Styrene from pipe lining
Posted in the Health Forum
#1 Jan 30, 2007
This is in Fort Wayne and maybe in your city or town.
Styrene A Simplified Overview
A CIPP~ Cured-In-Place Pipe Comparison
Styrene: possible carcinogen. California: carcinogen
Reference Concentration (RC), USEPA Technology Transfer Network, Air Toxics is:
0.23 ppm=1 mg/m3
All contractors and consulting engineers will reference OSHA guidelines for styrene emissions (50 ppm or 213 mg/m3). This is not correct when relating fugitive fumes evading a residence, building or a public/non-industrial area.
In order to quantify the above weights and measures, Table 1 is from reference.
Sample Volume of water Styrene (ppm) Amount Leached
Yogurt Cup 102 ml 0.32 33.3 micro grams
Coffee Cup 251 ml 0.03 7.7 micro grams
Beer Glass 270 ml 0.09 32.6 micro grams
Cigarette per cigarette 10.0 micro grams
·* See Quantitative Analysis of Styrene Monomer in Polystyrene and Foods
·* Leaching of styrene with hot water.
Stated on the door hangers as well as anyone that might complain about odors. The contractor is taking the place of a doctor or scientist? It is true that styrene can be noticeable in low concentrations. However, concentrations are well above OSHA limits and no safety equipment is supplied to the workers. Styrene is HARMFUL (SEE MSDS). The homeowner that is invaded by styrene odors does not fall under industrial or worker PEL (Permissible Exposure Limits). Some contractors have used metering devices that cannot read above 100 ppm, therefore every situation is safe.
** These projects are funded under the Clean Water Funds and pertain to the Clean Water Act. Resin releases to the water equal Billions of gallons polluted. Wastewater Treatment plants do not test for styrene or eliminate styrene
SECOND-HAND SMOKE STYRENE:
Taken from Physicians for a Smoke-Free Canada study:
To keep this simple, our houses are not as ventilated as a restaurant that allows smoking. A CIPP contractor releases one pound of styrene (2 cups) into the house sanitary sewer service or through manhole vapor.
One pound of styrene equals 45,359,237 cigarettes.
Question: If one pound of styrene equals 45.4 Million cigarettes, why do we ban second hand smoke? Styrene is a toxic chemical. The state regulates industrial projects using CIPP and not their own governmental municipal projects.
One more statistic
A cup of yogurt has styrene leach from the container:
· Cold water will have 6.0 ug styrene or equal to less than ¾ of a cigarette.
· Warm water in the same yogurt cup will have 33ug or 3 cigarettes equivalent.
CIPP has 50-200+ ppm emissions and not regulated.
1.75 to 45 pounds styrene released per day or
79 Million to 2 Billion Cigarettes / Day
Styrene contaminated water flows to the surface water.
#2 Jan 30, 2007
The United States currently produces approximately 3 billion pounds a year of butadiene, mainly for the production of synthetic rubber, and 9 billion pounds a year of styrene, used in plastics and products such as Styrofoam. Though the general population may be exposed to these gases in the air, cigarette smoke, water, or foods, the major concern of the symposium was for workers in these industries whose exposures far exceed environmental levels.
Current occupational exposure to butadiene in the United States is generally less than 10 parts per million (ppm), with measured excursions as high as 374 ppm, compared to urban air concentrations of 1-10 parts per billion (ppb). Although OSHA has proposed lowering the permissible occupational exposure level to 2 ppm, this proposal has not been implemented, and the level remains at 1000 ppm. Cancer risk estimates for workers exposed to the proposed 2 ppm standard range from 0.2 per 10,000 workers to 600 per 10,000 workers, depending on the type of tumor.
#3 Jan 30, 2007
CIPP ~Cured-In-Place Pipe
NONDISRUPTIVE-MINIMAL IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT?
1 Million+ Tons / Yr of Styrene and Resin Released from CIPP
according to ASTM specifications, this is tolerable
Styrene does permeate through the so-called impermeable coating.
Water Vapor (or VOC) Transmission Rate (WVTR) testing is performed using a Mocon Permatran-W instrument, following ASTM Method F-1249. Flat film and flexible and rigid packages can be tested under a wide range of temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions. Standard test conditions are 37.8°C and 100% RH, although it is common for customers to specify 90% RH testing.
Billions of Gallons of process water contaminated
A Contractors Safety Plan for public safety, worker safety and environmental impact is imperative. Contaminated water in a sanitary sewer will disrupt the treatment works. Styrene will pass through GAC filters due to the high polarity of styrene. Dilution is not the answer. Dilution pollutes a greater quantity of water. Styrene released will leach into homes and businesses if not pre-treated and captured. A release into a home or business is a personal attack on the residence. If a homeowner or business is affected by styrene, call the local fire department or the Dept. of Public Health. If sickened from fumes, seek medical attention immediately.
Contractors contend that their products are:
Saving the water quality, protecting the environment and non-disruptive?
Cure water is released at 180F, contrary to their contract specifications.
Styrene is highly soluble in water at 180F. Cool water is added to cool down process water to 100F. 2.5-3.0 times the amount of process water will be required to cool from 180 to 100F. Releases into a pipeline are calculated as a closed system/protected plume, styrene or resin is released downstream into lateral connections as a chimney model.
Inversion Contaminated Water .10,000 GAL
Water to lower temp (180-100) 30,000 GAL
PROCESS WATER Contaminated 40,000 GAL + Inflows
Air concentrations: 10-100 times that of the process water.
Steam cure air effluent and condensation have much higher styrene concentrations. Amount of residual is same as water cure. Pre-Treatment is a necessity to conform to:
CLEAN WATER ACT, CLEAN AIR ACT and Dept. of Public Health regulations.
When a pipeline is surcharged, or if cleaning operations are performed downstream, the vacuum/pressure will pull the water out of homeowners sanitary trap creating a chimney effect for volatile toxic releases.
TESTING FOR STYRENE: EPA Methods for water and air VOCs
MUST BE DONE BY LISCENED ENVIROMENTAL PROFESIONALS. Due to the volatility of styrene, equipment and procedure knowledge is imperative for accuracy.
Many businesses and homes have been evacuated:
Due to styrene fumes from CIPP processes. The fumes can be very disruptive for days and even weeks. Support Clean Water and Clean Air; demand contractors to report and treat on-site emissions.
Styrene reactive monomer is the key contributor to home and business evacuations of the CIPP industry. Despite its advantages, styrene toxicity can be a problem. The health risk while very low is not zero. The scientific data on styrene health effects are complex. It is not possible to scientifically prove that styrene is safe. Styrene is currently under review for a carcinogen classification: at this time the classification is a possible carcinogen.
Styrene substitutions are of comparative toxicity. They may be slightly less toxic than styrene, or they may be more and currently rated a carcinogen or a geno-toxic(damages DNA).
#4 Feb 13, 2007
Styrene reactive with e-coli readily produces Styrene Oxide, greenhouse gas. UV cure in a pipe enviroment readily produces Ozone gas. Many technologies available to pre-treat and capture styrene in CIPP processes. Contractors have known the issue for years. False marketing on the environmental solution. Why deplete pollution when TRI reporting is sparcely reported and chemicals used are hidden under a proprietory unbrella. There is no confidential information on expired patents.
#5 Aug 6, 2014
Contractors can use CIPP without disruption with the use of StyRedux. The Fundamental Canons, Engineers in the fulfillment of their professional duties, shall:
Hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public. Controlling releases are essential for CIPP installations as professional testing will show. Air and water releases are substantial if not pre-treated and captured. It has been proven, that 85% reduction is typical with non-detectable can be achieved if required.
An audit of the previous study (NTP), the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) released its review of the June 2011 U.S. National Toxicology Programs (NTP) and published on July 28,2014.
The committee that edited the original report found limited but credible evidence of carcinogenic effects from styrene in human studies,sufficient evidence from animal studies and convincing relevant information in studies observing DNA damage in human cells that had been exposed to styrene. According to the NAS, the review committee reached the same conclusion after conducting both a peer review of the 12th Report on Carcinogens from 2011 and an independent assessment of the styrene literature from the past several years, through November 2013.
StyRedux has been proven by third party testing and used on projects throughout North America and Europe.
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