Barack Obama, our next President

"The road ahead will be long. Our climb will be steep," Obama cautioned. Young and charismatic but with little experience on the national level, Obama smashed through racial barriers and easily defeated ... Full Story
dem the spider

Chicago, IL

#824977 Dec 18, 2012
Quantum gravity
Modern physics has two basic scientific laws: quantum physics and general relativity.

Watch how easy i finish this job.

These two scientific laws represent radically different fields of study. Quantum physics studies the very smallest objects in nature, while relativity tends to study nature on the scale of planets, galaxies, and the universe as a whole.(Obviously, gravity affects small particles too, and relativity accounts for this as well.) Theories that attempt to unify the two theories are theories of quantum gravity, and the most promising of all such theories today is string theory.
dem the spider

Chicago, IL

#824979 Dec 18, 2012
This one is important, tea bag losers.
Unification of forces
Hand-in-hand with the question of quantum gravity, string theory attempts to unify the four forces in the universe — electromagnetic force, the strong nuclear force, the weak nuclear force, and gravity — together into one unified theory. In our universe, these fundamental forces appear as four different phenomena, but string theorists believe that in the early universe (when there were incredibly high energy levels) these forces are all described by strings interacting with each other.
dem the spider

Chicago, IL

#824980 Dec 18, 2012
stand by while thread is exterminated..

the management....
dem the spider

Chicago, IL

#824981 Dec 18, 2012
All particles in the universe can be divided into two types: bosons and fermions. String theory predicts that a type of connection, called supersymmetry, exists between these two particle types. Under supersymmetry, a fermion must exist for every boson and vice versa. Unfortunately, experiments have not yet detected these extra particles.

Supersymmetry is a specific mathematical relationship between certain elements of physics equations. It was discovered outside of string theory, although its incorporation into string theory transformed the theory into supersymmetric string theory (or superstring theory) in the mid-1970s.

Supersymmetry vastly simplifies string theory’s equations by allowing certain terms to cancel out. Without supersymmetry, the equations result in physical inconsistencies, such as infinite values and imaginary energy levels.

Because scientists haven’t observed the particles predicted by supersymmetry, this is still a theoretical assumption. Many physicists believe that the reason no one has observed the particles is because it takes a lot of energy to generate them.(Energy is related to mass by Einstein’s famous E = mc2 equation, so it takes energy to create a particle.) They may have existed in the early universe, but as the universe cooled off and energy spread out after the big bang, these particles would have collapsed into the lower-energy states that we observe today.(We may not think of our current universe as particularly low energy, but compared to the intense heat of the first few moments after the big bang, it certainly is.)

Scientists hope that astronomical observations or experiments with particle accelerators will uncover some of these higher-energy supersymmetric particles, providing support for this prediction of string theory.
dem the spider

Chicago, IL

#824982 Dec 18, 2012
this stuff can get a little 'dry', like fenris's mom.
just spit on it.

“Constitutionalis t”

Since: Dec 10

Spring, TX

#824983 Dec 18, 2012
sonicfilter wrote:
Discovery hit ‘American Guns’ canceled as Hollywood wrestles with links to gun violence
Discovery Channel’s popular reality show about a family of gun makers,“American Guns," came under intense scrutiny in the wake of Friday’s mass shooting at a Connecticut grade school, with people flooding the show’s Facebook page calling for its cancelation.
“I know you all have to make money but would Discovery Channel PLEASE consider ceasing to broadcast the show in the U.K.? Sadly your program makes buying/owning guns seem fun, glamorous, even normal,” wrote one. Another tweeted,“Dear Discovery Channel: it’s not appropriate showing the program American Guns now!” Another weighed in:“With Discovery shows like 'Sons of Guns','American Guns','Ted Nugent's Gun Country' etc it's not surprising how guns r seen as acceptable.”
It seems the critics may have been heard.
Read more:
I really doubt a person who spends their entire life playing video games will even watch those shows.
Those shows would have had no influence on anyone who's life was a video game.
More reactionary idiocy of the networks sucking up to the Democrats.
Let's start a lottery.
What month will the Democrats make some public display of seizing guns from someone or some group? Naturally, it will take months, or years to discover that they invented fraudulent evidence to justify it, just like when they assassinated innocent Americans at Ruby Ridge and Waco for the purpose of setting an unconstitutional anti-gun precedent.
You know, if you insist on tying to take away Constitutionally guaranteed rights from Americans, you're subject to run into real Americans that take thier constitutionally guaranteed rights seriously, like what happened at Ruby Ridge and Waco.
Post the month you think the Democrats will make their demonstration attempting to set a precedent of seizing weapons from American citizens.
dem the spider

Chicago, IL

#824984 Dec 18, 2012
one judge it?

step it up you little pathetic punk azz old man.
dem the spider

Chicago, IL

#824985 Dec 18, 2012
dem the spider wrote:
<quoted text>
Will you have enough spooge regenerated that quickly to shoot everyone, gooey?
nostrilfuckface for absolute certain.
dem the spider

Chicago, IL

#824986 Dec 18, 2012
Extra dimensions
Another mathematical result of string theory is that the theory only makes sense in a world with more than three space dimensions!(Our universe has three dimensions of space — left/right, up/down, and front/back.) Two possible explanations currently exist for the location of the extra dimensions:
The extra space dimensions (generally six of them) are curled up (compactified, in string theory terminology) to incredibly small sizes, so we never perceive them.

We are stuck on a 3-dimensional brane, and the extra dimensions extend off of it and are inaccessible to us.

A major area of research among string theorists is on mathematical models of how these extra dimensions could be related to our own. Some of these recent results have predicted that scientists may soon be able to detect these extra dimensions (if they exist) in upcoming experiments, because they may be larger than previously expected.
Obama 2016

Virginia Beach, VA

#824987 Dec 18, 2012
Chicagoan by Birth wrote:
<quoted text>Tell that to a 72 yr.old lady who lives alone in a bad section of a city, and has had the home she owns, vandalized and burglarized more than once. Get a clue...
A 72 year old woman has no business having a gun. She's too old and mentally incompetent and probably half blind. She should call the police. That's what they're for. Get a clue.
Fenris the Ballsickle

Chisinau, Moldova

#824988 Dec 18, 2012
dr dem wrote:
<quoted text>
Look, you are getting too serious. I'm just trying to lay a little pipe (like always) here......
Shit, Sherlock, everybody here includin' you mama know you got a l'il pipe. What other kind of men use abbreviation to write "cock?"
dem the spider

Chicago, IL

#824990 Dec 18, 2012
String theory is an active research framework in particle physics that attempts to reconcile quantum mechanics and general relativity. It is a contender for a theory of everything (TOE), a self-contained mathematical model that describes all fundamental forces and forms of matter. String theory posits that the elementary particles (i.e., electrons and quarks) within an atom are not 0-dimensional objects, but rather 1-dimensional oscillating lines ("strings").

The earliest string model, the bosonic string, incorporated only bosons, although this view developed to the superstring theory, which posits that a connection (a "supersymmetry") exists between bosons and fermions. String theories also require the existence of several extra dimensions to the universe that have been compactified into extremely small scales, in addition to the four known spacetime dimensions.

The theory has its origins in an effort to understand the strong force, the dual resonance model (1969). Subsequent to this, five superstring theories were developed that incorporated fermions and possessed other properties necessary for a theory of everything. Since the mid-1990s, in particular due to insights from dualities shown to relate the five theories, an eleven-dimensional theory called M-theory is believed to encompass all of the previously distinct superstring theories.[citation needed]

Many theoretical physicists (among them Stephen Hawking, Edward Witten, Juan Maldacena and Leonard Susskind) believe that string theory is a step towards the correct fundamental description of nature. This is because string theory allows for the consistent combination of quantum field theory and general relativity, agrees with general insights in quantum gravity (such as the holographic principle and black hole thermodynamics), and because it has passed many non-trivial checks of its internal consistency.[1][2][3][4] According to Hawking in particular, "M-theory is the only candidate for a complete theory of the universe."[5] Nevertheless, other physicists, such as Feynman and Glashow, have criticized string theory for not providing novel experimental predictions at accessible energy scales.[6]
dem the spider

Chicago, IL

#824991 Dec 18, 2012
String theory posits that the electrons and quarks within an atom are not 0-dimensional objects, but made up of 1-dimensional strings. These strings can oscillate, giving the observed particles their flavor, charge, mass and spin. Among the modes of oscillation of the string is a massless, spin-two state—a graviton. The existence of this graviton state and the fact that the equations describing string theory include Einstein's equations for general relativity mean that string theory is a quantum theory of gravity. Since string theory is widely believed[7] to be mathematically consistent, many hope that it fully describes our universe, making it a theory of everything. String theory is known to contain configurations that describe all the observed fundamental forces and matter but with a zero cosmological constant and some new fields.[8] Other configurations have different values of the cosmological constant, and are metastable but long-lived. This leads many to believe that there is at least one metastable solution that is quantitatively identical with the standard model, with a small cosmological constant, containing dark matter and a plausible mechanism for cosmic inflation. It is not yet known whether string theory has such a solution, nor how much freedom the theory allows to choose the details.

String theories also include objects other than strings, called branes. The word brane, derived from "membrane", refers to a variety of interrelated objects, such as D-branes, black p-branes and Neveu–Schwarz 5-branes. These are extended objects that are charged sources for differential form generalizations of the vector potential electromagnetic field. These objects are related to one another by a variety of dualities. Black hole-like black p-branes are identified with D-branes, which are endpoints for strings, and this identification is called Gauge-gravity duality. Research on this equivalence has led to new insights on quantum chromodynamics, the fundamental theory of the strong nuclear force.[9][10][11][12] The strings make closed loops unless they encounter D-branes, where they can open up into 1-dimensional lines. The endpoints of the string cannot break off the D-brane, but they can slide around on it.

Levels of magnification:
1. Macroscopic level – Matter
2. Molecular level
3. Atomic level – Protons, neutrons, and electrons
4. Subatomic level – Electron
5. Subatomic level – Quarks
6. String levelThe full theory does not yet have a satisfactory definition in all circumstances, since the scattering of strings is most straightforwardly defined by a perturbation theory. The complete quantum mechanics of high dimensional branes is not easily defined, and the behavior of string theory in cosmological settings (time-dependent backgrounds) is not fully worked out. It is also not clear as to whether there is any principle by which string theory selects its vacuum state, the spacetime configuration that determines the properties of our universe (see string theory landscape).
dem the spider

Chicago, IL

#824993 Dec 18, 2012
String theory can be formulated in terms of an action principle, either the Nambu-Goto action or the Polyakov action, which describe how strings propagate through space and time. In the absence of external interactions, string dynamics are governed by tension and kinetic energy, which combine to produce oscillations. The quantum mechanics of strings implies these oscillations exist in discrete vibrational modes, the spectrum of the theory.

On distance scales larger than the string radius, each oscillation mode behaves as a different species of particle, with its mass, spin and charge determined by the string's dynamics. Splitting and recombination of strings correspond to particle emission and absorption, giving rise to the interactions between particles. An analogy for strings' modes of vibration is a guitar string's production of multiple distinct musical notes. In the analogy, different notes correspond to different particles. One difference is the guitar string exists in 3 dimensions, so that there are only two dimensions transverse to the string. Fundamental strings exist in 9 dimensions and the strings can vibrate in any direction, meaning that the spectrum of vibrational modes is much richer.

String theory includes both open strings, which have two distinct endpoints, and closed strings making a complete loop. The two types of string behave in slightly different ways, yielding two different spectra. For example, all string theories have closed string graviton modes, but only open strings can vibrate as photons. Because the two ends of an open string can always meet and connect, forming a closed string, there are no string theories without closed strings.

The earliest string model, the bosonic string, incorporated only bosonic degrees of freedom. This model describes, in low enough energies, a quantum gravity theory, which also includes (if open strings are incorporated as well) gauge fields such as the photon (or, in more general terms, any gauge theory). However, this model has problems. What is most significant is that the theory has a fundamental instability, believed to result in the decay (at least partially) of spacetime itself. In addition, as the name implies, the spectrum of particles contains only bosons, particles which, like the photon, obey particular rules of behavior. In broad terms, bosons are the constituents of radiation, but not of matter, which is made of fermions. Investigating how a string theory may include fermions in its spectrum led to the invention of supersymmetry, a mathematical relation between bosons and fermions. String theories that include fermionic vibrations are now known as superstring theories; several kinds have been described, but all are now thought to be different limits of M-theory.

Some qualitative properties of quantum strings can be understood in a fairly simple fashion. For example, quantum strings have tension, much like regular strings made of twine; this tension is considered a fundamental parameter of the theory. The tension of a quantum string is closely related to its size. Consider a closed loop of string, left to move through space without external forces. Its tension will tend to contract it into a smaller and smaller loop. Classical intuition suggests that it might shrink to a single point, but this would violate Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The characteristic size of the string loop will be a balance between the tension force, acting to make it small, and the uncertainty effect, which keeps it "stretched". As a consequence, the minimum size of a string is related to the string tension
dem the spider

Chicago, IL

#824994 Dec 18, 2012
For more details on this topic, see Relationship between string theory and quantum field theory.
A point-like particle's motion may be described by drawing a graph of its position (in one or two dimensions of space) against time. The resulting picture depicts the worldline of the particle (its 'history') in spacetime. By analogy, a similar graph depicting the progress of a string as time passes by can be obtained; the string (a one-dimensional object — a small line — by itself) will trace out a surface (a two-dimensional manifold), known as the worldsheet. The different string modes (representing different particles, such as photon or graviton) are surface waves on this manifold.

A closed string looks like a small loop, so its worldsheet will look like a pipe or, in more general terms, a Riemann surface (a two-dimensional oriented manifold) with no boundaries (i.e., no edge). An open string looks like a short line, so its worldsheet will look like a strip or, in more general terms, a Riemann surface with a boundary.

Interaction in the subatomic world: world lines of point-like particles in the Standard Model or a world sheet swept up by closed strings in string theoryStrings can split and connect. This is reflected by the form of their worldsheet (in more accurate terms, by its topology). For example, if a closed string splits, its worldsheet will look like a single pipe splitting (or connected) to two pipes (often referred to as a pair of pants — see drawing at right). If a closed string splits and its two parts later reconnect, its worldsheet will look like a single pipe splitting to two and then reconnecting, which also looks like a torus connected to two pipes (one representing the ingoing string, and the other — the outgoing one). An open string doing the same thing will have its worldsheet looking like a ring connected to two strips.

Note that the process of a string splitting (or strings connecting) is a global process of the worldsheet, not a local one: Locally, the worldsheet looks the same everywhere, and it is not possible to determine a single point on the worldsheet where the splitting occurs. Therefore, these processes are an integral part of the theory, and are described by the same dynamics that controls the string modes.

In some string theories (namely, closed strings in Type I and some versions of the bosonic string), strings can split and reconnect in an opposite orientation (as in a Möbius strip or a Klein bottle). These theories are called unoriented. In formal terms, the worldsheet in these theories is a non-orientable surface.
dem the spider

Chicago, IL

#824995 Dec 18, 2012
i made a program to do this for eight hours.
Kool huh?
see ya later
Fenris the Ballsickle

Chisinau, Moldova

#824996 Dec 18, 2012
dem the spider wrote:
<quoted text>
Will you have enough spooge regenerated that quickly to shoot everyone, gooey?
Hey, ballsucker, you gon' be a ballsucker in social media you got to stick to you bidness. Now kiss 'em... g'head... do it now!!!!
dem the spider

Chicago, IL

#824999 Dec 18, 2012
Two ways have been proposed to resolve this apparent contradiction. The first is to compactify the extra dimensions; i.e., the 6 or 7 extra dimensions are so small as to be undetectable by present-day experiments.

To retain a high degree of supersymmetry, these compactification spaces must be very special, as reflected in their holonomy. A 6-dimensional manifold must have SU(3) structure, a particular case (torsionless) of this being SU(3) holonomy, making it a Calabi–Yau space, and a 7-dimensional manifold must have G2 structure, with G2 holonomy again being a specific, simple, case. Such spaces have been studied in attempts to relate string theory to the 4-dimensional Standard Model, in part due to the computational simplicity afforded by the assumption of supersymmetry. More recently, progress has been made constructing more realistic compactifications without the degree of symmetry of Calabi–Yau or G2 manifolds.[citation needed]

A standard analogy for this is to consider multidimensional space as a garden hose. If the hose is viewed from a sufficient distance, it appears to have only one dimension, its length. Indeed, think of a ball just small enough to enter the hose. Throwing such a ball inside the hose, the ball would move more or less in one dimension; in any experiment we make by throwing such balls in the hose, the only important movement will be one-dimensional, that is, along the hose. However, as one approaches the hose, one discovers that it contains a second dimension, its circumference. Thus, an ant crawling inside it would move in two dimensions (and a fly flying in it would move in three dimensions). This "extra dimension" is only visible within a relatively close range to the hose, or if one "throws in" small enough objects. Similarly, the extra compact dimensions are only "visible" at extremely small distances, or by experimenting with particles with extremely small wavelengths (of the order of the compact dimension's radius), which in quantum mechanics means very high energies (see wave-particle duality).
Obama 2016

Virginia Beach, VA

#825000 Dec 18, 2012
Four people have been found dead today in a Colorado house in an apparent murder-suicide. Yet another tragedy committed by a "legal gun owner" possessing a "legally purchased firearm".
dem the spider

Chicago, IL

#825001 Dec 18, 2012
Let me know if im going to fast.
its how fenris mom likes it.

Brane-world scenarioAnother possibility is that we are "stuck" in a 3+1 dimensional (three spatial dimensions plus one time dimension) subspace of the full universe. Properly localized matter and Yang-Mills gauge fields will typically exist if the sub-spacetime is an exceptional set of the larger universe.[20] These "exceptional sets" are ubiquitous in Calabi–Yau n-folds and may be described as subspaces without local deformations, akin to a crease in a sheet of paper or a crack in a crystal, the neighborhood of which is markedly different from the exceptional subspace itself. However, until the work of Randall and Sundrum,[21] it was not known that gravity can be properly localized to a sub-spacetime. In addition, spacetime may be stratified, containing strata of various dimensions, allowing us to inhabit the 3+1-dimensional stratum—such geometries occur naturally in Calabi–Yau compactifications.[22] Such sub-spacetimes are D-branes, hence such models are known as brane-world scenarios.

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