Despite the fact that Senator Howard's opinion is not controlling, he didn't believe children born in the US of alien parents were subject to a foreign power. Indeed, he believed that such children were born citizens of the United States.<quoted text>Doesn't matter he offered it and was accepted in its entirety as offered, now law of the land.
“They became such in virtue of national law, or rather natural law which recognizes persons born within the jurisdiction of every country as being subjects or citizens of that country. Such persons were, therefore, citizens of the United States as were born in the country or were made by naturalization.” Senator Jacob Howard, Cong. Globe 39th Cong., 1st Sess, 2765 (1866).
“A citizen of the United States is held by the courts to be a person who was born within the limits of the United States and subject to their laws.” Senator Jacob Howard, Cong. Globe 39th Cong., 1st Sess, 2765 (1866).
So, Howard, one guy (important, but not the sole expert in Congress) said it. One guy.
The US Supreme Court did not believe that his view represented the majority of the members of Congress, much less the thousands who voted for the 14th Amendment in the state legislatures.
They believe that the meaning comes from the common law and refers to the place of birth, and their decision is FINAL (unless overturned by another SC decision or by a Constitutional Amendment, neither of which is even remotely likely.)