See SUXObama? I fixed your last sentence for you!!!EMR CARRIES ENERGY—sometimes called radiant energy—through space continuously away from the source (this is not true of the near-field part of the EM field).
"RADIATION is HEAT TRANSFER by the emission of ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES which CARRY ENERGY away from the emitting object."
The SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS PROHIBITS heat flow directly from COLD to HOT systems, but with the aid of a heat pump external work can be used to transport internal energy indirectly from a cold to a hot body.
- EVEN "ONE" MEASUREMENT, EVER DONE DONE, IN THE HISTORY OF MANKIND WHERE ANY COLD OBJECT HAS EVER "HEATED-UP" A WARMER OBJECT
- EVEN "ONE" MEASUREMENT WHERE THE COLDER ATMOSPHERE HAS "HEATED-UP" A WARMER EARTH
Because THEY DO NOT EXIST.
I am once again shown to be a CLUELESS AGW-denying IDIOT and a PATHOLOGICAL LIAR.
You really are good for a belly laugh, you know? And your repetitions are remarkably humorous. I love it when you call me names & attack me in all caps. Particularly funny was your attack on factologist, who clearly DOES understand the science, unlike you.
You are confusing heat transfer by conduction with heat transfer by radiation. The former involves "direct" contact when heat energy ALWAYS flows from a warmer to a colder object & does not use electromagnetic radiation (EMR) as a medium.
Infrared (IR) EMR, as you (correctly, for a change) point out, can transfer heat energy through a vacuum, without need for an intervening material. This is heat transfer by radiation.
I'm glad you FINALLY admitted that spectroscopy works because low energy transitions (which people call "changes in electron 'orbits'" even though they're really different energy states, as you - again, correctly, for a change - point out) occur at frequencies that do NOT change with temperature. The frequencies at which materials absorb (& re-emit) IR & VL EMR do NOT change with temperature.
As you also correctly (it's amazing that you're right again!) point out, matter above absolute zero emits EMR, & at earthly temperatures, this is in the IR spectrum. That process works in reverse, too, where IR EMR warms objects.
So, the warm earth emits IR EMR, & you admitted that the frequencies at which matter aborbs (& re-emits) EMR DO NOT DEPEND ON TEMPERATURE. You do realize what that means, right?
Atmospheric scientists, factologist & I are RIGHT!!! The earth emits IR EMR, & GHGs in the COLD atmosphere absorb & re-emit it, some back to the earth, further warming it.
This is heat transfer by radiation, not conduction, so colder objects CAN heat up warmer objects. The Second Law is not violated.
Let's try this another way. Imagine that the earth & its atmosphere are separated by a vacuum (of whatever convenient thickness you want), the boundaries of which are completely permeable to all frequencies of EMR. The point is that conduction can't occur, but radiation can.
The sun warms the earth by EMR in the UV, VL & (a bit of) IR. The earth re-emits IR EMR. which passes thru the vacuum. The atmosphere can be very, very cold (as long as it's still warm enough that its consituents are gases), but can still absorb & re-emit IR EMR, further WARMING the earth.
Why is a cloudy night warmer than a clear night? The answer is that water in the clouds is a greenhouse gas, & radiative transfer warms the earth.
You can scream in all caps all you want, but the Vinnikov is ABOUT temperature measurements & how to interpret them. No more, no less. Those measurements confirm radiative forcing as a correct mechanism.
Hey - since you're SO smart & know the REAL temp of the sun's surface, what are you doing wasting time on a silly blog? You should be on your way to see the King of Sweden to pick up that Nobel.