human origin

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#130
Feb 5, 2013
 
alpha -α gamma -947

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#132
Feb 5, 2013
 
Wiki
Not all hormones are proteines, some are steroids but that like proteines can change gene-expression.

fat and water.

Hydrophobic (lipophilic) hormones bind to protein carriers which carry it to its target cell. Lipophilic hormones cross the membrane and bind to intracellular receptors in the cytoplasm or nucleus forming a hormone-receptor complex. These bind to DNA at the hormone response element and alter gene expression.

The response due to these types of hormones are slow because protein synthesis is a slow process.

The duration of cell responses are long because the products (products of transcription/translation) stay even after the hormones are gone.

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#133
Feb 5, 2013
 
101 continued.

Enzymes are catalysts made of protein, or, in some cases, RNA. They are usually very complicated, made up of at least a few dozen to a few hundred amino acids. They make reactions go faster.

Hormones are chemical messengers. Many hormones are relatively simple compounds of various types, but some are big complex proteins, like insulin. Hormones bind to receptors made of protein. You can think of a message being delivered when a hormone binds to its receptor.

Everything you can see on a living thing, including yourself, is either made of protein or produced by a protein. These are usually big, complicated molecules, made up of chains of amino acids, like beads on a tangled up necklace. They serve many, many purposes in living things, for example, there are proteins that contract, making muscles work. There are proteins that help DNA to copy itself. Hair and fingernails are made mostly of a protein called keratin. As I said before, most enzymes, and some hormones, are made of protein.

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#134
Feb 5, 2013
 

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#135
Feb 5, 2013
 
http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/Bio...

Human hormone table (United States)
Including Irisin with is effect on skeletal muscle.

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#136
Feb 5, 2013
 
Cold activates the sympathetic nervous system.
Noradrenaline is released by the postganglionic neurons.
The noradrenaline binds to G-protein-coupled receptors on the adipocytes surface.
The second messenger cAMP is generated and moves into the nucleus where
it binds to the promoter of the gene encoding an enzyme that converts thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3)[Link].
T3 enters the nucleus and bind to the promoter of the gene encoding uncoupling protein1 (UCP1).
UCP1 inserts into the inner membrane of the mitochondria where
it allows the protons that have been pumped out into the intermembrane space by the electron transport chain
to return to the matrix without having to pass through ATP synthase.
So instead of cellular respiration (of fatty acids and glucose) generating ATP, it generates heat instead.

WAT Can Acquire the Properties of BAT
In both mice and humans, skeletal muscles that have undergone a period of vigorous exercise secrete a protein hormone (of 112 amino acids) called irisin. Irisin acts on white adipose tissue to give it the properties of brown adipose tissue:
an increase in the number of mitochondria and lipid droplets;
a marked increase in the synthesis of UCP1;
an increase in the rate of cellular respiration but with the energy released as heat rather than fueling the synthesis of ATP.
These brown-like fat cells derived from white fat cells have been called "beige" or "brite" cells.
Lean adult humans have deposits of beige cells in the neck and upper chest regions. When they are exposed to cold, their beige cells are activated. Obese people have few or no beige cells. Probably their layers of white adipose tissue provide such good insulation that they are in less danger of heat loss.

But the idea is to get this thermogene effect allover the body, not just to promote fatloss, but to get balance in the body restored that is disturbed in various linked conditions.(diab. II, Alzheimer, AAT fibromyalgia, certain cancers etc.)

click irisin on the above site for a diagram.

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#137
Feb 5, 2013
 
correction effect-source.

IGF-1 -> irisin a.o.

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#138
Feb 5, 2013
 
Synthesized DNA used to store information, with 100 % retrieval rate.
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncu...

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#139
Feb 5, 2013
 
Homeostasis hormone and 2 types (even 3 ) of receptors.
http://www.hormones.gr/805/article/the-%E2%80...

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#140
Feb 5, 2013
 
For a better understanding of the above:
http://www.jbc.org/content/275/8/5702.long
Helical connectors.

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#142
Feb 13, 2013
 
http://www.ted.com/talks/bonnie_bassler_on_ho...

Bonnie Bassler on how bacteria communicate.

Promising research as a way to beat anti-biotic resistance.
And it tells us about early life i.o.w. our earliest common ancestor.

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#143
Feb 14, 2013
 
With thanks to Kong:

New evidence for Human evolution (released today, Feb 14th):

Humans and chimps share genetic strategy in battle against pathogens
February 14th, 2013 in Biology / Biotechnology

A genome-wide analysis searching for evidence of long-lived balancing selectionwhere the evolutionary process acts not to select the single best adaptation but to maintain genetic variation in a populationhas uncovered at least six regions of the genome where humans and chimpanzees share the same combination of genetic variants.

The finding, to be published Feb. 14 in the journal Science, suggests that in these regions, human genetic variation dates back to a common ancestor with chimpanzees millions of years ago, before the species split. It also highlights the importance of the dynamic co-evolution of human hosts and their pathogens in maintaining genetic variation.

<<more at link below>>

http://phys.org/news/2013-02-humans-chimps-ge ...

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#144
Feb 14, 2013
 
http://phys.org/news/2013-02-humans-chimps-ge...

Or follow the given link again.

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#145
Feb 14, 2013
 
Natural selection can also influence antire gene networks.
http://phys.org/news185632511.html#nRlv

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#146
Feb 14, 2013
 
Add to that looking into:

Spocko wrote:
bohart wrote:
<quoted text>
All the parts for the goo are common and in the universe eh ? how will they self assemble and come to life? If you attempt to give a scientific answer it must include a testable hypothesis with repeatable results, or it's just a belief.Take your time.
There is an enormous Body of Evidence as well as Evidence of common descent of living things discovered by scientists working in a variety of fields over the past 150 years, the most recent being the Human Genome Project (HGP) completed in 2003. This evidence has demonstrated and verified the occurrence of evolution and provided a wealth of information on the natural processes by which the variety and diversity of life on Earth developed. This evidence supports the modern evolutionary synthesis, the current scientific theory that explains how life developed and why life changes over time.

Goose Bumps
Jacobsons Organ
Junk DNA
Extra Ear Muscles
Plantaris Muscle
Wisdom Teeth
Third Eyelid
Darwins Point
Coccyx
Appendix
Laryngeal nerve

Evidence of common descent:
Evolution is a process that has always gone on in the history of the earth can be doubted only by those who are ignorant of the evidence or are resistant to evidence, owing to emotional blocks or to plain bigotry. By contrast, the mechanisms that bring evolution about certainly need study and clarification. There are no alternatives to evolution as history that can withstand critical examination. Yet we are constantly learning new and important facts about evolutionary mechanisms. How can one ignore the enormous Body of Evidence that has not only withstood the onslaught of time but is getting more robust every day!

Surely you know the difference between evidence and proof, the extensive evidence in support of both fact and theory of evolution comes primarily from studies of the fossil record, molecular sequences, and comparative anatomy. I can't really say there is one "best" piece of evidence for evolution. There are many, many different lines of evidence, and each of them fits together to make an entire picture. But if you had to hold me down with a hot poker, I'd say that the most powerful evidence is the homology of form and DNA shown not only in adult organisms, but in their developing embryos, which pass through more similar stages the more closely related they are. You can read more about this here:

http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evo101/ ...

http://evolution.berkeley.edu
---
For the common ancestor our main concern is baryonic matter=chemicals in the universe.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_atom

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#147
Feb 14, 2013
 
The confusion of abiogenesis and evolution keeps occurring.
Or frankly the incredulity of time and opportunity doing it all by itself verses what we have observed.

woodtick57 wrote:
<quoted text>yes, molecules formed out of the forming elements. they formed onto the amino acids we know exist in space. those amino acids are the building blocks of life they came together under some conditions that perhaps we have not encountered yet (no reason to belive it happened on Earth)and viola
Seems like they can explain, and have evidence for all teh processes up to the very point life came from all the abundant elements that make up life.
pretty damn close.
creationists are still stuck at square one with trying to find a shredof evidence of any god, gods or goddesses...

MAAT: In short:
precursors of life can form naturally.
amino-acids
RNA
lipid layers
simpler versions of metabolic chemical like ATP and ADP
NEXT STEP PROTO CELL
Eating /swollowing each other.
Communicating bacteria see TED talk Bonnie Bassler.
Most likely place near volcanic hotpools on land.
Best candidate given amino acids and lipd layers would be Montmorrilion soil a.k.a. Carpentras soil.

I've read plenty of papers, including schematics and actual tests...and lots can be found on this forum.
It's f.i. no problem whatsoever anymore to make synthetic DNA, usually the debate would be whether that is a welcome development.

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#148
Feb 14, 2013
 
Baryonic now (jan 2013) also includes dark matter.
http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/uni_matter....

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#149
Feb 14, 2013
 
Why do we conclude that elements present on earth, in everything, came from the stars.
Because the conditions to produce them and the relative quantity could only have been produced under extreme conditions that we do not find on earth. Or that in close proximity would have annihilated us.
We can measure how old they are and figure out what those conditions were. And the quantity here represents approximately the same amounts as we can detect out there.
So you are stardust can be taken literaly.

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#150
Feb 16, 2013
 
Kong posted

Additional evidence for the ToE released today (Friday, Feb 15th)

http://medicalxpress.com/news/2013-02-footpri ...

Following the footprints of positive selection
February 15th, 2013 in Genetics

For decades, the human genome could only tell us what we already suspected about the evolution of certain traits. Researchers were able to trace the genetic origin stories of lactose tolerance (as opposed to lactose intolerance), malaria resistance, and more only after observing these successful traits in specific populations. Now, the study of positive selection the ability to determine which genetic changes have conferred an evolutionary advantage has reached a turning point: the genome itself can be used as a starting point to guide scientists to important genetic locations, leading to hypotheses about human health and disease.

In a paper published this week in Cell, researchers from the Broad Institute, Harvard University, Harvard Medical School, and elsewhere describe the tools and resources that have come together to make this shift possible. Pardis Sabeti, a senior associate member at the Broad and an associate professor at Harvard, and Shari Grossman, a graduate research assistant in the Sabeti and Lander labs, worked with colleagues to develop a tool known as the Composite of Multiple Signals (CMS) test to detect the genetic signals of positive selection, and trace these signals to specific sites in the genome. Thanks to the public release of sequence data from the 1000 Genomes Project, the research team has been able to put CMS into practice to generate a list of 412 candidate signals.

<<end cut/paste....more info at link above>>

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#151
Feb 16, 2013
 
NASA also has conclusive evidence that the universe is flat.
sorry no link, heard it over the media.

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