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““You must not lose faith ”

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#152
Feb 16, 2013
 
http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/uni_matter....
Had this one for barynic matter and hydrogen but itindeed also states that WMAP showed results that the universe was flat.

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#154
Feb 22, 2013
 
3.4 million years , same age as Lucy , however more like Ardi.
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm...

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#155
Feb 22, 2013
 
More criticism on ENCODE's too broad a definition of 'function'.
Interesting: some creatonists have claimed 'junk-DNA'to be god.
Plus the strange (to me)dichotomy made between biology and chemistry.(bio-chemistry..hmm! )
Includes a scatching paper.
http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/the-curio...

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#156
Feb 22, 2013
 
http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm...
Newts gennome is huge therefore researchers have focussed on transcriptome.
Growng new limbs is not to be, but newts are interesting for they also have the ability to grow a new lens (cristalysed protein)

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#157
Feb 22, 2013
 

Judged:

1

1

1

All humans are born with 125 to 175 mutations. Hominid fossils display clear evolutionary progression over the past 7 million years. Our closest modern cousins are chimps who share 98% of our DNA. Taking a look at fossil hominids over the past 7m years we observe that they start off with stooped posture, jutting out facial features and smaller craniums. As we observe the fossil record going further up the geological strata (forwards in time) we see a gradual reduction in facial features, more upright posture and an increase in cranial capacity. Meaning the characteristics become increasingly more similar to humans, just as evolution predicts.

As Darwin himself said at the time (which fundies love to point out) the fossil record at the time did not support the idea of hominid evolution and common ancestry. But since then the fossil record has vindicated his predictions:

Ardipithecus ramidus
Australopithecus anamensis
Australopithecus afarensis
Australopithecus africanus
Australopithecus garhi
Paranthropus aethiopicus
Paranthropus boisei
Paranthropus robustus
Homo habilis
Homo rudolfensis
Homo ergaster
Homo erectus
Homo heidelbergensis
Homo neanderthalensis
Homo sapiens

(list originally provided by Gillette on this thread here)

http://www.topix.com/forum/news/evolution/T9Q ...

Here we have some more data on the cranial capacity of fossil hominids confirming all the above:

http://www.pandasthumb.org/archives/2006/09/f ...

And some more information on fossil hominids over the past few million years:

http://darwiniana.org/hominid.htm

Calculations based on DNA mutation rates indicates common ancestry between humans and chimps approximately 6 million years ago. This again is consistent with the evolutionary progression in the fossil record, as demonstrated above. However even without the fossil record, using our DNA alone would still make common ancestry the only plausible scientific explanation for observed biological phenomena.

.

See the first page.

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#158
Feb 22, 2013
 
As to the ever recurring question as to how calculations are done:
http://www.topix.com/forum/news/evolution/TQO...

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#159
Feb 22, 2013
 
The ability to metabolize alcohol...booze-gene
(That denizovans lack, but that seems to have been a later development.)
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/articl...
It would be interesting to find the actual scientific article.

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#160
Feb 22, 2013
 
http://www.redorbit.com/news/space/2092931/ev...
meteorites carry various dna components

again the sc.art.

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#161
Feb 22, 2013
 
post 157 by The Dude.
post 158 continued:
http://www.topix.com/forum/news/evolution/TOL...
Are you intelligently designed.

Of further interest:

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#162
Feb 22, 2013
 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1...
gene copy number variations spanning 60 million years

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#163
Feb 22, 2013
 
f.i. methylation
Comparing and getting information from two large files and appending it into one file
http://www.perlmonks.org/...

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#164
Feb 22, 2013
 
Calculating community similarity and diversity indices
https://docs.google.com/viewer...

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#165
Feb 22, 2013
 
33,900 results on avogrado log 2 ratio formula for genomic change
PCR Protocols
Slope=-1/log2 (after multiplying both sides by (slope/log2).. How many copies are in a certain amount of human genomic DNA?..(1.85 x 1012 g/mol) x (1 mole /6.02 x 1023 (Avogadro's number)).. or DMSO (2-10%) can be added to the PCR for template DNA with high GC content (these change the Tm of primer-template ..

PLOS Computational Biology: The Genomic Pattern of tDNA Operon
DH Ardell - 2005 -
Yet the change in the tRNA profile with growth rate is less than would be expected from .. slopes of the log-linear .. where NA is Avogadro's number,- is the growth rate in doublings/h, V. is ..

Genomic DNA functions as a universal external standard
JJ Yun - 2006
Several mathematical formulas that calculate relative fold changes have been proposed: equation M1 (15).. m is the mass of the DNA, NA is Avogadro's number (6.02 1023 ..(B) Comparison of Log2 Ratios for each gene.

Clinical qPCR Tech Guide v4 www.genomeweb.com/
A series of 10-fold dilutions of human genomic DNA (500 ng50 pg) was amplified to assay for .. and get the power and flexibility to meet changing research needs..Gene .. calculated from Avogadro's number and the molarity.(calculated .. A260/A230 ratios. RNA is .. efficiencies and your relative quantity calculation ..

An introduction to information theory and entropyastarte. csustan.edu/
T Carter - 2011
Application to Biology (genomes). by changing the base, using the formulas, for b1, b2,x> 0, x = b log b1.(x). 1 and therefore log .. Avogadro's, and O is too easily confused with. 0. This leaves .. ratio of C+G to A+T different from one.

High-Throughput, Whole-Genome Sequencing repository.upenn.edu/cgi/
GJ Bittle - 2009

PCR Amplification of shRNA from Genomic DNA .
PLOS ONE: Empirical Evaluation of Oligonucleotide Probe Selection. Of great excitement is a recent application, microarray-based genomic selection ( MGS),... In most analysis techniques, data for a given probe is the log(2) ratio of signal .... or that our Tm calculation effectively describes length and/or GC content ..... size surface area, V the hybridization volume, and NA Avogadro's number.

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#166
Feb 28, 2013
 
http://www.biolozi.net/upload/phd/epistemolog...
Alex Rosenberg
Genomics and the explanation of the evolution of human behavior.
222 pages

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#167
Feb 28, 2013
 
http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info%3Ado...

Epigenetics and additive genetic effects.
As in why the 'bad' stuff is still beneficial for the 'good' stuff, as well as to track the latter with greater accuracy.

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#168
Mar 3, 2013
 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3...
Ho, Abbott a.o.
Schrdingers early proposal can be upheld: living organisms are indeed quantum coherent and can be regarded asmacroscopic quantum systems.

Insufficint coherence primary cause for cancer and genetic defects, which develop in a non-specific progressive way.

MT theory i.e. the concept of the Na+/K+'pump'(that received a Nobel price) is WRONG.
For this reason of once being lauded it is still in all textbooks but needs a major overhaul.

Coherence is not all. A complex of reactions can be observed.

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#169
Mar 7, 2013
 
It remains to be seen how relevant this one is:
http://www.livescience.com/7799-strange-human...
---
Contribution by Kong:
This just in:

http://phys.org/news/2013-03-human-chromosome ...

( Phys.org )University of Arizona geneticists have discovered the oldest known genetic branch of the human Y chromosome the hereditary factor determining male sex.

The new divergent lineage, which was found in an individual who submitted his DNA to Family Tree DNA, a company specializing in DNA analysis to trace family roots, branched from the Y chromosome tree before the first appearance of anatomically modern humans in the fossil record.

The results are published in the American Journal of Human Genetics.

<<snipped for brevityUnlike the other human chromosomes, the majority of the Y chromosome does not exchange genetic material with other chromosomes, which makes it simpler to trace ancestral relationships among contemporary lineages. If two Y chromosomes carry the same mutation, it is because they share a common paternal ancestor at some point in the past. The more mutations that differ between two Y chromosomes the farther back in time the common ancestor lived.

Originally, a DNA sample obtained from an African American living in South Carolina was submitted to the National Geographic Genographic Project. When none of the genetic markers used to assign lineages to known Y chromosome groupings were found, the DNA sample was sent to Family Tree DNA for sequencing. Fernando Mendez, a postdoctoral researcher in Hammer's lab, led the effort to analyze the DNA sequence, which included more than 240,000 base pairs of the Y chromosome.

Hammer said [...] identified a lineage that didn't fit anywhere on the existing Y chromosome tree, even though the tree had been constructed based on perhaps a half-million individuals or more. Nobody expected to find anything like this."

About 300,000 years ago falls around the time the Neanderthals are believed to have split from the ancestral human lineage. It was not until more than 100,000 years later that anatomically modern humans appear in the fossil record. They differ from the more archaic forms by a more lightly built skeleton, a smaller face tucked under a high forehead, the absence of a cranial ridge and smaller chins.

Hammer said the newly discovered Y chromosome variation is extremely rare. Through large database searches, his team eventually was able to find a similar chromosome in the Mbo, a population living in a tiny area of western Cameroon in sub-Saharan Africa.

"This was surprising because previously the most diverged branches of the Y chromosome were found in traditional hunter-gatherer populations such as Pygmies and the click-speaking KhoeSan, who are considered to be the most diverged human populations living today."

"Instead, the sample matched the Y chromosome DNA of 11 men, who all came from a very small region of western Cameroon," Hammer said. "And the sequences of those individuals are variable, so it's not like they all descended from the same grandfather."

Hammer cautions against popular concepts of "mitochondrial Eve" or "Y chromosome Adam" that suggest all of humankind descended from exactly one pair of humans that lived at a certain point in human evolution.

"There has been too much emphasis on this in the past," he said. "It is a misconception that the genealogy of a single genetic region reflects population divergence. Instead, our results suggest that there are pockets of genetically isolated communities that together preserve a great deal of human diversity."

Still, Hammer said, "It is likely that other divergent lineages will be found, whether in Africa or among African-Americans in the U.S. and that some of these may further increase the age of the Y chromosome tree."

He added: "There has been a lot of hype with people trying to trace their Y chromosome to different tribes, but this individual from South Carolina can say he did it."

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#170
Mar 7, 2013
 
Man, the things theyre finding out about humans existence now with DNA science.going to change our whole outlook on religion.

"DNA evidence has revealed that the oldest known common male ancestor is 340,000 years old, more than twice as old as previous estimates.
New Scientist reports that the sample comes from a recently deceased man named Albert Perry. After the African-American South Carolina man died, one of his relatives submitted a sample of his DNA to a company called Family Tree DNA for analysis.
The findings were published in the The American Journal of Human Genetics and may require researchers to adjust the known timeline of humankinds evolution.

http://news.yahoo.com/blogs/sideshow/father-h ...

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#171
Mar 7, 2013
 

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#172
Nov 16, 2013
 
To keep handy.

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