockets have not been accurate otherwise the death toll would be in the thousands. While Palestinians do face many hardships, Israel’s actions in the West Bank and Gaza are solely intended to prevent the continuous onslaught of Palestinian terrorist attacks against Israeli civilians. The Palestinians have indeed suffered, but unlike the Jews of Warsaw during WWII, they have a choice to live in peace and security with Israel. They have NOT!! Years ago, Yasser Arafat, the president of the Palestinian Authority had swiped $20 million in British aid intended to build housing for the poor of Gaza, using the money instead to build luxury flats for Arafat's military and bureaucratic elite. After a day of pleasantries, representatives of 43 nations had pledged $3 billion in new aid to the Palestinian Authority, including an extra $400 million from U.S. president George Bush. The truth is that the international community is helping the Palestinians to the tune of hundreds of millions of dollars a year. It is just that the people do not benefit because this money is siphoned into the pockets of corrupt officials or used to fund terrorism. Now we find out that the Palestinian Authority is spending more than $5 million per month in salaries for 5,500 convicted and alleged terrorists imprisoned in Israel; payments that defy congressional rules for U.S. funding to the PA, according to a new report from an Israeli research institute.
Now, let's look at some quotes from you friends:
"Peace for us means the destruction of Israel. We are preparing for an all out war, a war which will last for generations.
~Yasser Arafat~
~~~~~~~~~~
"The Palestinian people have no national identity. I, Yasser Arafat, man of destiny, will give them that identity through conflict with Israel."
~ Yasser Arafat ~
~~~~~~~~~~
"The Palestinian people does not exist. The creation of a Palestinian state is only a means for continuing our struggle against the state of Israel. For our Arab unity. In reality today there is no difference between Jordanians, Palestinians, Syrians and Lebanese. Only for political and tactical reasons do we speak today about the existence of Palestinian people, since Arab national interest demand that we posit the existence of a distinct 'Palestinian people' to oppose Zionism".
~ Zahir Muhse'in ~
Hamas is indeed enstenched in the blood of its own people the leadership get fatter by the day. Credit to the patience of the IDF in showing restraint one can only imagine the slaughter if the mohamedans had anthing like the millitery capability of Israel.

Tell me when this thread is updated: (Registration is not required)

Add to my Tracker Send me an email

Showing posts 1 - 14 of14
Type in your comments below
Name
(appears on your post)
Comments
Characters left: 4000

Please note by clicking on "Post Comment" you acknowledge that you have read the Terms of Service and the comment you are posting is in compliance with such terms. Be polite. Inappropriate posts may be removed by the moderator. Send us your feedback.

•••
•••