Identical Twin Studies Prove Homosexuality Is Not Genetic
Posted in the Corinth Forum
#1 Jul 10, 2014
Dr. Neil Whitehead
Eight major studies of identical twins in Australia, the U.S., and Scandinavia during the last two decades all arrive at the same conclusion: gays were not born that way.
“At best genetics is a minor factor,” says Dr. Neil Whitehead, PhD. Whitehead worked for the New Zealand government as a scientific researcher for 24 years, then spent four years working for the United Nations and International Atomic Energy Agency. Most recently, he serves as a consultant to Japanese universities about the effects of radiation exposure. His PhD is in biochemistry and statistics.
Identical twins have the same genes or DNA. They are nurtured in equal prenatal conditions. If homosexuality is caused by genetics or prenatal conditions and one twin is gay, the co-twin should also be gay.
“Because they have identical DNA, it ought to be 100%,” Dr. Whitehead notes. But the studies reveal something else.“If an identical twin has same-sex attraction the chances the co-twin has it are only about 11% for men and 14% for women.”
Because identical twins are always genetically identical, homosexuality cannot be genetically dictated.“No-one is born gay,” he notes.“The predominant things that create homosexuality in one identical twin and not in the other have to be post-birth factors.”
Dr. Whitehead believes same-sex attraction (SSA) is caused by “non-shared factors,” things happening to one twin but not the other, or a personal response to an event by one of the twins and not the other.
For example, one twin might have exposure to pornography or sexual abuse, but not the other. One twin may interpret and respond to their family or classroom environment differently than the other.“These individual and idiosyncratic responses to random events and to common environmental factors predominate,” he says.
The first very large, reliable study of identical twins was conducted in Australia in 1991, followed by a large U.S. study about 1997. Then Australia and the U.S. conducted more twin studies in 2000, followed by several studies in Scandinavia, according to Dr. Whitehead.
“Twin registers are the foundation of modern twin studies. They are now very large, and exist in many countries. A gigantic European twin register with a projected 600,000 members is being organized, but one of the largest in use is in Australia, with more than 25,000 twins on the books.”
A significant twin study among adolescents shows an even weaker genetic correlation. In 2002 Bearman and Brueckner studied tens of thousands of adolescent students in the U.S. The same-sex attraction concordance between identical twins was only 7.7% for males and 5.3% for females—lower than the 11% and 14% in the Australian study by Bailey et al conducted in 2000.
In the identical twin studies, Dr. Whitehead has been struck by how fluid and changeable sexual identity can be.
“Neutral academic surveys show there is substantial change. About half of the homosexual/bisexual population (in a non-therapeutic environment) moves towards heterosexuality over a lifetime. About 3% of the present heterosexual population once firmly believed themselves to be homosexual or bisexual.”
“Sexual orientation is not set in concrete,” he notes.
Even more remarkable, most of the changes occur without counseling or therapy.“These changes are not therapeutically induced, but happen ‘naturally’ in life, some very quickly,” Dr. Whitehead observes.“Most changes in sexual orientation are towards exclusive heterosexuality.”
Numbers of people who have changed towards exclusive heterosexuality are greater than current numbers of bisexuals and homosexuals combined. In other words, ex-gays outnumber actual gays.
The fluidity is even more pronounced among adolescents, as Bearman and Brueckner’s study demonstrated.“They found that from 16 to 17-years-old, if a person had a romantic attraction to the same sex, almost all had switched one year later.”
#2 Jul 10, 2014
Francis S. Collins, one of the world's leading scientists who works at the cutting edge of DNA research, concluded that "there is an inescapable component of heritability to many human behavioral traits." However, he adds, "for virtually none of them, is heredity ever close to predictive."
In reviewing the heritability (i.e., influence of genetic factors) on personality traits, Dr. Collins referenced the research of Bochard and McGue for the estimated percentage of these traits that can be ascribed to heredity.
The heritability estimates for personality traits were varied: General Cognitive Ability (50%), Extroversion (54%), Agreeableness (42%), Conscientiousness (49%), Neuroticism (48%), Openness (57%), Aggression (38%) and Traditionalism (54%).
Such estimates of heritability are based upon unbiased, careful analyses of studies conducted with identical twins. The studies lead to the conclusion that heredity is important in many of these personality traits. It is important however, to note that even in such studies with identical twins, that heritability is not to be confused as inevitability.
As Dr. Collins would agree, environment can influence gene expression, and free will determines the response to whatever predispositions might be present.
Dr. Collins succinctly reviewed the research on homosexuality and offers the following:
"An area of particularly strong public interest is the genetic basis of homosexuality. Evidence from twin studies does in fact support the conclusion that heritable factors play a role in male homosexuality. However, the likelihood that the identical twin of a homosexual male will also be gay is about 20%(compared with 2-4 percent of males in the general population), indicating that sexual orientation is genetically influenced but not hardwired by DNA, and that whatever genes are involved represent predispositions, not predeterminations [emphasis added]."
The heritability estimates for homosexuality is substantially lower than General Cognitive Ability, Extroversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, Openness, Aggression and Traditionalism!
Dr. Collins noted that environment--particularly childhood experiences--as well as the role of free will and choice affect us all in profound ways. As researchers discover increasing levels of molecular detail about inherited factors that underlie our personalities, it's critical that such data be used to illuminate the issues, not provide support to ideologues.
Citing such dangers, Dr. Collins referred to the book written by activist Dean Hamer, who declared the discovery of the "God gene" (this same author also is associated with "discovering the gay gene").
Dr. Collins noted that the "evidence" in Hamer's book "grabbed headlines," but was "wildly overstated."
A reviewer in Scientific American suggested that Hamer's book on the "God gene" should have been titled, "A Gene That Accounts for Less than One Percent of the Variance Found in Scores on Psychological Questionnaires Designed to Measure a Factor Called Self-Transcendence, Which Can Signify Everything from Belonging to the Green Party to Believing in ESP, According to One Unpublished, Unreplicated Study."
Unfortunately, much of the research in areas such as homosexuality has been misrepresented; not only in the media, but also by the scientists themselves through a tendency to overestimate the quantitative contribution of their findings.
Regarding the contributions of genetics to areas such as homosexuality, Dr. Collins concluded, "Yes, we have all been dealt a particular set of cards, and the cards will eventually be revealed. But how we play the hand is up to us."
#3 Jul 10, 2014
I should like to point out that Dr Neil Whitehead is a member of the discredited NARTH organization
NARTH relies on outdated studies and frequently confuses stereotypes with science. Dr. Nicolosi, for example, often tells audiences that people are gay because they have a rift with a same-sex parent or a have domineering opposite sex parent. It has been decades since any serious scientific body subscribed to these views and there is no contemporary research to uphold these anachronistic theories. Yet, NARTH’ co-founder Dr. Joseph Nicolosi repeats the empty mantra,“We advise fathers, if you don’t hug your sons, some other man will.”
... NARTH also has bizarre theories, such as encouraging male clients who drink Gatorade and call their friends “dude,” because this will supposedly make them more masculine. Dr. Nicolosi also espouses the bizarre idea that,“Non-homosexual men who experience defeat and failure may also experience homosexual fantasies or dreams.”
In 2006, NARTH had a meltdown after two major controversies. In the first, psychiatrist Joseph Berger, MD, a member of their “Scientific Advisory Committee,” wrote a paper encouraging students to “ridicule” gender variant children.“I suggest, indeed, letting children who wish go to school in clothes of the opposite sex–but not counseling other children to not tease them or hurt their feelings,” Dr. Berger wrote on NARTH’s website.“On the contrary, don’t interfere, and let the other children ridicule the child who has lost that clear boundary between play-acting at home and the reality needs of the outside world. Maybe, in this way, the child will re-establish that necessary boundary.”
In the second controversy, Gerald Schoenwolf, PhD, also a member of NARTH’s “Scientific Advisory Committee,” wrote a polemic on the group’s website that seemed to justify slavery.
#4 Jul 10, 2014
And the problem is???
#5 Jul 10, 2014
Now this would be note worthy if these two fruitcakes managed to make a child without a female in the mix........God created Adam and Eve, Not Adam and Steve.
Photos Capture The Beautiful Moment Two Fathers Meet Their Son For The First Time
#6 Jul 10, 2014
They should be ridiculed. This is perverse, unnatural, abhorrent, and detestable behavior.
"In the first, psychiatrist Joseph Berger, MD, a member of their “Scientific Advisory Committee,” wrote a paper encouraging students to “ridicule” gender variant children.“
#7 Jul 10, 2014
Unnatural? This word, I do not think it means what you think it means.
#8 Jul 10, 2014
The problem is that it confused causation and correlation and is a pretty blatant example of confirmation bias. Dear Jebus, there must be lead in the water in Oklahoma.
#9 Jul 10, 2014
What about a heterosexual couple where one of the partners is sterile?
#10 Jul 10, 2014
blah blah (untruth) think of the children!(lies) blah AIDS! blah blah but have you thought of the children?!(more lies and untruths) but the BIBLE SAYS...!(blatant lies) blah blah FAMILY VALUES!
#11 Jul 10, 2014
Dear Jebus, yes I most certainly do favor information that confirms my beliefs just as you do.........
#12 Jul 10, 2014
Got it. You got anything else? God, family values, and country, will always be at the forefront for me. I could not give a big rats ass about your secular beliefs. I am right, your wrong.
#13 Jul 10, 2014
#14 Jul 10, 2014
No one is unbiased but you posted that article with the causal leap that homosexuality is a choice which is patently absurd. You aren't allowing yourself to be informed, your simply going out in search of information that conforms to your worldview and disregarding factual information that doesn't. Irregardless whether its genetic, epigenetic, or caused by hormonal chances in the womb the gay person is gay due to circumstances beyond their control. Ask any gay person and they will tell you they knew they were different from their earliest memories.
#15 Jul 10, 2014
Spoken like a true John Bircher Fascist. Faith, Family, Fatherland, and Free Markets! Simply declaring yourself right does not, however, make it so. Carry on worshiping your Bronze Age sun god and getting yourself wet over a couple lines on a map..the rest of the world will carry on progressing and we'll check in on you every now and then and make sure you haven't soiled yourself.
Every thing you believe is being called into question, the legitimacy of race, religion, capitalism, and nationalism are being challenged so prepare for the feels - its going to be a wild ride.
#16 Jul 10, 2014
Is this you Drop It?
or is this you?
#17 Jul 10, 2014
Or are you this cray cray lady?
#18 Jul 10, 2014
You HAVE no reasonable "point", no arguable position. That is why you FAIL at so MANY, MANY things! Carry on, cockroach.
#19 Jul 10, 2014
Hm. Did I hit a bit too close to home?
Gay Communist Atheist: 1
Right-Wing Wing-Nut: 0
I'm sorry, you're just too dumb.
#20 Jul 10, 2014
You are most certainly searching for information that conforms to your secular views. Homosexual is undoubtedly a "choice" just as you choose to be a freaking moron.
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