WOW
Bronx, NY

dem wrote: The earliest versions of quantum mechanics were formulated in the first decade of the 20th century. At around the same time, the atomic theory and the corpuscular theory of light (as updated by Einstein) first came to be widely accepted as scientific fact; these latter theories can be viewed as quantum theories of matter and electromagnetic radiation, respectively. Early quantum theory was significantly reformulated in the mid1920s by Werner Heisenberg, Max Born and Pascual Jordan, who created matrix mechanics; Louis de Broglie and Erwin Schrödinger (Wave Mechanics); and Wolfgang Pauli and Satyendra Nath Bose (statistics of subatomic particles). Moreover, the Copenhagen interpretation of Niels Bohr became widely accepted. By 1930, quantum mechanics had been further unified and formalized by the work of David Hilbert, Paul Dirac and John von Neumann,[2] with a greater emphasis placed on measurement in quantum mechanics, the statistical nature of our knowledge of reality, and philosophical speculation about the role of the observer. Quantum mechanics has since branched out into almost every aspect of 20th century physics and other disciplines, such as quantum chemistry, quantum electronics, quantum optics, and quantum information science. Much 19th century physics has been reevaluated as the "classical limit" of quantum mechanics, and its more advanced developments in terms of quantum field theory, string theory, and speculative quantum gravity theories. I would be impressed if you had a advanced degree in PHYSICS STFU DEM

No Surprize
Seminole, FL

USAsince1680 wrote: <quoted text> Yes, thanks for the reminder. Their group offers a good study into choice blindness, paranoia, fantasy, gang mentality and the dumbing down of America by right wing media. God. What a sorry ass life you have, you miserable little old woman... It's the culture...

TSM
El Paso, TX

Obamacare is the most reckless/destructive piece of Legislation ever force on the American People!! The probability of ‘Obamacare’ we could wind up with more Americans uninsured than insured!!

dem
Chicago, IL

WOW wrote: <quoted text>I'm here now 8itch stfu get to suckin, beitch

“Constitutionalis t”
Since: Dec 10
Spring, TX

Realtime wrote: UPS now hiring 55,000 holiday season workers. Kroger set to hire 1200 in S E Ohio. DOW up nicely today in spite of bad news in Asian market. And for Flack www.aeromobil.com It really looks like you want to anser this question: Why is Obama's "recovery" generating 5 part time jobs for every 1 full time job, thus putting 5 people into poverty for every 1 person it allows a living wage? Your post seems to be in contradiction with the real world. Why are the rich fat cats on Wall Street getting richer while Obama is putting 5 people in poverty for every 1 person achieving a living wage? I'd like to see your explanation of how that happens. Who is orchestrating the flow of money to the richest while the poor get poorer with Obama running the economy?

dem
Chicago, IL

where h is Planck's constant. Planck (cautiously) insisted that this was simply an aspect of the processes of absorption and emission of radiation and had nothing to do with the physical reality of the radiation itself.[6] In fact, he considered his quantum hypothesis a mathematical trick to get the right answer rather than a sizeable discovery. However, in 1905 Albert Einstein interpreted Planck's quantum hypothesis realistically and used it to explain the photoelectric effect, in which shining light on certain materials can eject electrons from the material. The 1927 Solvay Conference in Brussels.The foundations of quantum mechanics were established during the first half of the 20th century by Max Planck, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Louis de Broglie, Arthur Compton, Albert Einstein, Erwin Schrödinger, Max Born, John von Neumann, Paul Dirac, Enrico Fermi, Wolfgang Pauli, Max von Laue, Freeman Dyson, David Hilbert, Wilhelm Wien, Satyendra Nath Bose, Arnold Sommerfeld and others. In the mid1920s, developments in quantum mechanics led to its becoming the standard formulation for atomic physics. In the summer of 1925, Bohr and Heisenberg published results that closed the "Old Quantum Theory". Out of deference to their particlelike behavior in certain processes and measurements, light quanta came to be called photons (1926). From Einstein's simple postulation was born a flurry of debating, theorizing, and testing. Thus the entire field of quantum physics emerged, leading to its wider acceptance at the Fifth Solvay Conference in 1927.

dem
Chicago, IL

The other exemplar that led to quantum mechanics was the study of electromagnetic waves, such as visible and ultraviolet light. When it was found in 1900 by Max Planck that the energy of waves could be described as consisting of small packets or "quanta", Albert Einstein further developed this idea to show that an electromagnetic wave such as light could also be described as a particle (later called the photon) with a discrete quantum of energy that was dependent on its frequency.[7] As a matter of fact, Einstein was able to use the photon theory of light to explain the photoelectric effect, for which he won the Nobel Prize in 1921. This led to a theory of unity between subatomic particles and electromagnetic waves, called wave–particle duality, in which particles and waves were neither one nor the other, but had certain properties of both. Thus coined the term waveparticle duality. While quantum mechanics traditionally described the world of the very small, it is also needed to explain certain recently investigated macroscopic systems such as superconductors, superfluids, and larger organic molecules.[8] The word quantum derives from the Latin, meaning "how great" or "how much".[9] In quantum mechanics, it refers to a discrete unit that quantum theory assigns to certain physical quantities, such as the energy of an atom at rest (see Figure 1). The discovery that particles are discrete packets of energy with wavelike properties led to the branch of physics dealing with atomic and subatomic systems which is today called quantum mechanics. It is the underlying mathematical framework of many fields of physics and chemistry, including condensed matter physics, solidstate physics, atomic physics, molecular physics, computational physics, computational chemistry, quantum chemistry, particle physics, nuclear chemistry, and nuclear physics.[10] Some fundamental aspects of the theory are still actively studied.[11]

tell_it_like_it_ IS
Euless, TX

Realtime wrote: <quoted text>It's become trimmer during Obama and the deficit is shrinking. Its not The deficit that is shrinking... Your brain matter is...

dem
Chicago, IL

Quantum mechanics is essential to understanding the behavior of systems at atomic length scales and smaller. If classical mechanics alone governed the workings of an atom, electrons could not really "orbit" the nucleus. Since bodies in circular motion are accelerating, electrons must emit radiation, losing energy and eventually colliding with the nucleus in the process. This clearly contradicts the existence of stable atoms. However, in the natural world, electrons normally remain in an uncertain, nondeterministic, "smeared", probabilistic, wave–particle wavefunction orbital path around (or through) the nucleus, defying the traditional assumptions of classical mechanics and electromagnetism.[12] Quantum mechanics was initially developed to provide a better explanation and description of the atom, especially the differences in the spectra of light emitted by different isotopes of the same element, as well as subatomic particles. In short, the quantummechanical atomic model has succeeded spectacularly in the realm where classical mechanics and electromagnetism falter. Broadly speaking, quantum mechanics incorporates four classes of phenomena for which classical physics cannot account:

dem
Chicago, IL

the brooklyn phaggot was up all night dreaming of my co ck Quantum mechanics is essential to understanding the behavior of systems at atomic length scales and smaller. If classical mechanics alone governed the workings of an atom, electrons could not really "orbit" the nucleus. Since bodies in circular motion are accelerating, electrons must emit radiation, losing energy and eventually colliding with the nucleus in the process. This clearly contradicts the existence of stable atoms. However, in the natural world, electrons normally remain in an uncertain, nondeterministic, "smeared", probabilistic, wave–particle wavefunction orbital path around (or through) the nucleus, defying the traditional assumptions of classical mechanics and electromagnetism.[12] Quantum mechanics was initially developed to provide a better explanation and description of the atom, especially the differences in the spectra of light emitted by different isotopes of the same element, as well as subatomic particles. In short, the quantummechanical atomic model has succeeded spectacularly in the realm where classical mechanics and electromagnetism falter. Broadly speaking, quantum mechanics incorporates four classes of phenomena for which classical physics cannot account:

dem
Chicago, IL

In the mathematically rigorous formulation of quantum mechanics developed by Paul Dirac,[13] David Hilbert,[14] John von Neumann,[15] and Hermann Weyl[16] the possible states of a quantum mechanical system are represented by unit vectors (called "state vectors"). Formally, these reside in a complex separable Hilbert space  variously called the "state space" or the "associated Hilbert space" of the system  that is well defined up to a complex number of norm 1 (the phase factor). In other words, the possible states are points in the projective space of a Hilbert space, usually called the complex projective space. The exact nature of this Hilbert space is dependent on the system  for example, the state space for position and momentum states is the space of squareintegrable functions, while the state space for the spin of a single proton is just the product of two complex planes. Each observable is represented by a maximally Hermitian (precisely: by a selfadjoint) linear operator acting on the state space. Each eigenstate of an observable corresponds to an eigenvector of the operator, and the associated eigenvalue corresponds to the value of the observable in that eigenstate. If the operator's spectrum is discrete, the observable can attain only those discrete eigenvalues.

“Often imitated”
Since: Jul 07
never duplicated

Yeah wrote: <quoted text>Obama hasn't killed as many Americans for no reason son. But I see killing Americans is acceptable to you.... typical libturd, you can't read.

dem
Chicago, IL

In the formalism of quantum mechanics, the state of a system at a given time is described by a complex wave function, also referred to as state vector in a complex vector space.[17] This abstract mathematical object allows for the calculation of probabilities of outcomes of concrete experiments. For example, it allows one to compute the probability of finding an electron in a particular region around the nucleus at a particular time. Contrary to classical mechanics, one can never make simultaneous predictions of conjugate variables, such as position and momentum, with accuracy. For instance, electrons may be considered (to a certain probability) to be located somewhere within a given region of space, but with their exact positions unknown. Contours of constant probability, often referred to as "clouds", may be drawn around the nucleus of an atom to conceptualize where the electron might be located with the most probability. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle quantifies the inability to precisely locate the particle given its conjugate momentum.[18] According to one interpretation, as the result of a measurement the wave function containing the probability information for a system collapses from a given initial state to a particular eigenstate. The possible results of a measurement are the eigenvalues of the operator representing the observable — which explains the choice of Hermitian operators, for which all the eigenvalues are real. The probability distribution of an observable in a given state can be found by computing the spectral decomposition of the corresponding operator. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is represented by the statement that the operators corresponding to certain observables do not commute. The probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics thus stems from the act of measurement. This is one of the most difficult aspects of quantum systems to understand. It was the central topic in the famous BohrEinstein debates, in which the two scientists attempted to clarify these fundamental principles by way of thought experiments. In the decades after the formulation of quantum mechanics, the question of what constitutes a "measurement" has been extensively studied. Newer interpretations of quantum mechanics have been formulated that do away with the concept of "wavefunction collapse" (see, for example, the relative state interpretation). The basic idea is that when a quantum system interacts with a measuring apparatus, their respective wavefunctions become entangled, so that the original quantum system ceases to exist as an independent entity. For details, see the article on measurement in quantum mechanics.[19]

No Surprize
Seminole, FL

USAsince1680 wrote: <quoted text> What's wrong? Afraid if you acknowledge Breitbart is the source of your cut and past you will look stupid? You're right. The eyes are useless when your mind is blind with hate old woman... It's the culture...

tell_it_like_it_ IS
Euless, TX

dem wrote: fenris is a pusssccceee and floriduh sucks his co ck The mathematical formulations of quantum mechanics are abstract. A mathematical function known as the wavefunction provides information about the probability amplitude of position, momentum, and other physical properties of a particle. Mathematical manipulations of the wavefunction usually involve the braket notation, which requires an understanding of complex numbers and linear functionals. The wavefunction treats the object as a quantum harmonic oscillator, and the mathematics is akin to that describing acoustic resonance. Many of the results of quantum mechanics are not easily visualized in terms of classical mechanics—for instance, the ground state in a quantum mechanical model is a nonzero energy state that is the lowest permitted energy state of a system, as opposed to a more "traditional" system that is thought of as simply being at rest, with zero kinetic energy. Instead of a traditional static, unchanging zero state, quantum mechanics allows for far more dynamic, chaotic possibilities, according to John Wheeler You went to a alot of trouble to show us how phrekkin stupid you are...

lily boca raton fl
Boca Raton, FL

Homer wrote: <quoted text>This is a private thread buddy, GFY LOL

dem
Chicago, IL

Generally, quantum mechanics does not assign definite values. Instead, it makes a prediction using a probability distribution; that is, it describes the probability of obtaining the possible outcomes from measuring an observable. Often these results are skewed by many causes, such as dense probability clouds. Probability clouds are approximate, but better than the Bohr model, whereby electron location is given by a probability function, the wave function eigenvalue, such that the probability is the squared modulus of the complex amplitude, or quantum state nuclear attraction.[20][21] Naturally, these probabilities will depend on the quantum state at the "instant" of the measurement. Hence, uncertainty is involved in the value. There are, however, certain states that are associated with a definite value of a particular observable. These are known as eigenstates of the observable ("eigen" can be translated from German as meaning "inherent" or "characteristic").[2 2] In the everyday world, it is natural and intuitive to think of everything (every observable) as being in an eigenstate. Everything appears to have a definite position, a definite momentum, a definite energy, and a definite time of occurrence. However, quantum mechanics does not pinpoint the exact values of a particle's position and momentum (since they are conjugate pairs) or its energy and time (since they too are conjugate pairs); rather, it provides only a range of probabilities in which that particle might be given its momentum and momentum probability. Therefore, it is helpful to use different words to describe states having uncertain values and states having definite values (eigenstates). Usually, a system will not be in an eigenstate of the observable (particle) we are interested in. However, if one measures the observable, the wavefunction will instantaneously be an eigenstate (or "generalized" eigenstate) of that observable. This process is known as wavefunction collapse, a controversial and muchdebated process[23] that involves expanding the system under study to include the measurement device. If one knows the corresponding wave function at the instant before the measurement, one will be able to compute the probability of the wavefunction collapsing into each of the possible eigenstates. For example, the free particle in the previous example will usually have a wavefunction that is a wave packet centered around some mean position x0 (neither an eigenstate of position nor of momentum). When one measures the position of the particle, it is impossible to predict with certainty the result.[19] It is probable, but not certain, that it will be near x0, where the amplitude of the wave function is large. After the measurement is performed, having obtained some result x, the wave function collapses into a position eigenstate centered at x.[24]

Since: Jun 13
Orlando, FL

Realtime wrote: <quoted text>It's become trimmer during Obama and the deficit is shrinking. How can you say that? Are you just trying to sound stupid on purpose? The IRS will need thousands more to implement Obamacare and hundreds of navigators are already being paid to teach people how to even sign up for the darn thing. Then there's the government employees who need to speak 150 different languages and too numerous to count government employees to keep up with the too numerous to count regulations to dictate to doctors and insurance companies' the decisions about our health care. What are you talking about? Shrinking the government? Are you just crazy? This administration is hiring government employees to go doortodoor and telephone solicitors to sign more people up for food stamps and welfare. Holy mackerel, Andy.

“Constitutionalis t”
Since: Dec 10
Spring, TX

Realtime wrote: <quoted text>It's become trimmer during Obama and the deficit is shrinking. The deficit was increased ONE THOUSAND PERCENT after the Democrats took control of all the purse strings of government. The deficit didn't get back down to a relatively constant 1.3 trillion until the TEA Party began to influence the cost of government. Today, the Democrats' version of government has to borrow 1.3 trillion dollars every year just for its daytoday existence. An idiot can tell you that government will collapse.

“Often imitated”
Since: Jul 07
never duplicated

Yeah wrote: <quoted text>Just like waxman. you and that pedophile who brags about banging 10 year olds make a cute couple.

