Frijoles---the 1983 vs 1999 scholarly works on that issue?<quoted text>
Let me ask you this -
- do the rules of etiquette permit one to habitually ignore the content of a response, as you were doing multiple times regarding our "discussion" on the other thread about Jews/new world slavery and the 1983 vs 1999 scholarly works on that issue?
HughBe---- What NEW information was manufactured and incorporated into the LATER,1999, work?
Which was closer to the events of slavery 1983 or 1999 work? What are the implications?
"Jews also took an active part in the Dutch colonial slave trade; indeed, the bylaws of the Recife and Mauricia congregations (1648) included an imposta (Jewish tax) of five soldos for each Negro slave a Brazilian Jew purchased from the West Indies Company. Slave AUCTIONS were POSTPONED if they fell on a Jewish holiday. In Curacao in the seventeenth century, as well as in the British colonies of Barbados and Jamaica in the eighteenth century, Jewish merchants played a MAJOR role in the slave trade. In FACT, in ALL the American colonies, whether French (Martinique), British, or Dutch, Jewish merchants frequently DOMINATED.
"This was no less true on the North American mainland, where during the eighteenth century Jews participated in the 'triangular trade' that brought slaves from Africa to the West Indies and there exchanged them for molasses, which in turn was taken to New England and converted into rum for sale in Africa. Isaac Da Costa of Charleston in the 1750's, David Franks of Philadelphia in the 1760's, and Aaron Lopez of Newport in the late 1760's and early 1770's dominated Jewish slave trading on the American continent."
"Slave trading was a MAJOR feature of Jewish economic life in Surinam which as a major stopping-off point in the triangular trade. Both North American and Caribbean Jews played a key role in this commerce: records of a slave sale in 1707 reveal that the ten LARGEST Jewish purchasers (10,400 guilders) spent more than 25 PERCENT of the total funds (38,605 guilders) exchanged."
Source---"Rabbi Raphael is both a rabbi and a TOP historian of Jewish history. For the last generation he has been the EDITOR of the quarterly journal, American Jewish History.
He is the Nathan and Sophia Gumenick Professor of Judaic Studies, Professor of Religion, and Chair, Department of Religion, The College of William and Mary, and a Visiting Fellow of Wolfson College, Oxford University.