Cigarette smoking and depression: a question of causation [EDITORIALS]
The British Journal of Psychiatry 196: 425-426. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.109.074880 © 2010 The Royal College of Psychiatrists EDITORIALS Cigarette smoking and depression: a question of causation Marcus R. Munaf, PhD Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol Ricardo Araya, PhD Academic Unit of Psychiatry, Department of Community ...
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#1 Jun 1, 2010
People have been smoking for hundreds of years without being tagged with depression. More Junk science from the mental health industry.
#2 Jun 1, 2010
You seem unaware that this question has been studied for many years, by many different researchers. Just because you don't like the results of research doesn't make it "junk science." Here's a study that started in the early 1950s:
"Building on findings about the prevalence and incidence of depression over a 40-year period, the authors provide data on trends in cigarette smoking and associations with depression."
"By the 1980s, research had begun to show that there was a high rate of cigarette smoking among psychiatric patients."
"In 1992, however, the odds that a smoker would be depressed were three times the odds that a nonsmoker would be depressed."
#3 Jun 1, 2010
Not a smoker so my only interest is in validating the research.
You a citing an the mental health industry that wrote the article without acknowledgemnt to the research listed 40 years ago.
The mental health Industry is suffering from a lack of creditability from the falsehood of the chemical imbalance theory with the drugging and mentally compromising the world people in the past and a host of other problems in the attempt to social engineer the public with rubbish in research..
No" biological defect found for any mental illness or any of the other made to order diagnoses by any neurological study.
There has been "No" biological defect found for any mental illness or any of the other made to order diagnoses by any neurological study.
Without a test for chemical imbalance the mental health (psychiatry) is limited in the ancillary tests of medicine like an EKG, EEG, blood work or other tests in the diagnoses of a patient. They aren't needed in Psychiatry.
The psychiatric diagnosis is made on the basis of behavior and hearsay.
If we respect metabolic changes based on daily dietary habits, weight gain / loss , terms of the survival of the organisms as a person age along with physical conditioning, physical illness, electrolyte level, gender differences , body temperature, I don't see where the Mental Health and Counseling Industry could conform to any consistency in data with consideration to the above to state a person has a mental disease or illness based on chemical imbalance.
APA lies to the American Public and puts the society in danger
#4 Jun 1, 2010
The Myth of Biological Depression
by Lawrence Stevens, J.D.
Pasted from http://www.antipsychiatry.org/depressi.htm
Unhappiness or "depression" alleged to be the result of biological abnormality is called "biological" or "endogenous" or "clinical" depression. In her book The Broken Brain: The Biological Revolution in Psychiatry, University of Iowa psychiatry professor Nancy Andreasen, M.D., Ph.D., says "The older term endogenous implies that the depression `grows from within' or is biologically caused, with the implication that unfortunate and painful events such as losing a job or lover cannot be considered contributing causes" (Harper & Row, 1984, p. 203). Similarly, in 1984 in the Chicago Tribune newspaper columnist Joan Beck alleged: "depressive disorders are basically biochemical - and not caused by events or environmental circumstances or personal relationships" (July 30, 1984, Sec. 1, p. 16).
The concept of biological or endogenous depression is important to psychiatry for two reasons. First, it is the most common supposed mental illness. As Victor I. Reus, M.D., wrote in 1988: "The history of the diagnosis and treatment of melancholia could serve as a history of psychiatry itself" (appearing in: H. H. Goldman, editor, Review of General Psychiatry, 2nd Edition, Appleton & Lange, 1988, p. 332). Second, all of psychiatry's biological "treatments" for depression - whether it is drugs, electroshock, or psychosurgery - are based on the idea that the unhappiness we call depression can be caused by a biological malfunction rather than life experience. The erroneous belief in biological causation justifies the otherwise unjustifiable use of biological therapies. And the biological therapies justify the existence of psychiatry as a medical specialty distinguishable from psychology or counselling.
Many professional and lay people today think depression can be caused by "chemical imbalance" in the brain even though none of the "chemical imbalance" theories of depression have been verified. Some of them are discussed by Dr. Andreasen in her book The Broken Brain.
#5 Jun 1, 2010
Deadly Bush-Backed SSRI
At an FDA hearing on the safety of psychotropic drugs on Feb 2, 2004, dozens of tortured parents testified that their children had committed suicide or other violent acts after being prescribed the same drugs that are being marketed in the Bush-backed pharmaceutical industry schemes aimed at recruiting the nations 52 million school children as customers.
In July 2003, the Bush appointed New Freedoms Commission on Mental Health (NFC) recommended screening all children for mental illness and designated TeenScreen as a model program to ensure that every student receives a mental health check-up before finishing high school.
The NFC also has a preferred drug program in place modeled after the Texas Medication Algorithm Project (TMAP), that lists what drugs are to be used on children found to be mentally ill.
The list contains every drug that people complained about at the FDA hearing, including Paxil, Zoloft, Celexa, Wellbutron, Zyban, Remeron, Serzone, Effexor, Buspar, Risperdal, Zyprexa, Seroqual, Geodone, Depakote, Adderall, and Prozac.
There is little if any evidence that these drugs work on children but nevertheless, an estimated 10 million children in the US are now taking these mind-altering drugs even though they have documented side-effects including suicidal ideation, mania, psychosis, and future drug dependence.
According to a May 2003 report in the New York Times, national sales of anti-psychotics reached $6.4 billion in 2002, making them the fourth highest-selling class of drugs which proves the drug companies are already making a killing by drugging our kids.
#6 Jun 1, 2010
Could you translate that into English?
#7 Jun 1, 2010
What I ment to write was:
Your citing the mental health industry that wrote the article without acknowledgment to the research that was listed 40 years ago.
Easy to understand the mistake:
Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae.
The rset can be a total mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit porbelm.
Tihs is bcuseae the
huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a
#8 Jun 1, 2010
I always wondered why Chantix, a psychotropic (mind) drug came on the political scene in the same time frame as the anti-smoking campaign was being promoted. Sounds like profits.
Marketing campaign sounds similar to Prozac/Tryptophan:
To understand the dirty underhanded (political) way of producing mental illness you may want to read:
The FDA Ban of L-Tryptophan:
Politics, Profits and Prozac
by Dean Wolfe Manders, Ph.D.
#9 Jun 1, 2010
From: Prescription for Nutritional Healing by James F Balch, MD and Phillis A. Balch, CNC
Tryptophan is an essential amino acid that is necessary for the production of vitamin B3 (niacin). It is used by the brain to produce serotonin, a necessary neurotransmitter that transfers nerve impulses from one cell to another and is responsible for normal sleep. Consequently, tryptophan helps to combat depression and insomnia and to stabilize moods. It helps to control hyperactivity in children, alleviates stress, is good for the heart, aids in weight control by reducing appetite, and enhances the release of growth hormone. It is good
for migraine headaches, and may reduce some of the effects of nicotine. A sufficient amount of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) is necessary for the formation of tryptophan, which, in turn, is required for the formation of serotonin. A lack of tryptophan and magnesium may contribute to coronary artery spasms.
The best dietary sources of tryptophan include brown rice, cottage cheese, meat, peanuts, and soy protein.
This amino acid is not available in supplement form in the United States. In November of 1989, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reported evidence linking L-tryptophan supplements to a blood disorder called eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS). Several hundred cases of this illness-which is characterized b~ an elevated white blood cell count and can also cause such symptoms as fatigue, muscular pain, respiratory ailments, edema, and rash-were reported, and at least one death was attributed to the outbreak. After the CDC established an association between the blood disorder and products containing L~tryptophan in New Mexico, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration first warned consumers to stop taking L-tryptophan supplements, then recalled all products in which L-tryptophan was the sole or a major component. Subsequent research showed that it was contaminants in the supplements, not the tryptophan, that was probably responsible for the problem, but tryptophan supplements are still banned from the market in the United States.
Today the amino Tryptophan is available in the market place because of public outcry. However:
NOTE: B6 is important as a catalyst for Tryptophan to work:
Alert: Protect Your Right To Natural and Bio-available Vitamin B-6!
Human beings cannot live without vitamin B-6. It is also important for the prevention of cancer and the prevention and treatment of seizures, anemia, mental disorders including schizophrenia, carpal tunnel syndrome, and other conditions. Its effect on carpal tunnel can seem almost miraculous.
A natural form of the vitamin, Pyridoxamine, was recently yanked off the market by the FDA. Why? Because a pharmaceutical company, BioStratum, wanted sole use of pyridoxamine in a drug, a drug which may or may not ever appear. The company filed a so-called citizens petition and the FDA agreed, notwithstanding protests from ANH-USA, other organizations, and thousands of citizens. You might ask: how can Pharma take a supplement off the market and claim exclusive use of it as a prescription drug? The FDA does not presently feel obligated to answer this question.
more on article:
#10 Jun 1, 2010
Looks like someone has it in for you, HS...maybe someone in the business?
The natural, GENTLE supplements you recommend beat this artificial crap the BP cranks out hands down.
And, our bodies know what it is and how to assimilate it.
#11 Jun 2, 2010
It is amazing how many corporation or Public Relation firms monitor the forums. Glsd you have the insight.
#12 Jun 2, 2010
Have you also noticed that now smoking has suddenly been linked to depression? What next? LOL!
#13 Jun 2, 2010
Oops! I guess you have! My bad...I should have started reading from the top instead of the bottom.
Something else, my son told me he saw an article on Liveleak where the National Phychiatric Association said that independant thinkers were mentally troubled. I guess that would include Einstein, and a whole lot of other brillant minds.
#14 Jun 2, 2010
What's really funny is that you are unaware that this topic has been studied for many years. Here are just a couple of examples...
1992: "A study of depression and nicotine dependence suggests that both conditions may follow from a single vulnerability, a researcher said. The study found that people with current or past dependence on smoking ran a higher risk of getting a first episode of depression..."
1993: "The incidence of serious depression at some time steadily rises with the number of cigarettes smoked. Among those who never used cigarettes, 25% had experienced major depression. The figure soars to 52% for those smoking more than 20 cigarettes a day."
#15 Jun 2, 2010
And I'm pretty sure the "experts" who do these studies could find other links with depression besides smoking. For instance, smokers may be more inclined to be users of other substances such as booze, street drugs, and possibly even antidepressants, ya know, the crap they want people to use to "fix" their problems. But doesn't.
So, at the end of the day, just what do these statistics do to help folks? Not much. The drug companies on the other hand use them to help boost sales.
#16 Jun 2, 2010
Cigarettes are the least of the cause of depression IMO.
The pharmacutical mind drugs and the poor luck of seeing a mental health worker is the major cause of depression along with being saturated in political droppings of the mental health industrys.(IMO)
Death, Depression and Prozac
Jeff Weise, teen slayer of ten, including himself, at the Red Lake Indian reservation in northern Minnesota, was on Prozac, prescribed by some doc.
The minute the high command at Eli Lilly, manufacturer of Prozac, saw those news stories about Weise you can bet they went into crisis mode, and only began to relax when Weise's web surfs of neo-Nazi sites took over the headlines. Hitler trumps Prozac every time, particularly if it's an Injun teen ranting about racial purity.
How many times, amid the carnage of such homicidal sprees, do investigators find a prescription for antidepressants at the murder scene? Luvox at Columbine, Prozac at Louisville, Kentucky, where Joseph Wesbecker killed nine, including himself. You'll find many such stories in the past fifteen years.
By now the Lilly defense formula is pretty standardized: self-righteous handouts about the company's costly research and rigorous screening, crowned by the imprimatur of that watchdog for the public interest, the FDA. And of course there's the bogus comfort of numbers; if Lilly's pill factory had a big sign like McDonald's, it could boast PROZAC: MILLIONS SERVED.
Each burst in the sewage pipe brings a new challenge to Lilly's sales force, which has had some heavy hitters down the years, including George Herbert Walker Bush (onetime member of the Lilly board of directors); former Enron CEO Ken Lay (onetime member of the board); George W. Bush's former director of the Office of Management and Budget, Mitch Daniels (a former senior vice president); George W. Bush's Homeland Security Advisory Council member Sidney Taurel (a Lilly CEO); and the National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (a recipient of Lilly funding).
At the turn of this year there was a five-alarm incident when the British Medical Journal went back to the 1994 Wesbecker suit against Lilly, reminding the world that the company had been involved in some shifty footwork involving a backdoor payoff to the plaintiffs. The deal successfully excluded from Judge John Potter's courtroom the regulatory case history of Oraflex, a highly compromised Lilly product, which displayed the company's submissions to the FDA in a disgusting light.
Lilly rose to the challenge, successfully persuading gullible journalists that the real story concerned a lonely freelancer writing for BMJ and not a powerful pharmaceutical company with a huge advertising budget. The press dutifully shifted its focus from Lilly's outrageous efforts to suppress evidence to the narrow question of whether a piece of evidence had really been in the public record in the years since 1997, when Judge Potter changed his verdict to "dismissed with prejudice as settled," very far from the victory Lilly had been claiming.
Long years of rigorous testing? When Fred Gardner and I investigated the selling of depression and Prozac in the mid-1990s, we found that clinical trials excluded suicidal patients, children and the elderly--although once FDA approval was granted, the drug could be prescribed for anyone. According to Dr. Peter Breggin, the well-known psychiatrist who analyzed the FDA's approval of Prozac, it was ultimately based on three studies indicating that fluoxetine relieved some symptoms of depression more effectively than a placebo, and in the face of nine studies indicating no positive effect. Only sixty-three patients were on fluoxetine for more than two years (fluoxetine hydrochloride was branded as Prozac in the mid-1970s).
#17 Jun 2, 2010
And they have. Depression is a big problem, and has been studied for a long time, by many people. Why do you want them to study other links to depression, but not tobacco?
#18 Jun 2, 2010
The opinion of an anonymous Topix poster who has trouble putting a single sentence together doesn't have much credibility.
#19 Jun 2, 2010
Who is the anonymous Topix Poster? The other person next to your working station at the Pharmacutical industry or the Public Relation Firm?
I didn't know credibility was based on sentence structure or a misspelled word..
#20 Jun 2, 2010
The mental health industry is making a diagnoses on the physiological differences between the so called "mentally ill" and the "normal" without knowing what a proper and healthy chemical "balance" look like?" There is no test according to the APA but yet they manufactured the illness and provide the addicting drugs.
If we respect metabolic changes based on daily dietary habits, weight gain / loss, terms of the survival of the organisms as a person age along with physical conditioning, physical illness, electrolyte level, gender differences, body temperature, I don't see where the Mental Health and Counseling Industry could conform to any consistency in data with consideration to the above to state a person has a mental disease or illness based on chemical imbalance.
Besides, the mental health psychiatric diagnoses isn't even part of standard medical procedure known as the medical model in which all doctors are trained and is the only branch of medicine operating completely on political decisions and hearsay.
If an orthopedic surgeon operated on a patient without the aid of an X-ray, he would be working at the car wash the next day.
No Test for chemical imbalance
There Are No "Chemical Imbalances"
"The hypothetical disturbances of neurochemical function that are said to underlie "mental illness" are just that: hypothetical. No experiment has ever shown that anyone has an "imbalance" of any neurotransmitters or any other brain chemicals. Nor could any conceivable experiment demonstrate the existence of a "chemical imbalance," simply because no one, least of all the biopsychiatrists, has the slightest idea what a proper and healthy chemical "balance" would look like."
"...the views and beliefs of biopsychiatry have nothing to do with the answers to scientific questions in any case: the hunt for biological "causes" of "mental illness" is an entirely fallacious enterprise in the first place; the non- existence of data to support its assertions is quite beside the point."
"The latest edition of one pharmacology text has this to say about the status of depression as a disease: "Despite extensive efforts, attempts to document the metabolic changes in human subjects predicted by these [biological] hypotheses have not, on balance, provided consistent or compelling corroboration." This is a long-winded way of admitting that not even a scrap of evidence supports the idea that depression results from a "chemical imbalance." Yet patients are told every day - by their doctors, by the media, and by drug company advertising - that it is a proven scientific fact that depression has a known biochemical origin. It follows directly that millions of Americans are being lied to by their doctors; and people surely can't give informed consent for drug treatment when what they're being "informed" by is a fraud.... To sum up: there is no evidence whatsoever to support the view that "mental illness" is biochemical in origin; in other words, things like "Unipolar Disorder" and "Attention Deficit Disorder" simply do not exist."
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