History of Round Valley (Covelo)

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Covelo Born

Washington, DC

#1 Sep 24, 2008
Just a little history to share with you all.
The "pioneers" and the "wild west" and "Frontier Days" aren't nearly the nice innocent folks nor times they have been wrapped in plastic to be, especially in Mendocino and Humboldt Counties where tens of thousands of Native Americans were wiped out in genocide that was sanctioned by local community leaders in the mid 1800's. The people killing the Indians as well as other atrocities too graphic to mention here were carried out by William Jarboe of the "Eel River Rangers".
All said and done the Eel River rangers were responsible for well over 3000 Native American Murders.
Read
"When the Great Spirit Died,
By William B. Secrest
Free on Google Books
http://books.google.com/books...
Also Read "Killing for Land in Early California"
"Indian Blood at Round Valley 1856-1863
Also available free from google books...
http://books.google.com/books...
Could these bitter slaughters and oppression be part of the reason the Covelo- Round Valley area has been so "HAUNTED" for the Mendo County Sheriffs Office??
These acts of genocide were brought up during the defense trial for Bear Lincoln who was acquitted and found innocent by a jury in the death of Deputy Bob Davis.
Read "What Really Happened" on the Albion Monitor Website follow the link: http://www.albionmonitor.net/9-2-95/main.html
Lintott Fans

Washington, DC

#2 Sep 27, 2008
Marijuana Patches of 10,000 Plants Ignored
While Law Enforcement Worries about
Enforcement of Measure B

http://www.youtube.com/watch...
Just loved Pinches and Colfax's response of how the county should be dealing with the 10,000 plant patches, instead of wasting time and money busting "mom and Pops" gardens.
Colfax relays that we should go back to reading the constitution. Pinches says that Measure G was to put the pressure on the large gardens, Measure B worries about the 6-25 plant gardens while 10,000 plant gardens are sucking the eel river dry, he says again " no I don't mean sucking the eel river down, I'm talking about these large gardens sucking the eel river dry". he futhers "were sitting here worrying about gardens of 6-25 plants while there are hundreds of 10,000 + plant crops"
http://www.youtube.com/watch...
Colfax says- "were not dealing with the 10,000 plant issues, were not dealing with the 5,000 plant issues, precisely because we have limits to what a county can do on those cases, so were picking on the mom and poppers, precisely with those who were out there during the last campaign talkin about save our local economy, I'm not sure if that is what is really about but the fact of the matter is whats happening, were going after the mom and poppers with 6-25 plants. If thats your idea of justice in Mendocino County today then I think we need to go back to reading our constitution."
http://www.youtube.com/watch ...
"were not dealing with the 10,000 plant issues, were not dealing with the 5,000 plant issues, precisely because we have limits to what a county can do on those cases, so were picking on the mom and poppers, precisely with those who were out there during the last campaign talkin about save our local economy, I'm not sure if that is what is really about but the fact of the matter is whats happening, were going after the mom and poppers with 6-25 plants. If thats your idea of justice in Mendocino County today then I think we need to go back to our reading our constitution."
http://www.youtube.com/watch...
Covelo Born

Washington, DC

#3 Sep 27, 2008
They need to do a history of Round Valley film,
one that covers 1850's to the trouble with the Sheriffs Dept. Today!
Just a little history to share with you all.
The "pioneers" and the "wild west" and "Frontier Days" aren't nearly the nice innocent folks nor times they have been wrapped in plastic to be, especially in Mendocino and Humboldt Counties where tens of thousands of Native Americans were wiped out in genocide that was sanctioned by local community leaders in the mid 1800's. The people killing the Indians as well as other atrocities too graphic to mention here were carried out by William Jarboe of the "Eel River Rangers".
All said and done the Eel River rangers were responsible for well over 3000 Native American Murders.
Read
"When the Great Spirit Died,
By William B. Secrest
Free on Google Books
http://books.google.com/books...
Also Read "Killing for Land in Early California"
"Indian Blood at Round Valley 1856-1863
Also available free from google books...
http://books.google.com/books...
Could these bitter slaughters and oppression be part of the reason the Covelo- Round Valley area has been so "HAUNTED" for the Mendo County Sheriffs Office??

These acts of genocide and historic racism were brought up during the defense trial for Bear Lincoln who was acquitted and found innocent by a jury in the death of Deputy Bob Davis.

Read "What Really Happened" on the Albion Monitor Website follow the link: http://www.albionmonitor.net/9-2-95/main.html
Real Dialog This

Washington, DC

#4 Sep 28, 2008
They need to do a history of Round Valley film,
one that covers 1850's to the trouble with the Sheriffs Dept. Today!
Just a little history to share with you all.
The "pioneers" and the "wild west" and "Frontier Days" aren't nearly the nice innocent folks nor times they have been wrapped in plastic to be, especially in Mendocino and Humboldt Counties where tens of thousands of Native Americans were wiped out in genocide that was sanctioned by local community leaders in the mid 1800's. The people killing the Indians as well as other atrocities too graphic to mention here were carried out by William Jarboe of the "Eel River Rangers".
All said and done the Eel River rangers were responsible for well over 3000 Native American Murders.
Read
"When the Great Spirit Died,
By William B. Secrest
Free on Google Books
http://books.google.com/books...
Also Read "Killing for Land in Early California"
"Indian Blood at Round Valley 1856-1863
Also available free from google books...
http://books.google.com/books...
Could these bitter slaughters and oppression be part of the reason the Covelo- Round Valley area has been so "HAUNTED" for the Mendo County Sheriffs Office??
These acts of genocide and historic racism were brought up during the defense trial for Bear Lincoln who was acquitted and found innocent by a jury in the death of Deputy Bob Davis.
Read "What Really Happened" on the Albion Monitor Website follow the link: http://www.albionmonitor.net/9-2-95/main.html
Covelo Troubles Way Back

Washington, DC

#5 Sep 28, 2008
Blood Shed Threatened
A Possible Conflict of Interest Between United States Troops and Sheriffs
October 29 1887
New York Times

San Francisco, Oct. 28, 1887
United States District Attorney Carey has received a telegram from the Sheriff of Mendocino County informing him that he was gathering a posse to Capture Captain Shaw, whom US General Howard had sent in command of United States troops to eject sheep herders and others from the Round Valley Indian Reservation in this State. The telegram also states that the State Court had issued a writ of injunction ordering Captain Shaw to desist from removing the trespassers. District Attorney Carey advised US General Howard to order Captain Shaw to surrender to the Sheriff, which General Howard declined to do without an order from the President or the Attorney General at Washington, in which he states that, if the Sheriff persists and General Howard continues to refuse, it will probably result in bloodshed.
Oct. 29, 1887
Native News

Washington, DC

#6 Sep 29, 2008
Just a little history to share with you all.
The "pioneers" and the "wild west" and "Frontier Days" aren't nearly the nice innocent folks nor times they have been wrapped in plastic to be, especially in Mendocino and Humboldt Counties where tens of thousands of Native Americans were wiped out in genocide that was sanctioned by local community leaders in the mid 1800's. The people killing the Indians as well as other atrocities too graphic to mention here were carried out by William Jarboe of the "Eel River Rangers".
All said and done the Eel River rangers were responsible for well over 3000 Native American Murders.
Read
"When the Great Spirit Died,
By William B. Secrest
Free on Google Books
http://books.google.com/books...
Also Read "Killing for Land in Early California"
"Indian Blood at Round Valley 1856-1863
Also available free from google books...
http://books.google.com/books...
Could these bitter slaughters and oppression be part of the reason the Covelo- Round Valley area has been so "HAUNTED" for the Mendo County Sheriffs Office??
These acts of genocide were brought up during the defense trial for Bear Lincoln who was acquitted and found innocent by a jury in the death of Deputy Bob Davis.
Read "What Really Happened" on the Albion Monitor Website follow the link: http://www.albionmonitor.net/9-2-95/main.html

Blood Shed Threatened
A Possible Conflict of Interest Between United States Troops and Sheriffs
October 29 1887
New York Times

San Francisco, Oct. 28, 1887
United States District Attorney Carey has received a telegram from the Sheriff of Mendocino County informing him that he was gathering a posse to Capture Captain Shaw, whom US General Howard had sent in command of United States troops to eject sheep herders and others from the Round Valley Indian Reservation in this State. The telegram also states that the State Court had issued a writ of injunction ordering Captain Shaw to desist from removing the trespassers. District Attorney Carey advised US General Howard to order Captain Shaw to surrender to the Sheriff, which General Howard declined to do without an order from the President or the Attorney General at Washington, in which he states that, if the Sheriff persists and General Howard continues to refuse, it will probably result in bloodshed.
Oct. 29, 1887
Know Local History

Washington, DC

#7 Sep 29, 2008
You see the US Troops were sent in to protect the Native Americans who were forced onto the Round Valley Reservation READ Retracing a Grim Past
By Lee Romney September 19, 2004
Los Angeles Times
http://articles.latimes.com/2004/sep/19/local...
The US Troops were protecting the surviving members of a nearly decimated population, the Yukis. As well as members of tribes from all over Mendocino County. There were also people from tribes from as far away as Chico and Orville who were walked in what has been known as the "Mendocino trail of Tears".
The troops were protecting Indians from ranchers and settlers as well as from the Local Willits (Little Lake Valley) and Long Valley (Laytonville) Death Squads known as "The Eel River Rangers" and other vigilantes who would go "Indian Hunting".

The land on which settlers who were squatting on known as Covelo and the entire Round Valley to the Eel River, was already inhabited by local Yukis for thousands of years, and layed out to be part of the Round Valley reservation. It was claimed by local sheep and cattle men. The ancient Oak Groves which were known by the Indians to produce an abundant supply of acorns were turned into hog feed and the clover grasses which had supplied ample amounts of nutrients to the Yukis were converted to Cow Fields. The people were rounded up like cattle and forced onto barren, waterless land with no access to traditional gathering, fishing and hunting grounds. Many indians would flee reservation life only to be beaten and whipped like slaves and "driven" to return. Many of the "Squatter Ranchers" were secessionists from the Confederate Army from the Southern States and had a prior hand at slavery and a certain disdain for the federal troops who were sent into protect the Reservation and Indians from the Kidknappings and killings which were an ongoing occurrence.
Besides the Yukis, Indians were forced to Round Valley as they did to other reservations - by force. The word "drive", widely used at the time, is descriptive of the practice of "rounding up" Indians and "driving" them like cattle to the reservation where they were "corralled" by high picket fences. Such drives took place in all weather and seasons, and the children elderly and sick often did not survive. Many Indians were sold as slaves to work as servants and as field workers and "camp wives" at different ranches and Mill Towns around Northern California.

This is where the Mendocino Sheriff stepped in
SEE BELOW:
Know Local History

Washington, DC

#8 Sep 29, 2008
Read it for your self.

Blood Shed Threatened
A Possible Conflict of Interest Between United States Troops and Sheriffs
October 29 1887
New York Times

San Francisco, Oct. 28, 1887
United States District Attorney Carey has received a telegram from the Sheriff of Mendocino County informing him that he was gathering a posse to Capture Captain Shaw, whom US General Howard had sent in command of United States troops to eject sheep herders and others from the Round Valley Indian Reservation in this State. The telegram also states that the State Court had issued a writ of injunction ordering Captain Shaw to desist from removing the trespassers. District Attorney Carey advised US General Howard to order Captain Shaw to surrender to the Sheriff, which General Howard declined to do without an order from the President or the Attorney General at Washington, in which he states that, if the Sheriff persists and General Howard continues to refuse, it will probably result in bloodshed.
Oct. 29, 1887
Old Timer

Washington, DC

#10 Sep 30, 2008
GENOCIDE IN THE GOLDEN STATE

As European Americans invaded Round Valley a genocidal war of extermination was underway against the Native Peoples of California. The first governor of California, after the U.S. government seized California from Mexico in the War of 1848, called for a "war of extermination" against the Indians and said that their complete destruction was "the inevitable destiny of the race."

In 1848 gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill and white Americans started flooding into California. Within three years more than 200,000 spilled across the Sierras in a frantic rush to reach the gold fields. Even the remote portions of the state became overrun with non-Indians seeking to log timber, ranch and farm. This disrupted the Indians' food supply. Logging mills, for example, kept salmon from going upstream, and ranchers fenced in land where Indians had gathered food for hundreds of years.

In 1850 California passed the "Act for the Government and Protection of the Indians." This act allowed any white settler to force any Indian found to be without means of support to work for him. Since Indians could not testify against white people in court, almost any Indian could be seized as a virtual slave under this law. Many settlers didn't even bother with the law and purchased Indian children outright. Many fortunes were made off the sale of Indian women and children. An editorial in the Marysville Appeal illustrates this practice: "But it is from these mountain tribes that white settlers draw their supplies of kidnapping children, educated as servants, and women for purposes of labor and lust...there are parties in the northern portion of the state whose sole occupation has been to steal young children and squaws ...and dispose of them at handsome prices to the settlers who...willingly pay $50 or $60 for a young Digger to cook or wait upon them, or $100 for a likely young girl."

In order to clear the way for white settlement, the U.S. Senate in 1853 authorized three commissioners to negotiate treaties with the Indian tribes in California. Eighteen treaties were negotiated with the California Indians. The Indians negotiated in good faith and bartered away millions of acres of land in exchange for the U.S. government's promise of protection and lands with adequate water and game to sustain them and their way of life. These lands would have contained about 7.5 million acres, or 7.5 percent of the land area of California. The Indians began moving to their new lands only to find out that the Senate had refused to ratify their treaties.

At the same time as they rejected the treaties, the Senate appointed Edward Beale to be in charge of Indian policy in California. Beale quickly developed a new plan for dealing with California's Indians. His plan was to have a "system of military posts" on government-owned reservations. Each of these reservations would put into place a "system of discipline and instruction." Beale wrote that the cost of the troops would be "borne by the surplus produce of Indian labor." No treaties were to be negotiated with the Indians, instead they would be "invited to assemble within these reserves."

The reservations that Beale proposed and which were established in California were different in important respects from reservations that had been set up in other parts of the country. These California reservations were to be on U.S. government land and there was no recognition of any land ownership rights on the part of the Indians. Also, the Indians were not even granted nominal rights to control their own affairs. They were to be directly under the control of U.S. troops. The California reservations could more accurately be called concentration camps.
Old Timer

Washington, DC

#11 Sep 30, 2008
In 1856 Nome Cult Farm, which later became the Round Valley Reservation, was set up in Round Valley. The government thought that Round Valley's isolated location and geography made it an ideal place to put thousands of Indians. Although the whole Valley was initially claimed by the government, settlers in the area quickly claimed the best land, tore down fences and let their cattle graze on the land set aside for the reservation. Indians who worked on the reservation received only six ears of corn to eat per day. Indians at Round Valley were used as private labor for the agents in charge of the reservation.

Indians on the reservations were hired out to settlers to work as pack animals. A settler reported that in 1857: "About 300 died on the reservation from the effects of packing them through the mountains in the snow and mud...They were worked naked with the exception of deer skins around their shoulders...They usually packed 50 pounds if they were able..."

The reservations were supposed to protect the Indians from slave-raiders. However, Indian women and children on Nome Cult Farm were in more danger of being kidnapped into slavery because they were now concentrated together, which made it easier and more convenient for the slavers. An employee of Nome Cult Farm who arrived on the reservation in 1858 stated, "In coming to the valley, on the first occasion, I met a man with four Indian boys taking them off, and the third time I came on the trail, I met a man taking off a girl."
RIVER RANGERS

Many powerful forces around the state openly called for the extermination of the Indians. The Yreka Herald stated its position clearly: "Now that general hostilities against the Indians have commenced we hope that the government will render such aid as will enable the citizens of the north to carry on a war of extermination until the last redskin of these tribes has been killed. Extermination is no longer a question of time--the time has arrived, the work has commenced, and let the first man that says treaty or peace be regarded as a traitor." Other papers voiced similar sentiments.

One employee at Nome Cult Farm described the extent of the actions against the Indians of the area, "In 1856, the first expedition by the whites against the Indians was made and they have continued ever since..there were so many of these expeditions that I cannot recollect the number; the result being that we would kill, on an average, 50 or 60 Indians on a trip and take some prisoners, which we always took to the reserve; frequently we would have to turn out two or three times a week."

Public policy clearly supported the genocide of the Indians. A California law in 1851 gave settlers the right to organize vigilante groups and hunt down Indians and permitted them to submit claims to the state for their expenses. In 1851 and 1852 the state legislature authorized claims totaling over $1 million.

Municipal governments offered bounties for Indian scalps. Shasta City in 1855 offered $5.00 for every Indian head presented at city headquarters. One resident wrote about how he remembers seeing men bringing mules to town, each laden with eight to twelve Indian heads. A community near Marysville in 1859 paid bounties "for every scalp or some other satisfactory evidence" that an Indian had been killed.

One militia which operated in Mendocino County was the Eel River Rangers. This militia was formed after a horse belonging to Serranus Clifton Hastings was killed, allegedly by starving Indians, in April 1859. Hastings was a wealthy rancher, the first Chief Justice of California's Supreme Court, and had been elected attorney general in 1851. He petitioned his friend, Governor Weller, of the need to organize a company to drive the Indians out of Mendocino County.
Old Timer

Washington, DC

#12 Sep 30, 2008
The company was organized under the command of Captain Walter Jarboe. Jarboe's orders to his men were to "kill all the bucks they could find and take the women and children prisoner, and if they caught sight of an Indian, never lose him as long as they could follow his track." In reality, the company spared few of the Indians, killing women and children. Unarmed Indians looking for food were surrounded and shot.
A Lieutenant described a typical raid: "We...traveled in the night until we saw the fire of an Indian Rancheria which we surrounded when day was breaking and waited until near sun up before we attacked and killed 20, consisting of bucks, squaws and children, and also took two squaws and one child prisoner; those killed were all killed in about three minutes...we found in this rancheria no sign of depredation having been committed by these Indians."
In a report to Governor Weller, Jarboe describes his actions during the first three weeks of December, 1859, during which time he burned Indians alive in their huts and in four separate encounters shot 7, 32 and 10.
The Eel River Rangers were disbanded in January 1860. In his final report Jarboe estimated that in less than five months he fought the Indians "23 times, killed 283 warriors, the number of wounded was not known, took 292 prisoners, sent them to the reservation." On April 12, 1860 the state legislature approved $9,347.39 for "payment of the indebtedness incurred by the expedition against the Indians in the County of Mendocino organized under the command of Captain W. S. Jarboe in 1859." California Governor Weller wrote a letter to Jarboe congratulating him for doing "all that was anticipated" and giving his "sincere thanks for the manner in which it [the campaign] was conducted."
There were many, many other massacres carried out during these bloody years. Some of the more well known are the Clear Lake Massacre, Blood Run Creek Massacre, and the Massacre at Bloody Rock.
Old Timer

Washington, DC

#13 Sep 30, 2008
The Indians that survived the massacres were driven by horse-riding whites with bullwhips from their villages to Nome Cult, a passage remembered as "The Death March." A Pomo elder described his grandmother's story in the Albion Monitor newspaper, "They herded them like cattle, like animals. Old people couldn't make it, couldn't keep up and died on the road.[When I was a boy] they talked about it, they would talk about what happened on the road and they would cry, go all to pieces. It was misery, it was hardship. It was death."
One account of the Death March was told to a Pomo woman by her great-grandfather: An old woman, unable to keep the pace, begged to be buried there on the trailside, her favorite basket at her side. Another elder remembered that mothers killed their own babies rather than see them die a slow death on the March.
This is how seven peoples, the Konkow Maidu; Little Lake and other Pomo people; Nomlaki; Cahto; Wailaki; Pit River; and Yuki have come to live together in Round Valley.
RESISTANCE
One of the myths about the Native People of Mendocino County is that they did not organize resistance to the genocide that was being conducted against them. The battles were almost always unequal, with the whites having vastly superior weapons and the Indians were never able to unite as a group against them. These are some examples of the resistance from the book Genocide and Vendetta:
# During the first year of Nome Cult Farm, the Yuki Indians rebelled. The head of the reservation wrote: "some of the Nome Cult Indians twice surrounded our quarters, threatening our lives and killing some stock. In resisting them we were forced to kill many of them which stopped their proceedings."
# On December 9, 1859 a band of Yuki gathered in Long Valley and challenged some of Jarboe's men. When the Indians were attacked, they filled the air with a continuous stream of arrows and war cries. They tried to kill all of the whites. They were unsuccessful against the guns of the whites and all of the Indians were either killed or wounded. Several of Jarboe's men were injured.
# In 1861 a band of Wailaki succeeded in obtaining rifles and becoming proficient in their use. They became known as the "Gun Indians." In September of 1861 these Wailaki attacked the settlers in Round Valley, killing a large number of horses and cattle. In retaliation the settlers attacked a Wailaki village at Horse Canyon, killing 240 Wailaki, including many women and children. This massacre became known as the Blood Run Creek massacre because so many Indians were killed that the creek became red with the blood of the victims.
Old Timer

Washington, DC

#14 Sep 30, 2008
# Further north in Humboldt County there was widespread resistance. One of the most active was Chief Lassik's band, which succeeded in driving the settlers out of their territory in southeastern and southwestern Humboldt County. Chief Lassik and his band were captured in 1862, but were able to escape from the Smith River Reservation. After escaping, he headed south along the Klamath River and "stirred up discontent and revengeful feelings." Although Chief Lassik was finally caught and killed in 1863, for over one year he was able to carry on a campaign of resistance against the settlers.
Prior to contact with non-Indians it is estimated that there were about 310,000 American Indians living in the state of California. The deadly mission system imposed by Spanish colonialists and missionaries had taken the lives of tens of thousands of Indians. But the mission system did not reach into many areas and remote valleys like Round Valley. As California fell under U.S. domination, in a relatively short period of time from 1830 to 1890, the Native population of California declined from approximately 245,000 to 16,000. During the worst decade, between 1845 and 1855, the rate of decline was incredible. In less than 10 years the Indian population fell from 150,000 to approximately 50,000. One historian wrote that what the government did to the California Indians was "as close to genocide as any tribal people had faced or would face on the North American continent."
THEFT OF THE LAND
AND DESTRUCTION OF THE CULTURE
In the years after the most brutal killing ended, the American society concentrated on stealing away the little land that was put aside for the Indians on the reservations and destroying their culture. Through various forms of theft and fraud white settlers took control of most of the valley land throughout the 1870s and 1880s. White ranchers became rich fattening their cattle illegally on Indian land and selling it at inflated prices to the Indians. A visitor to the valley described what would happen when someone complained about the settlers stealing the land: "If a witness against them could be neither coaxed nor terrified into silence, he got a bullet and the local magistrate made a perfunctory investigation."
Old Timer

Washington, DC

#15 Sep 30, 2008
When Congress passed the Dawes Severalty Act in 1887, which provided for allotment of reservation land to individual Indians, it became clear that about 60 percent of the reservation lands had been lost to the white settlers. Whereas there were supposedly 102,118 acres prior to allotment, only 42,163 acres were actually allotted. The land was dispersed in a checkerboard fashion to make it impossible for Native People to combine their small parcels.
Many Indian people lost most of their land in later years through various types of fraud, through non-payment of taxes, or they were forced to sell it because white settlers ran them off their own property.
There were also systematic efforts to destroy the culture and history of the Native Peoples. Ministers were brought in to run the reservation and "civilize the savages." One minister instituted a pass system--all Indians had to have a signed pass to leave the reservation. Native People found off the reservation without a pass were brought back by the military. A congressman who visited Round Valley in 1874 found that the minister in charge whipped the Indians, that the Indians were poorly fed and forced to work for very little in return. He concluded that the reservation system was little better than slavery.
Youth were forced to attend reservation schools run by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Children were prohibited from wearing Indian clothing or speaking their native language. Those who were caught breaking the rules were severely beaten.
JIM CROW IN MENDOCINO
Jim Crow segregation was the rule in Mendocino County up until the 1960s. A middle-aged Round Valley resident remembered the days of segregation. "We couldn't go in restaurants, we couldn't go in barbershops, we couldn't buy alcoholic beverages. I suppose we could vote and our men could go off to war, but we couldn't go into the court or have witnesses testify on your behalf. We weren't allowed to have government jobs until the 1960s."
Covelo History

Washington, DC

#16 Oct 1, 2008
The company of volunteers, referred to by Lieutenant Dillon,
was a squad of twenty men, called " Eel River Rangers," which
had been raised in Mendocino county in September, 1859, under
authority from Governor Weller. It was under the command of
Captain W. S. Jarboe. Weller had been informed, and without
doubt believed, that the Indians had been committing depredations;
and, in his instructions to Jarboe, he directed him to
confine his operations strictly against "those who are known
to have been engaged in killing the stock and destroying the
property of our citizens." A few weeks later, Weller again
wrote to Jarboe to the effect that an indiscriminate warfare
would not be justified by the facts in his possession, and that
the object of the organization of his company was "to protect
the lives and property of the citizens in certain localities and
not to wage a war of extermination against the Indians." Notwithstanding
these instructions, it appears that Jarboe and his
men, instead of acting on the defensive, waged a war of extermination
against the Indians, which became known as the "Jarboe
war." It was so indiscriminate and unjustifiable as to provoke
a revulsion in the public mind; and on January 5, 1860, just
before he went out of office, Weller ordered the force to be
disbanded. It became Downey's duty, when he became governor,
to bring the whole subject before the legislature; and,
in response to his messages, that body, after pronouncing the "
Jarboe war" as it had been carried on without cause or
justification, came to the conclusion that the United States
army, and not the legislature of California, was the proper and
legitimate source to apply to for aid and protection against
Indian hostilities; that it was only in case of failure on the
part of that army to act that the legislature should make any
appropriation for the suppression of such hostilities, and that
so long as it would make appropriations, just so long would
hostilities continue and the legislature be called upon for newer
and newer appropriations. The result was a stop to the long-
continued abuse of state appropriations for the suppression of
Genocide and Vendetta

Washington, DC

#17 Oct 1, 2008
It was legal to arrest native people "on the complaint of any resident citizen"

There were few white women in the region, and many young Native women were raped.

In 1937, the valley was as segregated as the Deep South.

Isn't time the County of Mendocino apologizes and offers some form of restitution for theses crimes of Genocide committed against the Native Populations by our "pioneers"??
Genocide and Vendetta

Washington, DC

#19 Oct 1, 2008
A great exodus began as the people were driven out of their homelands, reaching at least as far south as Sonoma County. Starting around 1857, horse-riding whites with bullwhips -- either local milita or vigilantes, there being at the time only a breath of difference between the two -- forced entire villages to walk to Nome Cult, a torturous passage remembered as "The Death March." Pomo elder Grant Smith recalls his grandmother's tale: "They herded them like cattle, like animals. Old people couldn't make it, couldn't keep up and died on the road.[When I was a boy] they talked about it, they would talk about what happened on the road and they would cry, go all to pieces. It was misery, it was hardship. It was death."
The Death March is one of those whispered family tales of horror, little spoken of. One account was told to a Pomo woman by her great-grandfather: an old woman unable to keep the pace begged to be buried there on the trailside, her favorite basket at her side. Another record was passed on by an elder, who remembered that mothers killed their own babies rather than see them die a slow death on the March.
But Sonoma State University professor Ed Castillo thinks some of the people came voluntarily. They saw the reservation as a refugee camp, a place where they could be safe from the increasing threat of white violence by vigilantes.
"Vigilante groups drove Indians out of their communities," says Castillo. "It was absolute chaos in California; it wasn't until the end of the Civil War that authorities regained control. It's one thing for the army to drive them out, but another when local people get together to do it. There is no evidence whatsoever that the army drove them to these reservations."
Genocide and Vendetta

Washington, DC

#20 Oct 1, 2008
Also significant is an 1850 California law that made it legal to arrest native people "on the complaint of any resident citizen" and hired out to the top bidder for four months. Later amendments authorized indenturing the children of the people until they were 25 years old. These laws were not revoked until 1867.
There were few white women in the region, and many young Native women were raped
But at Round Valley, conditions were even worse than at home. They competed not with the whites for food, but with animals. Rationed only six ears of corn daily, they tried using traditional gathering methods, but were often chased off land now owned by whites. In the Round Valley history "Genocide and Vendetta," an eyewitness account appears: "I saw a man driving some squaws from a clover field inside the reservation; they were picking clover or digging roots; he said he would be damned if he would allow them to [do this], as he wanted it for hay."

Other horrors threatened. There were few white women in the region, and many young Native women were raped. Two years after the reservation was established, twenty percent of the people were found to have venereal disease. Also common was kidnapping of their children who were highly esteemed as house-servants, regularly fetching $50 for a child who could cook, and up to $100 for a "likely young girl." The reservation provided white slave-traders with a ready supply of merchandise.
Throughout the next years, the situation festered. Many Natives fled the reservation preferring to live in the wild, even at the risk of being hunted like animals. New arrivals took their place, as more people were displaced from their own villages by ever-advancing whites.
Conflict again flared in 1870, when President Grant proposed the entire valley be dedicated as a reservation. Angry whites protested by tearing down the reservation fences so that their cattle and pigs would destroy Indian crops. Although Congress expanded the reservation to more than 100,000 acres, the Indians saw little benefit. Restricted to 5,000 acres in the undesirable northern end of the valley, most of their land was illegally occupied by white ranchers.
This same period saw renewed attempts to "civilize the savages." Under the leadership of Methodist minister John L. Burchard, the reservation became like a military post, with Natives required to obtain signed passes to leave. Any Indian found off the reservation could be forcibly returned. This kept them under watchful missionary eyes and unable to contact family members keeping the traditional ways.
Genocide and Vendetta

Washington, DC

#21 Oct 1, 2008
In the winter of 1874-75, a Congressman visited the reservation and reported the conditions dismal. He accused Burchard of whipping and starving the Natives, now more than 60 percent of them suffering from Advanced Syphillis.
Through the end of the century, outrages continued. Rape and murder were not uncommon. Wealthy cattlemen grazed their herds on Indian land without permission or payment; despite decades of federal attempts to reclaim the land, the last trespasser wasn't evicted until 1909
Columbia University student Amelia Susman visited in 1937 and wrote of the conditions there. The turn-of-the-century Dawes Act promised reservation land would be divided up and given to individual Indians, but this, too, worked against the Native people. Lots were only ten acres (five acres for a married woman)-- too small for anything but truck farming, which required equipment, credit, and lots of market savvy. Susman found many of the Indians leasing their land to whites. But as always, there was a Catch-22 for the Indians: the whites set the price of the rent.
She also found the valley as segregated as the Deep South. Reporting that whites made no secret of their claims to superiority, they told her racist tales of drunken Indians involved in "cutting scrapes." There was no mingling of the two cultures; like in the South, whites only spoke well of Indians when they were servants.
Today you can still visit Inspiration Point, shortly beyond the tiny village of Dos Rios. From this mountain pass, Frank Asbil is believed to have first gazed upon the peaceful valley. To commemorate this event, the state of California has placed a bronze plaque. That plaque is pocked with bullet holes. A fitting commentary on all that followed, turning so much paradise into so much hell.
Much of this background is drawn from Genocide and Vendetta, an excellent history of Round Valley.
For further reading into the history of Round Valley and the genocide of California Natives, we recommend:
* "The Destruction of California Indians" by Robert Heizer (University of Nebraska, 1974) Important source of letters, newspaper accounts, and legislation documenting the genocide of native peoples. Any other books by Heizer, especially "The Other Californians" are also highly recommended.
* "Genocide and Vendetta" by Lynwood Carranco and Estle Beard (University of Oklahoma, 1981) While the worst atrocities committed by whites were in the Eastern and far Northern parts of California, this documents some of the vigilante activity in the Mendocino-Humbolt region and a provides a full account of the early days at Round Valley Reservation.
* "The Round Valley Indians of California" by Amelia Susman (Berkeley, 1976) Columbia University student Susman visited the reservation and Covelo in 1937, and found a troubled, segregated community. Recommended, but very academic reading.
* "The Impact of Euro-American Exploration and Settlement" by Edward Castillo (Handbook of North American Indians Vol. 8) Overview of conflicts between all Northern California people and Europeans, from first contact to the present. Academic reading.
Genocide and Vendetta

Washington, DC

#22 Oct 1, 2008
It was legal to arrest native people "on the complaint of any resident citizen"

There were few white women in the region, and many young Native women were raped.

In 1937, the valley was as segregated as the Deep South.

Isn't time the County of Mendocino apologizes and offers some form of restitution for theses crimes of Genocide committed against the Native Populations by our "pioneers"??

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