Barack Obama, our next President

"The road ahead will be long. Our climb will be steep," Obama cautioned. Young and charismatic but with little experience on the national level, Obama smashed through racial barriers and easily defeated ... Full Story
dem

Chicago, IL

#1011574 Oct 25, 2013
Fenris the Big Bad Wolf wrote:
<quoted text>
I doubt she has much use for your sht-stained, vibrating b*ttplug. Keep it in your cavernous fudge tunnel, and I'll buy you a year's supply of batteries on the Fenris entitlement program.
\go give dumb carol a big sloppy kiss with that semen all over your face.

Since: May 11

Chambersburg, PA

#1011575 Oct 25, 2013
Republicans throwing tantrums at Congressional hearings over the ACA website.

When are they going to investigate how Congress cost the economy 24 billion dollars?

Nothing like a bunch of blowhards finding fault that the website was not completely operation by Oct 1 when these same f*cking blowhard couldn't fund the government by October 1st.
dem

Chicago, IL

#1011576 Oct 25, 2013
The physical interpretation of the quantity

(15)

depends on the number of particles. Fig.1 represents a container with a certain number of particles with a small control volume &#916;V inside. We check from time to time how many particles are in the control box. We distinguish three cases:

1. There is only one particle. In this case the control volume is empty most of the time. However, there is a certain chance to find the particle in it given by Eq.(15). The chance is proportional to &#916;V. The factor &#936;&#936;&#8727 ; is called the chance density.

2. If the number of particles is a bit larger there are usually some particles inside the box. We can define an average, but the actual number of particles in the box has relatively large fluctuations around this average.

3. In the case of a very large number of particles there will always be a lot of particles in the small box. The number will fluctuate but the fluctuations around the average are relatively small. The average number is proportional to &#916;V and &#936;&#936;&#8727 ; is now interpreted as the particle density.

In quantum mechanics the particle probability flow density Jp (unit: particles per second per m²) can be derived from the Schrödinger equation to be
dem

Chicago, IL

#1011577 Oct 25, 2013
The phase space formulation of quantum mechanics places the position and momentum variables on equal footing, in phase space. In contrast, the Schrödinger picture uses the position or momentum representations (see also position and momentum space). The two key features of the phase space formulation are that the quantum state is described by a quasiprobability distribution (instead of a wave function, state vector, or density matrix) and operator multiplication is replaced by a star product.

The theory was fully detailed by Hip Groenewold in 1946 in his PhD thesis,[1] with significant parallel contributions by Joe Moyal,[2] each building off earlier ideas by Hermann Weyl[3] and Eugene Wigner.[4]

The chief advantage of the phase space formulation is that it makes quantum mechanics appear as similar to Hamiltonian mechanics as possible by avoiding the operator formalism, thereby "'freeing' the quantization of the 'burden' of the Hilbert space."[5] This formulation is statistical in nature and offers logical connections between quantum mechanics and classical statistical mechanics, enabling a natural comparison between the two (cf. classical limit). Quantum mechanics in phase space is often favored in certain quantum optics applications (see optical phase space), or in the study of decoherence and a range of specialized technical problems, though otherwise the formalism is less commonly employed in practical situations.[6]

The conceptual ideas underlying the development of quantum mechanics in phase space have branched into mathematical offshoots such as deformation theory (cf. Kontsevich quantization formula) and noncommutative geometry.
dem

Chicago, IL

#1011578 Oct 25, 2013
Main articles: Quasiprobability distribution, Wigner quasiprobability distribution, and Wigner–Weyl transform
The phase space distribution f(x,p) of a quantum state is a quasiprobability distribution. In the phase space formulation, the phase-space distribution may be treated as the fundamental, primitive description of the quantum system, without any reference to wave functions or density matrices.[7]

There are several different ways to represent the distribution, all interrelated.[8][9] The most noteworthy is the Wigner representation, W(x,p), discovered first.[4] Other representations (in approximately descending order of prevalence in the literature) include the Glauber-Sudarshan P,[10][11] Husimi Q,[12] Kirkwood-Rihaczek, Mehta, Rivier, and Born-Jordan representations.[13][14] These alternatives are most useful when the Hamiltonian takes a particular form, such as normal order for the Glauber–Sudarshan P-representation. Since the Wigner representation is the most common, this article will usually stick to it, unless otherwise specified.

The phase space distribution possesses properties akin to the probability density in a 2n-dimensional phase space. For example, it is real-valued, unlike the generally complex-valued wave function. We can understand the probability of lying within a position interval, for example, by integrating the Wigner function over all momenta and over the position interval:
WOW

Bronx, NY

#1011579 Oct 25, 2013
dem wrote:
Alice now measures the spin along the z-axis. She can obtain one of two possible outcomes:+z or &#8722;z. Suppose she gets +z. According to the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, the quantum state of the system collapses into state I. The quantum state determines the probable outcomes of any measurement performed on the system. In this case, if Bob subsequently measures spin along the z-axis, there is 100% probability that he will obtain &#8722;z. Similarly, if Alice gets &#8722;z, Bob will get +z.
There is, of course, nothing special about choosing the z-axis: according to quantum mechanics the spin singlet state may equally well be expressed as a superposition of spin states pointing in the x direction.[13]:318 Suppose that Alice and Bob had decided to measure spin along the x-axis. We'll call these states Ia and IIa. In state Ia, Alice's electron has spin +x and Bob's positron has spin &#8722;x. In state IIa, Alice's electron has spin &#8722;x and Bob's positron has spin +x. Therefore, if Alice measures +x, the system 'collapses' into state Ia, and Bob will get &#8722;x. If Alice measures &#8722;x, the system collapses into state IIa, and Bob will get +x.
Whatever axis their spins are measured along, they are always found to be opposite. This can only be explained if the particles are linked in some way. Either they were created with a definite (opposite) spin about every axis—a "hidden variable" argument—or they are linked so that one electron "feels" which axis the other is having its spin measured along, and becomes its opposite about that one axis—an "entanglement" argument. Moreover, if the two particles have their spins measured about different axes, once the electron's spin has been measured about the x-axis (and the positron's spin about the x-axis deduced), the positron's spin about the z-axis will no longer be certain, as if (a) it knows that the measurement has taken place, or (b) it has a definite spin already, about a second axis—a hidden variable. However, it turns out that the predictions of Quantum Mechanics, which have been confirmed by experiment, cannot be explained by any hidden variable theory. This is demonstrated in Bell's theorem.[14]
In quantum mechanics, the x-spin and z-spin are "incompatible observables", meaning the Heisenberg uncertainty principle applies to alternating measurements of them: a quantum state cannot possess a definite value for both of these variables. Suppose Alice measures the z-spin and obtains +z, so that the quantum state collapses into state I. Now, instead of measuring the z-spin as well, Bob measures the x-spin. According to quantum mechanics, when the system is in state I, Bob's x-spin measurement will have a 50% probability of producing +x and a 50% probability of -x. It is impossible to predict which outcome will appear until Bob actually performs the measurement.
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dem

Chicago, IL

#1011580 Oct 25, 2013
Eman wrote:
<quoted text>
predictable
like you molesting a child

A point of caution, however: despite the similarity in appearance, W(x,p) is not a genuine joint probability distribution, because regions under it do not represent mutually exclusive states, as required in the third axiom of probability theory. Moreover, it can, in general, take negative values even for pure states, with the unique exception of (optionally squeezed) coherent states, in violation of the first axiom.

Regions of such negative value are provable to be "small": they cannot extend to compact regions larger than a few &#295;, and hence disappear in the classical limit. They are shielded by the uncertainty principle, which does not allow precise localization within phase-space regions smaller than &#295;, and thus renders such "negative probabilities" less paradoxical. If the left side of the equation is to be interpreted as an expectation value in the Hilbert space with respect to an operator, then in the context of quantum optics this equation is known as the optical equivalence theorem.(For details on the properties and interpretation of the Wigner function, see its main article.)
dem

Chicago, IL

#1011581 Oct 25, 2013
The time evolution of the phase space distribution is given by a quantum modification of Liouville flow.[2][9][19] This formula results from applying the Wigner transformation to the density matrix version of the quantum Liouville equation, the von Neumann equation.

In any representation of the phase space distribution with its associated star product, this is

or, for the Wigner function in particular,

where {{,}} is the Moyal bracket, the Wigner transform of the quantum commutator, while {,} is the classical Poisson bracket.[2]

This yields a concise illustration of the correspondence principle: this equation manifestly reduces to the classical Liouville equation in the limit &#295; &#8594; 0. In the quantum extension of the flow, however, the density of points in phase space is not conserved; the probability fluid appears "diffusive" and compressible.[2] The concept of quantum trajectory is therefore a delicate issue here.(Given the restrictions placed by the uncertainty principle on localization, Niels Bohr vigorously denied the existence of physical such trajectories on the microscopic scale.) By means of formal phase-space trajectories, the time evolution problem of the Wigner function can be rigorously solved using the path-integral method[20] and the method of quantum characteristics,[21] although there are practical obstacles in both cases.

Examples[edit]Simple harmonic oscillator[edit]Main article: quantum harmonic oscillator

The Wigner quasiprobability distribution Fn(u) for the simple harmonic oscillator with a) n = 0, b) n = 1, and c) n = 5.The Hamiltonian for the simple harmonic oscillator in one spatial dimension in the Wigner-Weyl representation is

The &#9733;-genvalue equation for the static Wigner function then reads
WOW

Bronx, NY

#1011582 Oct 25, 2013
dem wrote:
However, the principle of locality appeals powerfully to physical intuition, and Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen were unwilling to abandon it. Einstein derided the quantum mechanical predictions as "spooky action at a distance". The conclusion they drew was that quantum mechanics is not a complete theory.[16]
In recent years, however, doubt has been cast on EPR's conclusion due to developments in understanding locality and especially quantum decoherence. The word locality has several different meanings in physics. For example, in quantum field theory "locality" means that quantum fields at different points of space do not interact with one another. However, quantum field theories that are "local" in this sense appear to violate the principle of locality as defined by EPR, but they nevertheless do not violate locality in a more general sense. Wavefunction collapse can be viewed as an epiphenomenon of quantum decoherence, which in turn is nothing more than an effect of the underlying local time evolution of the wavefunction of a system and all of its environment. Since the underlying behaviour doesn't violate local causality, it follows that neither does the additional effect of wavefunction collapse, whether real or apparent. Therefore, as outlined in the example above, neither the EPR experiment nor any quantum experiment demonstrates that faster-than-light signaling is possible.
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dem

Chicago, IL

#1011583 Oct 25, 2013
maybe this will be a little lighter reading

War and Peace (Pre-reform Russian:«&#1042;&#1086 ;&#1081;&#1085;&#1 072; &#1080; &#1084;&#1080;&#10 88;&#1098;», Voyna i mir) is a novel by the Russian author Leo Tolstoy, first published in 1869. The work is epic in scale and is regarded as one of the most important works of world literature.[1][2][3] It is considered Tolstoy's finest literary achievement, along with his other major prose work Anna Karenina (1873–1877).

War and Peace delineates in graphic detail events surrounding the French invasion of Russia, and the impact of the Napoleonic era on Tsarist society, as seen through the eyes of five Russian aristocratic families. Portions of an earlier version of the novel, then known as The Year 1805,[4] were serialized in the magazine The Russian Messenger between 1865 and 1867. The novel was first published in its entirety in 1869.[5] Newsweek in 2009 ranked it first in its list of the Top 100 Books.[6] In 2003, the novel was listed at number 20 on the BBC's survey The Big Read.[7]

Tolstoy himself, somewhat enigmatically, said of War and Peace that it was "not a novel, even less is it a poem, and still less a historical chronicle". Large sections of the work, especially in the later chapters, are philosophical discussion rather than narrative.[8] He went on to elaborate that the best Russian literature does not conform to standard norms and hence hesitated to call War and Peace a novel.(Instead, Tolstoy regarded Anna Karenina as his first true novel.)
dem

Chicago, IL

#1011584 Oct 25, 2013
War and Peace is well known as being one of the longest novels ever written, though not the longest. It is actually the seventh longest novel ever written in a Latin or Cyrillic based alphabet and is subdivided into four books or volumes, each with sub parts containing many chapters.

Tolstoy came up with the title, and some of his themes, from an 1861 work of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon: La Guerre et la Paix ('War and Peace' in French). Tolstoy had served in the Crimean War and written a series of short stories and novellas featuring scenes of war.

He began writing War and Peace in the year that he finally married and settled down at his country estate. The first half of the book was written under the name "1805".

During the writing of the second half, he read widely and acknowledged Schopenhauer as one of his main inspirations. However, Tolstoy developed his own views of history and the role of the individual within it.[9]

The first draft of War and Peace was completed in 1863. In 1865, the periodical Russkiy Vestnik published the first part of this early version under the title 1805. In the following year, it published more of the same early version. Tolstoy was dissatisfied with this version, although he allowed several parts of it to be published with a different ending in 1867, still under the same title "1805". He heavily rewrote the entire novel between 1866 and 1869.[5][9] Tolstoy's wife, Sophia Tolstaya, wrote as many as seven separate complete manuscripts by hand before Tolstoy considered it again ready for publication.[9] The version that was published in Russkiy Vestnik had a very different ending from the version eventually published under the title War and Peace in 1869.

The completed novel was then called Voyna i mir (new style orthography; in English War and Peace).

The 1805 manuscript (sometimes referred to as "the original War and Peace") was re-edited and annotated in Russia in 1983 and since has been translated separately from the "known" version, to English, German, French, Spanish, Dutch, Swedish, Finnish, Albanian, and Korean. The fact that so many extant versions of War and Peace survive make it one of the best insights into the mental processes of a great novelist.
dem

Chicago, IL

#1011585 Oct 25, 2013
The novel can be generally classified as historical fiction. It contains elements present in many types of popular 18th and 19th century literature, especially the romance novel. War and Peace attains its literary status by transcending genres.

Tolstoy was instrumental in bringing a new kind of consciousness to the novel. His narrative structure is noted for its "god-like" ability to hover over and within events, but also in the way it swiftly and seamlessly portrayed a particular character's point of view. His use of visual detail is often cinematic in its scope, using the literary equivalents of panning, wide shots and close-ups, to give dramatic interest to battles and ballrooms alike. These devices, while not exclusive to Tolstoy, are part of the new style of the novel that arose in the mid-19th century and of which Tolstoy proved himself a master.[

Since: Jun 13

Orlando, FL

#1011586 Oct 25, 2013
No Surprize wrote:
<quoted text>Realtime all the time bent over and punked by No Surprize Carol, someone or something always eating someone elses shit, you looking like an ignorant idiot you dumbass....
The hazards of being a ghetto demokRAT you loser...
It's the culture...
Realtime, like most liberals, don't bother to corroborate a source's content or even Fox News commentators if there's even a remote chance they might be proven wrong.

People on the left who break rank are promptly isolated from the herd, demonized and/or fired.
WOW

Bronx, NY

#1011587 Oct 25, 2013
dem wrote:
Acceptable theories" and the experiment[edit]According to the present view of the situation, quantum mechanics flatly contradicts Einstein's philosophical postulate that any acceptable physical theory must fulfill "local realism".
In the EPR paper (1935) the authors realised that quantum mechanics was inconsistent with their assumptions, but Einstein nevertheless thought that quantum mechanics might simply be augmented by hidden variables (i.e. variables which were, at that point, still obscure to him), without any other change, to achieve an acceptable theory. He pursued these ideas for over twenty years until the end of his life, in 1955.
In contrast, John Bell, in his 1964 paper, showed that quantum mechanics and the class of hidden variable theories Einstein favored[17] would lead to different experimental results: different by a factor of 3&#8260;2 for certain correlations. So the issue of "acceptability", up to that time mainly concerning theory, finally became experimentally decidable.
There are many Bell test experiments, e.g. those of Alain Aspect and others. They support the predictions of quantum mechanics rather than the class of hidden variable theories supported by Einstein.[2] According to Karl Popper these experiments showed that the class of "hidden variables" Einstein believed in is erroneous.[
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dem

Chicago, IL

#1011589 Oct 25, 2013
WOW wrote:
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fu ck you pu ssy
Tolstoy incorporated extensive historical research. He was also influenced by many other novels.[9] A veteran of the Crimean War, Tolstoy was quite critical of standard history, especially the standards of military history, in War and Peace. Tolstoy read all the standard histories available in Russian and French about the Napoleonic Wars and combined more traditional historical writing with the novel form. He explains at the start of the novel's third volume his own views on how history ought to be written. His aim was to blur the line between fiction and history, in order to get closer to the truth, as he states in Volume II.
The novel is set 60 years earlier than the time at which Tolstoy wrote it, "in the days of our grandfathers", as he puts it. He had spoken with people who had lived through war during the French invasion of Russia in 1812, so the book is also, in part, accurate ethnography fictionalized. He read letters, journals, autobiographical and biographical materials pertaining to Napoleon and the dozens of other historical characters in the novel. There are approximately 160 real persons named or referred to in War and Peace.[11]
Language[edit]
Cover of War and Peace, Italian translation, 1899Although Tolstoy wrote most of the book, including all the narration, in Russian, significant portions of dialogue (including its opening paragraph) are written in French with characters often switching between the two languages. This reflected 19th century Russian aristocracy, where French, a foreign tongue, was widely spoken and considered a language of prestige and more refined than Russian.[12] This came about from the historical influence throughout Europe of the powerful court of the Sun King, Louis XIV of France, leading to members of the Russian aristocracy being less competent in speaking their mother tongue. In War and Peace, for example, Julie Karagina, Princess Marya's friend, has to take Russian lessons in order to master her native language.
dem

Chicago, IL

#1011590 Oct 25, 2013
French words.

The use of French diminishes as the book progresses and the wars with the French intensify, culminating in the capture and eventual burning of Moscow. The progressive elimination of French from the text is a means of demonstrating that Russia has freed itself from foreign cultural domination.[13] It is also, at the level of plot development, a way of showing that a once-admired and friendly nation, France, has turned into an enemy. By midway through the book, several of the Russian aristocracy, whose command of French is far better than their command of Russian, are anxious to find Russian tutors for themselves.

English and other translations[edit]War and Peace has been translated into many languages. It has been translated into English on several occasions, starting with Clara Bell working from a French translation. The translators Constance Garnett and Louise and Aylmer Maude knew Tolstoy personally. Translations have to deal with Tolstoy’s often peculiar syntax and his fondness for repetitions. About 2% of War and Peace is in French; Tolstoy removed the French in a revised 1873 edition, only to restore it later.[13] Most translators follow Garnett retaining some French, Briggs uses no French, while Pevear-Volokhonsky and Amy Mandelker's revision of the Maude translation both retain the French fully.[13](For a list of translations see below)

Background and historical context[edit]
No Surprize

Seminole, FL

#1011591 Oct 25, 2013
USAsince1680 wrote:
<quoted text>
Really?
" Factcheck.org and the Kaiser Family Foundation have breakdowns of the Ryan’s “Path To Prosperity” plan from March 2012."
Under Ryan’s plan, beginning in 2023, people over 65 would pick an insurance plan in a new Medicare exchange system, with Medicare competing with other insurers for their business.
The government would send money, called a premium-support payment, directly to the insurer picked by the consumer.
If the consumer picks a plan more expensive than the government premium payment they receive, the consumer must pay the difference out of pocket. If the consumer picks a cheaper plan, they pocket the difference in the form of a rebate check.
The Ryan plan set the premium payment to consumers at the cost of the second-least expensive government-approved plan.
The federal government will determine the minimum level of benefits that all plans must offer. The premium-support payment is capped at the growth of GDP, plus 0.5 percent. The subsidy will be adjusted based on the income level of the consumer.
After 2022, seniors are guaranteed they can enroll in any plan offered by the new exchanges and Medicare despite their health status or age.
In Ryan’s March 2012 plan, there is no limit of out-of-pocket costs incurred by seniors, and the plan doesn’t address prescription drug costs."
Now, what's different about Ryans' plan for Seniors and the Affordable Care Act?
http://news.yahoo.com/understanding-paul-ryan...
>spam>
dem

Chicago, IL

#1011592 Oct 25, 2013
The novel begins in the year 1805 during the reign of Tsar Alexander I and leads up to the 1812 French invasion of Russia by Napoleon. The era of Catherine the Great (1762–1796), when the royal court in Paris was the centre of western European civilization,[14] is still fresh in the minds of older people. Catherine, fluent in French and wishing to reshape Russia into a great European nation, made French the language of her royal court. For the next one hundred years, it became a social requirement for members of the Russian nobility to speak French and understand French culture.[14] This historical and cultural context in the aristocracy is reflected in War and Peace. Catherine's grandson, Alexander I, came to the throne in 1801 at the age of 24. In the novel, his mother, Marya Feodorovna, is the most powerful woman in the Russian court.

War and Peace tells the story of five aristocratic families—the Bezukhovs, the Bolkonskys, the Rostovs, the Kuragins and the Drubetskoys—and the entanglements of their personal lives with the then contemporary history of 1805 to 1813, principally Napoleon's invasion of Russia in 1812. The Bezukhovs, while very rich, are a fragmented family as the old Count, Kirill Vladimirovich, has fathered dozens of illegitimate sons. The Bolkonskys are an old established and wealthy family based at Bald Hills. Old Prince Bolkonsky, Nikolai Andreevich, served as a general under Catherine the Great, in earlier wars. The Moscow Rostovs have many estates, but never enough cash. They are a closely knit, loving family who live for the moment regardless of their financial situation. The Kuragin family has three children, who are all of questionable character. The Drubetskoy family is of impoverished nobility, and consists of an elderly mother and her only son, Boris, whom she wishes to push up the career ladder.

Tolstoy spent years researching and rewriting the book. He worked from primary source materials (interviews and other documents), as well as from history books, philosophy texts and other historical novels.[9] Tolstoy also used a great deal of his own experience in the Crimean War to bring vivid detail and first-hand accounts of how the Russian army was structured.[15]
dem

Chicago, IL

#1011593 Oct 25, 2013
tea baggers are stoooopid

The standard Russian text of War and Peace is divided into four books (fifteen parts) and an epilogue in two parts – one mainly narrative, the other thematic. While roughly the first half of the novel is concerned strictly with the fictional characters, the later parts, as well as one of the work's two epilogues, increasingly consist of essays about the nature of war, power, history, and historiography. Tolstoy interspersed these essays into the story in a way that defies previous fictional convention. Certain abridged versions remove these essays entirely, while others, published even during Tolstoy's life, simply moved these essays into an appendix.

Plot summary[edit]War and Peace has a large cast of characters, the majority of whom are introduced in the first book. Some are actual historical figures, such as Napoleon and Alexander I. While the scope of the novel is vast, it is centered around
WOW

Bronx, NY

#1011594 Oct 25, 2013
dem wrote:
Main articles: Quasiprobability distribution, Wigner quasiprobability distribution, and Wigner–Weyl transform
The phase space distribution f(x,p) of a quantum state is a quasiprobability distribution. In the phase space formulation, the phase-space distribution may be treated as the fundamental, primitive description of the quantum system, without any reference to wave functions or density matrices.[7]
There are several different ways to represent the distribution, all interrelated.[8][9] The most noteworthy is the Wigner representation, W(x,p), discovered first.[4] Other representations (in approximately descending order of prevalence in the literature) include the Glauber-Sudarshan P,[10][11] Husimi Q,[12] Kirkwood-Rihaczek, Mehta, Rivier, and Born-Jordan representations.[13][14] These alternatives are most useful when the Hamiltonian takes a particular form, such as normal order for the Glauber–Sudarshan P-representation. Since the Wigner representation is the most common, this article will usually stick to it, unless otherwise specified.
The phase space distribution possesses properties akin to the probability density in a 2n-dimensional phase space. For example, it is real-valued, unlike the generally complex-valued wave function. We can understand the probability of lying within a position interval, for example, by integrating the Wigner function over all momenta and over the position interval:
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