Should evolution be taught in high sc...

Should evolution be taught in high school?

There are 179706 comments on the www.scientificblogging.com story from Feb 24, 2008, titled Should evolution be taught in high school?. In it, www.scientificblogging.com reports that:

Microbiologist Carl Woese is well known as an iconoclast. At 79 years of age, Woese is still shaking things up. Most recently, he stated in an interview with Wired that...

"My feeling is that evolution shouldn't be taught at the lower grades. You don't teach quantum mechanics in the grade schools. One has to be quite educated to work with these concepts; what they pass on as evolution in high schools is nothing but repetitious tripe that teachers don't understand."

Join the discussion below, or Read more at www.scientificblogging.com.

““You must not lose faith ”

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#157834 Nov 12, 2013
DanFromSmithville wrote:
<quoted text>If mutations are accumulated within a genome, they would either be neutral or beneficial. Negative mutations would be lethal or they would be weeded out by selection. There is no genetic entropy.
Sofar. Entropy.
A measure of the disorder of a system.

A measure of the amount of energy in a system that is available
for doing work; entropy increases as matter and energy in the
universe degrade to an ultimate state of inert uniformity.

Differentiation of Heat (Q), dQ, is not an exact differential and
therefore cannot be integrated. Therefore we introduce an
integration factor (1/T) such that dQ/T can be integrated. And this
dQ/T is called entropy.

So even though Log W=o the amount of energy expended could differ.

Establish the link between statistical entropy and physical
entropy.
Without additional information about the die, the most unbiased distribution is such that all outcomes are equally probable.

P(X =1)= P(X = 2)=...= P(X = 6)=1/ 6
Shannon’s Measure of Uncertainty
Shannon [1948] suggested the following measure of uncertainty, which is commonly known as the statistical entropy
1. H is a positive function of p1, p2,…, pn.
2. H = 0 if one outcome has probability of 1.
3. H is maximum when the outcomes are equally likely.
In the case of the die, you will find the maximum entropy to be
H = ln6
Stirling approximation: ln(N!)= N ln N - N, for very large N
Conclusion:
ln omega=NH
ln omega is linearly proportional to H. Therefore, maximizing the
total number of possible outcomes is equivalent to maximizing Shannon’s statistical entropy.
Statistical Entropy-> H = Const X ln omega <-# of possible outcomes

Entropy in Statistical Physics
Definition of physical entropy:

S = const X ln omega, omega =# of possible microstates of a close system.
A microstate is the detailed state of a physical system.
Example: In an ideal gas, a microstate consists of the position and velocity of every molecule in the system. So the number of microstates is just what Feynman said: the number of different ways the inside of the system can be changed without changing the
outside.
Principle of maximum entropy (The second law of thermodynamics)
If a closed system is not in a state of statistical equilibrium, its macroscopic state will vary in time, until ultimately the system reaches a state of maximum entropy.
Example:
S = Const x ln (# of Velocity States X # of Position States)
# of velocity states does not change.
# of position states does change

delta S = S2-S1 = const x {ln(2V)^N - lnV^N}= const X Nln2
Moreover, at equilibrium, all microstates are equally probable.
Temperature:
Temperature T is defined as

1/T = dS/dE . The temperatures of bodies in equilibrium with
one another are equal.
Since T is measured at a fixed number of particles N and volume V, a more stringent definition is

T =(dE dS)N,V .
Thus far, S is defined to be

S = const X ln (omega).
If S is a dimension-less quantity, T has the dimensions of energy (e.g. in units of Joules (J)).
But J is too large a quantity. Example:
Room temperature = 404.34 x 10-23 J !
What is the physical unit of T?
It is more convenient to measure T in degrees Kelvin (K). The conversion factor between energy and degree is the Boltzmann’s constant, kB = 1.38 X 10-23 J / K. Hence we redefine
S and T by incorporating the conversion factor.
S = kBln omega and T = T/ kB
Using the Boltzman factor:
Same change in entropy, but more energy is given away by the system initially with higher T. Hence temperature is a measure of the tendency of an object to spontaneously give up
energy to its surroundings.
cont.
Level 6

Since: Aug 07

Miami, FL

#157835 Nov 12, 2013
*** Reasons Why Evolution Never Happened ***(Part 1)

YOUNG AGE INDICATORS: Spiral galaxies young and not yet “wound up”; Type III Supernova remnants “missing”; Comets (Jupiter Family) maximum lifespan 10,000 years; Moon orbit recession rate limits Earth’s maximum age; Saturn ring / moon system upper age limit 10 million years; Absence of Pop. III stars refute BB theory; Discovery of blue stars in Milky Way Galaxy refutes old age; Faint Young Sun Paradox; Polonium-halos in granite rock; C14 in “ancient” samples; Youthful age of cavern speleothems (Carlsbad, Sequoyah); Natural gas seepage rate; The Dead Sea and it’s salt clock max 13,000 years old; Net sodium increase/Ocean salt clock; Amount/depth of ocean floor sediments; Manganese sea nodule size, growth rate, and depth; Rate of diminishing earth geo-magnetic field strength; Atmospheric helium buildup rate; World population growth rates; The world’s oldest living thing; Oldest historical records 5,000 years; Biblical genealogy of the patriarchs; Mitochondrial Eve 6,000 years ago; Insufficient time/generations to account for 60 million (98%) mutations selected makes human-chimp evolution impossible; Tree ring dating upper limits supports young earth; Missing accumulation of fulgurites given “long-age” evolutionary timescale ; Dinosaur soft tissue refutes Ma claim; etc.

FINE TUNING/DESIGN INDICATORS: Fine tuning of solar system and earth-moon system; Sun’s perfect size, mass, temperature, & distance; Solar eclipse perfect, unique; Moon perfect size and distance for tides / seasons; Perfect placement of solar system in galaxy (Goldilocks Zone); Physical laws, constants, and parameters fined-tuned; Atomic design; Perfect expansion rate of universe; Perfect amount of strong nuclear force, weak nuclear force, & force of gravity; Neutron vs. proton mass; Neutral atoms electrons equals protons; Atmosphere has correct mixture of gases; Perfect tilt of earth; Perfect amount of surface gravity; Properties of water (H2O); Metamorphosis; Origin of photosynthesis; DNA-RNA-Protein code and programming same in all cells in all living things from the beginning shows that none or more or less primitive or advanced than any other; Genetic programming code exactly same set of rules in every cell on earth; Irreducibly complex biological systems (bacterial flagellum, blood clotting cascade); Designed complexity (giraffe neck, bombardier beetle & trilobite eye); No intermediates between different kinds; Genetic entropy and genetic deleterious mutation rate; Beneficial symbiotic relationship between plants and animals; Navigational/migrational capabilities of animals, i.e., loggerhead turtle, salmon, hummingbird, Monarch butterfly; Biological symmetry/design patterns of plants and animals, Biological anatomical homologies exhibit variation on a theme by supreme intelligence; Very limited variation in DNA sequence in Y Chromosome worldwide; ATP Synthase has no possible forerunner; Biosynthesis/ DNA-ATP-helicase-mRNA-ribosome -tRNA-polymerase: a vicious circle for evolution; Origin of (protein/DNA) homochirality; Redundant organs (lungs, kidneys); Complex defense mechanisms (Giant African Crested Rat); All cells on earth, DNA-mRNA-Protein machinery work the same; DNA error checking & repair process prevents genetic change; Specified complexity; Complimentary food (fruit/vegetables) designed perfectly (size, shape, nutritional content, flavor) for animals/humans; 15. Fractal geometry in nature; 16. Savantism –(math, music, memory) evidence of over-design and running counter to natural selection; 17. Mathematics in nature (Fibonacci sequence, golden ratio, e, Pi); etc.

““You must not lose faith ”

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Since: Jun 11

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#157836 Nov 12, 2013
Boltzmann and Gibbs Distribution used.
Goal: Describe the probability distribution of a molecule of interest, with energy Ea , in equilibrium with a macroscopic thermal reservoir with energy Eb.

The second law says that at equilibrium, or
maximum entropy, all microstates are equally
probable, with a probability P0.

The first-order Taylor’s expansion is used to approximate SB(EB) because EB is very near
Etotal.
IMPORTANT: The probability distribution of the molecule of interest in equilibrium with its surrounding depends only on the temperature of the surrounding.

High energy barriers would require specific high energy pathways (catalyst)

The pain VR1 receptor, reacting on raising of temperature is a slow system.

http://www.public.asu.edu/~cperring/Perrings,... (2005).pdf

Markov and invasions
Level 6

Since: Aug 07

Miami, FL

#157837 Nov 12, 2013
*** Reasons Why Evolution Never Happened ***(Part 2)

ASTRONOMY/COSMOLOGY: Universe had beginning; No ET life found; No radio signals detected from outer space (SETI); Inhomogeneity of (bounded) universe; The Horizon Problem; High dispersion velocities of stars in galaxies; etc.

FLOOD GEOLOGY/FOSSILS: Polystrate fossils; Cambrian explosion; Lack of soil layers & lack of erosion between layers; “Missing” age layers; Soft sediment deformation (bent rock);; Non-existent geologic “age” column; “360 Ma” Shrimp (decapods) with no change since; Living fossils from pre-Cambrian (600 Ma Horseshoe Crab); Abrupt appearance of fossils and stasis exhibited in geologic column; Soft/still rotting T.Rex tissue in “old” fossils;; H. Erectus, Neanderthal, H. Habilus, etc., were fully man; Closed-shelled mullusks; Shells found in mountains worldwide; Location of Gold deposits (Au) inconsistent with evolution of molten earth; etc.

BIOLOGY/GENETICS: Extinction of numerous species; Life comes only from (same species) life/biogenesis; Woman from man (X/Y Chromosomes); Chromosome count fixed within species; Chromosome errors cause sterility (mules); No possible evolutionary path of bird from reptile (scales/feathers, bellows lung/avian lung, crawling/flying); Unique properties of humans vs. animals; Telomeres system tightly engineered/extreme sequence conservation and no intermediate/evidence of gradual transition; Single-cell to multi-cell gap; Gene pool (male & female) fixed at parent’s birth/no environmental effect occurs during life of parents; Resistance, i.e., antibiotic or pesticide, does not yield any de novo genes or any complex new functions; Chromosome 2 Fusion Model refuted; All known life only on Earth; Evolution cannot explain origins of sexual reproduction; The myth of vestigial organs; Cold-blooded vs. warm-blooded; Placental vs. marsupial; Egg bearing vs. live birth; Lenski’s E.coli long term Research proves no vertical/forward progress evolution after 50,000 generations; Cytochrome-C percent sequence difference equidistant from all eucaryotes to bacteria; C-Value Paradox; Epigenetics effects much larger than any possible mutation/selection; No true positive mutations that create new or nascent limb, tissue, organ ever observed; miRNA contradicts evolution; Statistical entropy and dS = k log We/Ws proves abiogenesis and forward progress/vertical evolution violates SLoT; Species-specific mechanisms (chemotaxis, sperm/protein-ovum/receptor combination, chromosome count/cell division) prevents speciation.

OTHER/MISCELANEOUS: Bible, Creation, Fall, Flood, Babel, Christ; Duality/human consciousness; Law of cause and effect violated (nothing + nobody = everything premise illogical); Information theory in DNA; Language -unique to humans - became less complex over time in opposition to evolution; Beauty of nature (peacock tail), art, music; Second Law of Thermodynamics (universe & everything in it is “waxing” old (“closed system” myth); Mathematical odds against abiogenesis, left-hand protein, prokaryote to eukaryote, sexual reproduction; Preconditions of intelligibility: laws of logic, absolute morality, & the uniformity of nature; The non-physical, non-material world of literature, art, music, humor, logic and mathematics; Near-death experience data; Organ transplant memory transfer; Placebo, nocebo effect; Altruism contradicts evolution; Historical basis for prohibiting incest; etc.

““You must not lose faith ”

Level 5

Since: Jun 11

Location hidden

#157838 Nov 12, 2013
http://www.public.asu.edu/~cperring/Perrings,... (2005).pdf

Mitigation and adaptation strategies for the control of biological invasions
Charles Perrings*

For the following cases:
(a) An introduced species fails to establish, naturalise and spread.
(b) The probability that an introduced species
succeeds in establishing naturalising and spreading
is positive, and is independent of the control
regime.
(c) The probability that an introduced species
succeeds in establishing naturalising and spreading
is positive, but has different effects in
different states of nature.
(d) The probability that an introduced species
succeeds in establishing naturalising and spreading
is positive, but it does not converge to a
stable population size.

“I am Sisyphus”

Since: Nov 07

Location hidden

#157839 Nov 12, 2013
Urban Cowboy wrote:
*** Reasons Why Evolution Never Happened ***(Part 2)
ASTRONOMY/COSMOLOGY: Universe had beginning; No ET life found; No radio signals detected from outer space (SETI); Inhomogeneity of (bounded) universe; The Horizon Problem; High dispersion velocities of stars in galaxies; etc.
FLOOD GEOLOGY/FOSSILS: Polystrate fossils; Cambrian explosion; Lack of soil layers & lack of erosion between layers; “Missing” age layers; Soft sediment deformation (bent rock);; Non-existent geologic “age” column; “360 Ma” Shrimp (decapods) with no change since; Living fossils from pre-Cambrian (600 Ma Horseshoe Crab); Abrupt appearance of fossils and stasis exhibited in geologic column; Soft/still rotting T.Rex tissue in “old” fossils;; H. Erectus, Neanderthal, H. Habilus, etc., were fully man; Closed-shelled mullusks; Shells found in mountains worldwide; Location of Gold deposits (Au) inconsistent with evolution of molten earth; etc.
BIOLOGY/GENETICS: Extinction of numerous species; Life comes only from (same species) life/biogenesis; Woman from man (X/Y Chromosomes); Chromosome count fixed within species; Chromosome errors cause sterility (mules); No possible evolutionary path of bird from reptile (scales/feathers, bellows lung/avian lung, crawling/flying); Unique properties of humans vs. animals; Telomeres system tightly engineered/extreme sequence conservation and no intermediate/evidence of gradual transition; Single-cell to multi-cell gap; Gene pool (male & female) fixed at parent’s birth/no environmental effect occurs during life of parents; Resistance, i.e., antibiotic or pesticide, does not yield any de novo genes or any complex new functions; Chromosome 2 Fusion Model refuted; All known life only on Earth; Evolution cannot explain origins of sexual reproduction; The myth of vestigial organs; Cold-blooded vs. warm-blooded; Placental vs. marsupial; Egg bearing vs. live birth; Lenski’s E.coli long term Research proves no vertical/forward progress evolution after 50,000 generations; Cytochrome-C percent sequence difference equidistant from all eucaryotes to bacteria; C-Value Paradox; Epigenetics effects much larger than any possible mutation/selection; No true positive mutations that create new or nascent limb, tissue, organ ever observed; miRNA contradicts evolution; Statistical entropy and dS = k log We/Ws proves abiogenesis and forward progress/vertical evolution violates SLoT; Species-specific mechanisms (chemotaxis, sperm/protein-ovum/receptor combination, chromosome count/cell division) prevents speciation.
OTHER/MISCELANEOUS: Bible, Creation, Fall, Flood, Babel, Christ; Duality/human consciousness; Law of cause and effect violated (nothing + nobody = everything premise illogical); Information theory in DNA; Language -unique to humans - became less complex over time in opposition to evolution; Beauty of nature (peacock tail), art, music; Second Law of Thermodynamics (universe & everything in it is “waxing” old (“closed system” myth); Mathematical odds against abiogenesis, left-hand protein, prokaryote to eukaryote, sexual reproduction; Preconditions of intelligibility: laws of logic, absolute morality, & the uniformity of nature; The non-physical, non-material world of literature, art, music, humor, logic and mathematics; Near-death experience data; Organ transplant memory transfer; Placebo, nocebo effect; Altruism contradicts evolution; Historical basis for prohibiting incest; etc.

Just a quick scan but I did not notice anything that made sense and had not been refuted.

Again, most of these actually support evolution.

“That's just MY opinion...”

Since: Jan 07

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#157840 Nov 12, 2013
I was gonna put up my list of "97 Reasons Why People Laugh At Creationists", but Cowboy already posted it.

““You must not lose faith ”

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Since: Jun 11

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#157841 Nov 12, 2013
In case the other link does not work.
http://library.calstate.edu/sanfrancisco/arti...

“Nihil curo de ista tua stulta ”

Since: May 08

Orlando

#157842 Nov 12, 2013
Urban Cowboy wrote:
*** Reasons Why Evolution Never Happened ***(Part 1)

YOUNG AGE INDICATORS: Spiral galaxies young and not yet “wound up”; Type III Supernova remnants “missing”; Comets (Jupiter Family) maximum lifespan 10,000 years;
And yet we have comet ISON coming in from the Oort Cloud as we speak.

"Comet from the Oort Cloud Careens toward the Sun"
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm...
Level 6

Since: Aug 07

Miami, FL

#157843 Nov 12, 2013
Kong_ wrote:
<quoted text>
And yet we have comet ISON coming in from the Oort Cloud as we speak.
"Comet from the Oort Cloud Careens toward the Sun"
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm...
.

THe Oort Cloud is hypothetical and has never been observed. But pop magazines keep exaggerating claims so people like you drink the Kool-Aid.

The Oort cloud /&#712;&#596;rt/[1](na med after the Dutch astronomer Jan Oort), or Öpik–Oort cloud,[2] is a hypothesized spherical cloud of predominantly icy planetesimals that may lie roughly 50,000 AU, or nearly a light-year, from the Sun.

Although no confirmed direct observations of the Oort cloud have been made, astronomers argue that it is the source of all long-period and Halley-type comets entering the inner Solar System and many of the centaurs and Jupiter-family comets as well.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oort_cloud

““You must not lose faith ”

Level 5

Since: Jun 11

Location hidden

#157844 Nov 12, 2013
appleboy wrote:
<quoted text>
No. As I have already stated, the subgroup does not require any mutations prior to separation. The first step, as I again have already stated, is the fact of being separated. While being separated, both the original group and the subgroup will gain mutations, sending each on different evolutionary paths. The final result, way, way, way down the evolutionary road, is speciation. Speciation is a LOSS, not a GAIN. It is the INABILITY to breed, not the ABILITY.
Usually positive or neutral, a paper to demonstrate your point:
Epistasis as the primary factor inmolecular evolution
Michael S. Breen1, Carsten Kemena1, Peter K. Vlasov1, Cedric Notredame1 & Fyodor A. Kondrashov1,2
http://eebweb.arizona.edu/nachman/Suggested20...

“Nihil curo de ista tua stulta ”

Since: May 08

Orlando

#157845 Nov 12, 2013
Urban Cowboy wrote:
<quoted text>.
THe Oort Cloud is hypothetical and has never been observed. But pop magazines keep exaggerating claims so people like you drink the Kool-Aid.
The Oort cloud /&#712;&#596;rt/[1](na med after the Dutch astronomer Jan Oort), or Öpik–Oort cloud,[2] is a hypothesized spherical cloud of predominantly icy planetesimals that may lie roughly 50,000 AU, or nearly a light-year, from the Sun.
Although no confirmed direct observations of the Oort cloud have been made, astronomers argue that it is the source of all long-period and Halley-type comets entering the inner Solar System and many of the centaurs and Jupiter-family comets as well.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oort_cloud
Nuclear fusion has never been "observed" in the interior of the Sun, but there are no other logical explanations for the properties of the sun based upon its observations.

ISON's orbital eccentricity is evidence that it does not come from the region of short-period comets in the Kuiper belt. Note the word "BELT". The term belt suggests a more two dimensional property that the Kuiper belt exhibits, laying on, and similar to the orbital plane that the planets fall on. Comets coming from the Kuiper belt

The Oort "CLOUD", on the other hand surrounds the entire solar system. Comets can come in from the Oort cloud from angles impossible for Kuiper belt objects to originate from.

It's the observed, measured orbital eccentricity of ISON that defeats you.

"C/2012 S1 will come to perihelion (closest approach to the Sun) on 28 November 2013 at a distance of 0.0124 AU (1,860,000 km; 1,150,000 mi) from the center point of the Sun.[3] Accounting for the solar radius of 695,500 km (432,200 mi), C/2012 S1 will pass approximately 1,165,000 km (724,000 mi) above the Sun's surface.[13] Its trajectory appears hyperbolic, which suggests that it is a dynamically new comet coming freshly from the Oort cloud.[14][15]"

13.Jump up ^ Pickup, Alan (13 October 2013). "Starwatch: The brightening of ISON". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 October 2013.
14.^ Jump up to: a b c d Grego, Peter (25 September 2012). "New comet might blaze brighter than the full Moon". Astronomy Now. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
15.^ Jump up to: a b Hecht, Jeff (25 September 2012). "Newly spotted comet may outshine the full moon". New Scientist. Retrieved 28 September 2012.

“Nihil curo de ista tua stulta ”

Since: May 08

Orlando

#157846 Nov 12, 2013
That's what I get for trying to watch tv and respond at the same time.

EDIT: "Comets coming from the Kuiper belt"...*will come in on highly eccentric orbits*, indicating a fairly local origination.

EDIT2: "The Oort "CLOUD", on the other hand surrounds the entire solar system". It is a "CLOUD" (as opposed to a "belt" that encompasses the solar system from every angle. Comets CAN come in from every angle, and when they do, will come in with a very low eccentric orbit*

Level 6

Since: Mar 12

Location hidden

#157847 Nov 12, 2013
Urban Cowboy wrote:
<quoted text>
You completely skipped over the critical part. That's no explanation at all. How could it orginate in the first place? Any slight change change in either of the three mechanisms would prevent fertilization.
What critical part? There is a slight variation, no problem. Variations accumulate in an interbreeding population, always within the limits of compatibility.

Only when that isolated population meets another have the combined accumulations of change been enough to prevent interbreeding.

Its really no different than the development of accents, then dialects, then languages.

Where is the problem?

“Help religion science wander”

Level 9

Since: Jan 11

into the night.

#157848 Nov 12, 2013
appleboy wrote:
<quoted text>
In terms of natural selection, there would be no "selection pressure" for any species to avoid compatibility with any other species. They would simply be not compatible.
In math terms it's like saying that "2" has a mechanism for not being "3". In reality, it just isn't.
I like your analogy with the numbers. It maybe that some reproductive incompatibility results just as you say, but any barrier mechanism with a genetic basis would be subject to selection pressure.

If a two species are physically able to interbreed, but do not produce viable offspring, they are expending resources for these unproductive reproductive events. Breeding has costs associated with it including mate finding, courtship, nesting, periods of gestation, physiological stresses and so forth. If there are not barriers at some point in the process, a lot of inputs are wasted and fitness is reduced.

“Help religion science wander”

Level 9

Since: Jan 11

into the night.

#157849 Nov 12, 2013
Urban Cowboy wrote:
<quoted text>
You are completely avoiding the origination problem. All you have done with the subgroup is kicked the can farther down the street. The subgroup has the exact same issue. If there is even a single point mutation that changes one of the three mechanisms in place, then there will be no fertilization possible.
He is talking about geographic speciation. Also known as allopatric speciation. A geographical barrier separates two or more populations and eventually they can become different species. The mechanisms you are referring to, may or may not develop depending on selection pressure for the development of those mechanisms. Evolution can occur with or without the presence of the mechanisms you refer to.

“Help religion science wander”

Level 9

Since: Jan 11

into the night.

#157850 Nov 12, 2013
appleboy wrote:
<quoted text>
I just reread your post and realized it did not need any correction or addition. It says the same thing I said, just differently. Sorry.
I just saw this post, but I made some comments to the previous post.

Level 9

Since: Sep 08

Everett, WA

#157851 Nov 12, 2013
I see that Urb has admitted defeat and brought up his one hundred reasons to laugh at creatards again.

Nice job.

“Help religion science wander”

Level 9

Since: Jan 11

into the night.

#157852 Nov 12, 2013
appleboy wrote:
<quoted text>
No. As I have already stated, the subgroup does not require any mutations prior to separation. The first step, as I again have already stated, is the fact of being separated. While being separated, both the original group and the subgroup will gain mutations, sending each on different evolutionary paths. The final result, way, way, way down the evolutionary road, is speciation. Speciation is a LOSS, not a GAIN. It is the INABILITY to breed, not the ABILITY.
Well stated. The very act of separation will result in differences in the genetics of the populations. I think of UC thought about it, he would get this simple model.

Level 6

Since: Mar 12

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#157853 Nov 12, 2013
Urban Cowboy wrote:
<quoted text>
The species-specific mechanism for sperm protein-egg receptor is virtually unknown.
"However, a clear understanding of the specificity of these interactions and the regulation of species specificity is not yet known (Primakoff and Myles 2002; He et al. 2003)."
http://genesdev.cshlp.org/content/17/20/2502....
You seem to just talk right out of your ass-all the time.
Remember, YOU are the one making the specific claim that its not possible, while you are no more knowledgeable about the species-specific mechanism than I am.

But whether or not we know the specifics in this case, we do know how evolution is supposed to work. We do know that change is cumulative. If two populations have speciated from a common ancestor, we know it had to happen by small degrees over many generations.

Therefore when you present a problem that is easily explicable by this mechanism, whilst making the claim that it refutes evolution, I merely need to point out that evolution's mechanism accounts for it easily.

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