Part of the problem here is the word 'random'. As far as I can see, it means very different things to different people.<quoted text>
I understand what evolution says but if the mutations are because of environmental effects then in a sense they are not random since they are producing what is needed other wise producing a trait for survival reasons caused by the environment factors..
For example, when you throw a pair of dice, the end result of the dice is determined by the properties of the dice, the friction of the table, the air currents, and a host of other variables. But the result could, in theory, be predicted by a very fast calculation on these parameters after the throw and before the dice stop. And yet, we say that the result of the dice is random.
The *reason* we say the result is random is that very small changes in initial conditions (force of the throw, angle of rebound, direction of air current, etc) can lead to a different final result. In other words, the result has sensitive dependence on initial conditions.
The same happens with mutations. yes, everyone has some mutation. But *which* mutations does any given person have? That will depend on whether a cosmic ray deposited its energy on one part of the DNA molecule or on the protein nearby. Or whether a particular chemical managed to diffuse into a particular cell and which, exact rung of the DNA ladder it interacted with. Even a millimeter difference in position of the animal could lead to a very different mutation.
So, once again, the specific mutations that are produced have a very high dependence on initial conditions, including position of the individual, air currents, diffusion, etc. For exactly the same reason that we say that the result of a throw of dice is random, the specific mutations an individual has are random.
We can go further, suppose that we throw a pair of dice every hour and record the results. The sequence of scores will be a random sequence. But we have the non-random assumption that we throw the dice every hour. We can go further and use the laws of probability to say that approximately 1/6 of the throws of the dice will add to be 7 and 1/36 will add to be 12. There is some variance in these numbers in any given run of scores, but the long-term, overall average is regular in this way.
In the same way, the individual mutations are random, but each person is likely to have 150 mutations. Exactly which ones cannot be determined except through an very detailed analysis of position, air currents, etc, but the average over a large population will be regular in many ways.