Seven years ago, we were told the opposite of what the new Matthew...
Seven years ago, we were told the opposite of what the new Matthew England paper says: slower trade winds caused 'the pause' The strongest trade winds have driven more of the heat from global warming into the oceans; but when those winds slow, that heat will rapidly return to the atmosphere causing an abrupt rise in global average temperatures.
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#1 Feb 10, 2014
“We can observe changes in sea-surface temperature from the 19th century onwards using millions of measurements gathered by voluntary observers at sea and by buoys that drift around the oceans,” said Nick Rayner from the Met Office Hadley Centre in the UK.
“CCI is developing sea-surface temperature information from satellites that provides an independent assessment of these changes over the last few decades.”
Science leader for this project, Chris Merchant from the University of Reading, says,“When comparing changes in global average sea-surface temperature from these two sources, we see they provide a consistent picture since 1996, when the most reliable satellite measurements began.
“We are now working on applying our methods to earlier satellites, in order to extend reliable satellite-based information back into the 1980s.”
Nick Rayner adds:“That will allow us to combine, with increased confidence, the sea-surface temperature information from satellites with measurements gathered in the ocean, to build a better, more complete picture of past changes.”
These topics, among others, were discussed this week during the CCI’s Collocation Meeting at ESA’s Centre for Earth Observation in Frascati, Italy.
ESA began monitoring sea-surface temperature in 1991 with the first Along-Track Scanning Radiometer on the ERS-1 satellite, followed by instruments on ERS-2 and Envisat.
ESA will continue observations of sea-surface temperature with the upcoming Sentinel-3 mission, being developed for Europe’s Copernicus programme.
<there you go>
#2 Feb 10, 2014
Scientists today are often part of a team conducting original research into an area of study for which they have received funding. Funding for research is often obtained by writing a proposal and receiving a grant if the proposal is accepted. This is not always the case and was less so in the earlier days of scientific work. In work done prior to the 1960s, scientists often labored alone on a project that they designed and that they carried out supported by the institution or company for which they worked. Often the institution was a university or government, or an institution supported by a government.
A preliminary look at the scientific method involves at least the following steps:
1. Define a problem that needs a solution;
2. Formulate an explanation for the problem;
3. Determine or deduce a prediction based on the explanation;
4. Perform tests or experiments to see if the explanation is valid.
The four steps above form the basis of a scientific inquiry; they constitute a simple model for the scientific method. One possible sequence is 1, 2, 3, and 4. If 2 is true, what are the consequences? Testing (4) should include considering the opposite of each consequence in order to disprove 2. If 2 can be disproved, then start again with step 1.
There must be a fifth step. What good are steps 1 through 4 if no one knows about the results? The fifth step is communication; publication or presentation. The results of scientific research are usually made known to colleagues by discussion, presentation, publication, or all three; and in the modern world, discussion is largely done by email or in the halls at conferences or the written word. Publication is usually done in peer-reviewed journals; hopefully those with wide circulation.
Scientific research is the most important way to determine the causes, trends, and possible solutions to climate change that we see occurring today. Science is an important part of society and the advances made by scientists have been important to human beings’ continuance and well-being on Planet Earth. Scientific research in climate science involves all aspects of Earth’s climate; present, past, and projections into the future with the use of climate models, mainly general circulation models (GCMs). As some have said, we are living the experiment (4 above) and there is no second chance; Planet Earth is the experiment.
<there you go>
#3 Feb 11, 2014
Scientists did NOT tell any such story. One or two papers might come out proposing the 'working theory' but they didn't tell the public. It was progress in science as is the newer working hypothesis (supported by better and more recent data).
#4 Feb 11, 2014
Well,'thony's trash is trash.. From the archives:
Ten years ago, 14 April 2004
The world is heating up and scientists are turning to the Earth's oceans for answers on the magnitude of the temperature increases.
The oceans function as vast reservoirs of heat: the top two metres of ocean alone store all the equivalent energy contained in the atmosphere, while the whole of their waters store more than a thousand times this same value.
Because they cover 71% of the Earth's surface the oceans directly absorb the majority of solar heat, storing it for long periods of time by comparison to either the land or atmosphere. In effect, the oceans act as a giant rechargeable battery for the Earth.
It takes a lot of energy and time to shift sea temperature: it is for this reason that oceans can also be termed the 'memory' of the Earth's climate system, and it means that tracking sea surface temperature (SST) over a long period is arguably the most reliable way researchers know of measuring the precise rate at which global temperatures are increasing.
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