I have decided to keep this forum on ...
Shakalaka

Morrow, GA

#93 Mar 8, 2013
Blacks Make No Sense wrote:
<quoted text>And you can't keep your mind off whites long enough to have a black issues thread,...can you?
He probably has never really spoken to a Black person before. This is his only means. You and I both know how stiff and awkward they are and how they just HAVE TO BELIEVE that we need them. It offends them when we tell them to stfu or to leave our presence. See, they have been brainwashed by their society that they must be our "overseers" cause you and I are just not as "intelligent" as they "think" they are. Look at his screen name. ROFLMAO

What an idiot!
Anonymous

Triangle, VA

#94 Mar 8, 2013
Yeah. TGIF!! Have a good weekend, okay??
Shakalaka

Morrow, GA

#95 Mar 8, 2013
gardennymph2013 wrote:
They can't stay off of black forums in Topix long enough to do that. LOL
He probably has never really spoken to a Black person before. This is his only means. You and I both know how stiff and awkward they are and how they just HAVE TO BELIEVE that we need them. It offends them when we tell them to stfu or to leave our presence. See, they have been brainwashed by their society that they must be our "overseers" cause you and I are just not as "intelligent" as they "think" they are.

Look at his screen name. ROFLMAO

We make no sense to him because he refuses to believe what hes hearing from us.

LOL
Shakalaka

Morrow, GA

#97 Mar 8, 2013
BaiserDeLaMort wrote:
<quoted text>
Of course he has spoken to a black person before...he has to in order to tell them to get the hell off of his lawn. Look at YOUR screen name ROFLMAO
We make no sense to you because you refuse to believe what you're hearing from us
LOL
Oh contrair... you make total sense to me puppet.
Shakalaka

Morrow, GA

#98 Mar 8, 2013
Benjamin Banneker was an African-American astronomer, clockmaker, and publisher who was instrumental in surveying the District of Columbia.
Early Life:
He was born in Maryland on November 9, 1731. His maternal grandmother, Molly Walsh emigrated from England to Maryland as an indentured servant in bondage for 7 years. At the end of that time, she bought her own farm near Baltimore along with 2 slaves. Later, she freed the slaves and married 1 of them. Formerly known as Banna Ka, Molly's husband had changed his name to Bannaky. Among their children, they had a daughter named Mary. When Mary Bannaky grew up, she also purchased a slave, Robert, whom, like her mother, she later freed and married. Robert and Mary Bannaky were the parents of Benjamin Banneker.
Banneker's grandmother, Molly used the Bible to teach Mary's children to read. He also learned the flute and the violin. Later, when a Quaker school opened nearby, Benjamin attended it during the winter where he learned to write and basic mathematics. His biographers disagree on the amount of formal education he received, some claiming an 8th grade education while others doubt he received that much. However, few dispute his intelligence. At the age of 15, he took over the operations for the family farm. His father, Robert Bannaky, was notable for having built a series of dams and watercourses that successfully irrigated the family farm. Benjamin enhanced the system to control the water from the springs (known around as Bannaky Springs) on the family farm. Their tobacco farm flourished even in times of drought.
At the age of 21, Banneker's life was changed when he saw a neighbor's pocket watch.(Some say the watch belonged to Josef Levi, a traveling salesman.) He borrowed the watch, took it apart to draw all its pieces, then reassembled it and returned it running to its owner. Banneker then carved large-scale wooden replicas of each piece, calculating the gear assemblies himself, and used the parts to make a striking clock, the first wooden clock in the United States. The clock continued to work, striking each hour, for more than 40 years.
An Interest in Watches & Clock Making:
Driven by this fascination, he turned from farming to watch and clock making. One customer was a neighbor named George Ellicott, a surveyor. He was so impressed with his Banneker's work and intelligence, he lent him books on mathematics and astronomy. With this help, Banneker taught himself astronomy and advanced mathematics.
Shakalaka

Morrow, GA

#99 Mar 8, 2013
Starting about 1773, he turned his attention to both subjects. His study of astronomy enabled him to make the calculations to predict solar and lunar eclipses, even correctly contradicting experts of the day, and to compile an ephemeris for his Benjamin Banneker's Almanac, which he published from 1791 through 1796. He became known as the Sable Astronomer.
In 1791, Banneker sent then Secretary of State, Thomas Jefferson, a copy of his first almanac along with an eloquent plea for justice for African Americans, calling on the colonists' personal experience as "slaves" of Britain and quoting Jefferson's own words. Jefferson was impressed and sent a copy of the almanac to the Royal Academy of Sciences in Paris as evidence of the talent of blacks. Banneker's almanac helped convince many that African-Americans were not intellectually inferior to whites.
Also in 1791, Banneker was hired to assist brothers Andrew and Joseph Ellicott as part of a 6-man team to help design the new capital city, Washington, DC. This made him the 1st African-American presidential appointee. An apocryphal story says that he worked with Pierre L'Enfant and when L'Enfant threw a temper tantrum and quit, taking his drawings with him, Banneker was able to reproduce said drawings from memory. Many historians doubt the story and claim the two men never even met. True or not, it does not diminish Benjamin Banneker's accomplishments.
In addition to his other work, he also published a treatise on bees, did a mathematical study on the cycle of the seventeen-year locust, and wrote passionately about the anti-slavery movement. Despite his change of occupation from farmer to scientist, he also continued to keep his garden. Over the years, he played host many distinguished scientists and artists of his day. Although he had predicted his own death at age 70, Benjamin Banneker actually survived another 4 years. His last walk (accompanied by a friend) came on October 9, 1806. He felt ill and went home to rest on his couch. He died later that day.(One source places the date on October 25 and the location as being wrapped in a blanket observing the nigh sky as was his habit.)
His memorial Gravestone Marker still exist at the Westchester Grade School in the Ellicott City/Oella region of Maryland, where Banneker spent his entire life except for the Federal survey. It was'nt until the 1990s that the actual site of Banneker's home, which burned on the day of his burial, was determined.
Shakalaka

Morrow, GA

#100 Mar 8, 2013
These white women were a real trip. Buying men way back then and having sex with them. I wonder if they were forced to marry these white women because they often cried "rape" if a black man ignored them.
Shakalaka

Morrow, GA

#101 Mar 8, 2013
The heavens declare the glory of God;
The skies proclaim the work of his hands.
Day after day they pour forth speech;
Night after night they display knowledge.
(Psalm 19: 1,2)
Though nearly 200 years passed between the time self-taught astronomer Benjamin Banneker (1731-1806)
accurately predicted solar and lunar eclipses and publishing his almanacs containing astronomical tables,
and when Dr. Neil de Grasse Tyson published the first of six books on astronomy and astrophysics in 1988,
this fact should not be taken as proof that peoples of sub-Saharan African descent have long manifested a
singular disinterest in, or inability to comprehend the intricate order and mysteries of the cosmos.
Studying the alignment of nineteen megaliths near Kenya s Lake Turkana in the Rift Valley, a region
inhabited by the ancient Cushites, archaeologists have concluded that, among other things, these basalt
columns functioned as astronomical observation tools and that they were key to the plotting of the Borana
Calendar circa 300 BC. This stellar-lunar calendar is still used today by the pastoral Borana people of
southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya. And although acquisition of knowledge of the existence of the
Sirius star-system by the Dogon people of Mali has been the topic of heated debate, pitting Afrocentric
proponents against Eurocentric skeptics, the point that is usually overlooked is the vital importance of
examining the heavens to pre-industrial societies from one end of the continent to the other who relied on
the stars to determine seasonal cycles, timing of festivals and rituals, crop planting and harvesting, and
mating intervals.
Even in the slave experience in the United States there is evidence of Black using their familiarity with the
night sky to guide them safely northward to refuge in the free states. Harriet Tubman and her escapees
traveling the underground railroad memorized the secret song Drinking Gourd which instructed them to
walk in the direction of the Big Dipper and the north star to freedom. After the Civil War and
Emancipation the study of astronomy was not promoted in the new colleges sprouting up mainly in the
South presided over by advocates of the kind of practical industrial education inspired by Booker T.
Washington who eschewed the liberal arts and the peripheral sciences. On rare occasion do we hear of
an African Americans in the first half of the 20th century with a smattering of astronomy like the enigmatic
Robert T. Brown whose widely praised book The Mystery of Space (E. P. Dutton, 1919), largely a work of
mathematical philosophy buttressing his mysticism and belief in theosophy, but which nonetheless
demonstrated an impressive command of higher mathematics and an awareness of astronomical
phenomena, all of which he successfully integrated in his book.
In the wake of World War II the number Blacks admitted to study at majority white colleges and
universities rose and exposure to a greater variety of academic disciplines, coupled with accelerat
Shakalaka

Morrow, GA

#102 Mar 8, 2013
After the Civil War and
Emancipation the study of astronomy was not promoted in the new colleges sprouting up mainly in the
South presided over by advocates of the kind of practical industrial education inspired by Booker T.
Washington who eschewed the liberal arts and the peripheral sciences. On rare occasion do we hear of
an African Americans in the first half of the 20th century with a smattering of astronomy like the enigmatic Robert T. Brown whose widely praised book The Mystery of Space (E. P. Dutton, 1919), largely a work of mathematical philosophy buttressing his mysticism and belief in theosophy, but which nonetheless demonstrated an impressive command of higher mathematics and an awareness of astronomical
phenomena, all of which he successfully integrated in his book.
In the wake of World War II the number Blacks admitted to study at majority white colleges and
universities rose and exposure to a greater variety of academic disciplines, coupled with accelerated
advances in science and technology in the post-war era, made it possible for men like Carl A. Rouse to earn his doctorate in particle physics at the California Institution of Technology in 1956. A researcher at heart who avoided the classroom, while working in private industry he branched out into astrophysics and in his writings and lectures challenged mistaken hypotheses concerning intensely hot gases that constitute the sunand stars. Rouse devised a new method to measure the presence of helium in the sun s atmosphere and he posed his own theories on the matter.
In 1961, Harvey Washington Banks became the first African American to earn the doctorate specifically in astronomy at Georgetown University. His dissertation was titled The First Spectrum of Titanium From 6000 to 3000 Angstroms. Unlike Rouse, the late Dr. Banks chose to teach and enjoyed a fulfilling career at Delaware State College and Howard University. His research interests included determination of orbits, celestial mechanics, high dispersion spectroscopy, and the geodetic determinations from the observations of solar eclipse and satellites. At the University of Michigan in 1962, Benjamin Franklin Peery, appropriately named, became the second Black to be awarded the Ph.D. in astronomy. He taught for many years at Indiana University then at Howard University before he retired. Aside from contributing numerous articles to the Astrophysical Journal, Peery has the distinction of being the first Black astronomer to be seen and heard by a mass audience thanks to a televised documentary on PBS stations in 1991 called The Astronomers.
Shakalaka

Morrow, GA

#103 Mar 8, 2013
This was gratifying jolt for one Black viewer who tuned in that night and later wrote:
While watching The Astronomers on public broadcasting, I saw something as awesome as the stars and galaxies that flashed across my TV screen. It was a phenomenon I didn t think existed, more intriguing than the most distant quasar. The miraculous sight I saw that evening was the interview of a Black astronomer .
Astrophysics is defined as that area of physics that pertains to the physical and chemical characteristics of heavenly bodies. Arthur B. Walker at Stanford University who started out in nuclear physics, and George R. Carruthers, an aerospace engineer at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, both earned their doctorates at the University of Illinois in the early 1960s and have made important contributions to astrophysics. From 1975 to 1985 Walker did pioneering work studying the X-ray spectrum of the solar corona and in the 1990s
he lead a team of scientists who, among other things, were the first to apply normal incidence X-ray optical systems to astronomical observation. But Walker may be best known as the mentor of Sally Ride, the first female astronaut to obit the Earth, and for chairing the presidential commission that investigated the 1986 space shuttle Challenger disaster. More than his efforts in the community to encourage young scientists,Carruthers will forever be remembered as principal inventor of the Far Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrograph
that accompanied the Apollo 16 mission. Positioned on the moon s surface, the camera allowed researchers for the first time to examine enormous expanses for concentrations of pollutants in the Earth s atmosphere. Other cameras developed by Carruthers and his colleagues have been aboard space shuttles surveying the ozone layer and to transmit photos of distant stars and planets for computer analysis. He is also credited with helping to introduce electronic telescopes on board NASA satellites that transform light into electrical signals which are relayed to Earth and televised.
In 1973 Ronald L. Mallett got his completed his doctorate in general physics with the title Quantum
Theory in a (3+!) de Sitter Universe at Pennsylvania State University.
Shakalaka

Morrow, GA

#104 Mar 8, 2013
Make no mistake about it...African Americans are highly intelligent and highly evolved spiritually and have been far longer than white men know.

The African who were shipped to the western world were far more advanced than their slave owners, but they wouldn't know this because they could not speak our language. But why were they so fearful of us learning to read theirs? were afraid that we would take this land back and give it to its rightful owners and return home?
Shakalaka

Morrow, GA

#105 Mar 8, 2013
We may never know. But what we do know is that no white man should be teaching Black children about their history, abilities, accomplishments, and spirituality. There are things we know that white people have no knowledge of and that only we can pass on to our children. I am a strong advocate of separate but equal. I know that young black children should be educated in their own schools by their own people. It is not anti-white...it is pro-black.

I have much success teaching this way. As long as I'm private, I can do so without whites crying about discrimination. Teaching our children is my passion. They need special instructions for dealing in this racists world that only we can equip them with because we know how to. We know racism is real and we are not living in denial.
Anonymous

Triangle, VA

#106 Mar 9, 2013
Shakalaka wrote:
These white women were a real trip. Buying men way back then and having sex with them. I wonder if they were forced to marry these white women because they often cried "rape" if a black man ignored them.
That's a part of why I honestly don't understand the relationship between the two today. I really don't. It seems so dishonorable really.
Shakalaka

Morrow, GA

#107 Mar 11, 2013
AFRICAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO AMERICAN CULTURE

Joseph E. Holloway Ph.D

Scholars have long recognized African origins in the linguistic forms and the cultural traits of African Americans, and thus assumed that these Africanisms were derived principally from West Africa. There has been much debate over the origins of African culture in the U.S. The classic debate between Melville J. Herskovits and E. Franklin Frazier is still relevant. To revisit it briefly, Frazier believed that Black Americans lost their African heritage during slavery; thus, the African American culture evolved independently of any African influences. Herskovits argued the opposite that it was not possible to understand and appreciate African American culture without understanding its African linkages and carryover called Africanisms. Current scholars are more concerned with using a transnational framework to examine how African cultural survivals have changed over time and readapted to diasporic conditions while experiencing slavery, forced labor, and racial discrimination.

The new scholarship suggests that the West Africans contributed primarily to Euro-American culture whereas people who came from the vast Bantu speaking areas of Africa, to the east and south of West Africa, are those most likely to have left an African cultural heritage to African Americans. Plantation slavery tended to acculturate West Africans relatively quickly, yet unwittingly encouraged retention of African traditions among others.

Enslaved Africans, not free to openly transport kinship, courts, religion, and material cultures, were forced to disguise or abandon them during the Middle Passage. Instead, they dematerialized their cultural artifacts during the Middle Passage to rematerialize African culture on their arrival in the New World. Africans arrived in the New World capable of using Old World knowledge to create New World realities.

Africans, and their descendants, contributed to the richness and fullness of American culture from its beginnings. Their contributions in early America, for which they have received little or no credit, include the development of the American dairy industry, open grazing of cattle, artificial insemination of cows, the development of vaccines (including vaccination for smallpox), and cures for snake bites.

African stories and folklore, such as the Brer Rabbit, Brer Fox, and Chicken Little tales originated in Africa, and were absorbed into America’s culture of childhood and laid a foundation for American nursery culture. Despite the limitations imposed by slavery, Africans and their descendants made substantial contributions to American culture in aesthetics, animal husbandry, agriculture, cuisine, folklore, folk medicine and language. This chapter examines African contribution to American culture.
Shakalaka

Morrow, GA

#109 Mar 15, 2013
Achievement gap hot topic at African American Roundtable panel


By Sara Toth, stoth@tribune.com
March 15, 2013 | 6:15 a.m.

When it comes to closing the achievement gap between minority students and their white counterparts, Howard County is doing some promising things, said State Superintendent Lillian Lowery.

"The partnerships (the Howard County Public School System has) with Harvard, to focus professional development, and to dissect the data really opens our eyes to something other districts could do," she said.

Lowery was part of a panel — including Howard County Superintendent Renee Foose and Jon Fullerton, executive director of Harvard University’s Center for Education Policy Research — at a forum held Thursday, March 14 at St. John Baptist Church in Columbia to discuss existing achievement gaps, and ways those gaps can be closed.

The forum,“Delivering the Promise of Preparation: A Call to Action,” was held in partnership with the African American Community Roundtable, a group made up of representatives from 25 organizations, churches and government departments in the county.

Submit a Letter to the Editor for the Laurel Leader, Columbia Flier and Howard County Times

AFter the forum, Lowery said "the fact the schools have come together (with the roundtable), embracing the community where gaps exist and make partnerships there, is a model all our districts could benefit from."

The church was filled to its 570-seat capacity, and the Rev. Robert Turner, senior pastor at St. John’s, said an overflow room was also filled. About 800 people were at the forum.

Throughout the evening, Lowery, Foose and Fullerton outlined successes at the state and county level, highlighted achievement gaps on test scores — gaps that have persisted over time, despite gains in student achievement across the board — and ways the school system could close that gap.

“Education is not just about assessments,” Foose said.“There’s a whole other domain there, other factors that play into this … what we’re focusing on in Howard County is creating a level of energy in our children. We have to develop their hope.… They have to envision success, and they have to realize they can get there from here. If they don’t realize that, what we’re doing is truly just mechanical.”

Questions asked through moderators that followed were often pointed. Concerns were raised that black students are being systematically being left out of AP courses. Foose said it was her goal to increase the number of students taking AP courses, and to make sure students were better prepared for those classes.

When asked what the process is for a student to be placed in an AP course, Foose answered “interest and desire.” The audience vocally disagreed.

“I hear you,” Foose said.“We have to open access (to the courses).”

Turner said he knew what the problem was.
Shakalaka

Morrow, GA

#110 Mar 15, 2013
The teachers don’t share the same interest,” he said.“I’m bombarded throughout the year … with parents coming to me and asking ‘can you do something, we’re complaining to our teachers, to our principals,(to get students into AP classes) and they feel they have to beg, borrow or steal, plead and beg.”

Foose said she was disheartened to think black students still had limited access to advance courses.

“If you tell me it’s happening, I believe it’s happening,” she said.“I’m going to stop it. I want your children in AP courses. It’s a matter of setting expectations, and I want your children’s success as much as you do.”

The evening was also included the students’ perspective, which also illustrated disparities, but successes as well.

Marc Fleming, a junior at Atholton High School, and Emma Hughes, a senior at Wilde Lake High School, both spoke to their experiences as black students in county schools. Fleming said that while he was in AP and G/T classes, only eight other black students were in his seven classes, which made him feel “isolated” at times. Hughes said when she took the G/T placement tests in third grade, she didn’t make the cut, but was put into advanced classes because a teacher “took a chance” on her.

The forum ended with a call to action from Larry Walker, deputy pastor at Celebration Church and former Board of Education candidate, who said the success of county schools masks “entrenched disparities in achievement.”

“There are long-standing gaps in achievement that exist for African-American and Hispanic students,” he said.“This must change. It must change. Our students get one sot at quality education.… It takes a village. We are the village.”



Shakalaka

Morrow, GA

#111 Mar 24, 2013
The Black Church

In the fall of 2008, newspapers, talk shows and blogs exploded with news that the Rev. Jeremiah Wright, the African American minister from Chicago's Trinity Church, had denounced the United States with inflammatory language: "God damn America!" Wright's most famous parishioner was the leading Democratic contender for the presidential nomination, Barack Obama. Trinity was Obama's spiritual home -- the place where he had found religion, where he was married, and where his daughters had been baptized. Rev. Wright, a former Marine with a Ph.D., had served as his spiritual mentor.

While many white voters seemed surprised, puzzled and shocked by Wright's angry rhetoric, African Americans were less so. Obama seized the moment to deliver a profound meditation on race in America, a speech titled "A More Perfect Union." Tracing the deep historical roots of racial inequality and injustice, Obama put Wright's anger into historical context. In very personal terms, he also described his experience at Trinity:

Like other black churches, Trinity's services are full of raucous laughter and sometimes bawdy humor. They are full of dancing, clapping, screaming and shouting that may seem jarring to the untrained ear. The church contains in full the kindness and cruelty, the fierce intelligence and the shocking ignorance, the struggles and successes, the love and yes, the bitterness and bias that make up the black experience in America.
Eventually Obama broke with Wright and left Trinity, but his speech illuminated the role of the black church in the African American experience. Standing apart from the dominant white society, yet engaged in a continuing dialogue with it, the church evolved with countless acts of faith and resistance, piety and protest. As historian Anthea Butler has observed, the church has been profoundly shaped by regional differences, North and South, East and West, yet in both the private and public spheres, the church was, and remains, sustained and animated by idea of freedom.

The term "the black church" evolved from the phrase "the Negro church," the title of a pioneering sociological study of African American Protestant churches at the turn of the century by W.E.B. Du Bois. In its origins, the phrase was largely an academic category. Many African Americans did not think of themselves as belonging to "the Negro church," but rather described themselves according to denominational affiliations such as Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian, and even "Saint" of the Sanctified tradition. African American Christians were never monolithic; they have always been diverse and their churches highly decentralized.

Today "the black church" is widely understood to include the following seven major black Protestant denominations: the National Baptist Convention, the National Baptist Convention of America, the Progressive National Convention, the African Methodist Episcopal Church, the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, the Christian Methodist Episcopal Church and the Church of God in Christ.
Shakalaka

Morrow, GA

#112 Mar 24, 2013
God in the White House - George Washington to Barrack Obama. Let's look at the current president first:

Raised in a secular household, Obama embraced Christianity after a spiritual awakening during his 20s. The sermons of Pastor Jeremiah Wright combined scriptural lessons with a call to social activism, which appealed to Obama, who was at the time a community organizer. Obama joined Chicago's Trinity United Church of Christ.

Obama later described his decision: "I came to see faith as more than just a comfort to the weary or a hedge against death, but rather as an active, palpable agent in the world and in my own life. It was because of these newfound understandings that I was finally able to walk down the aisle of Trinity one day and affirm my Christian faith. It came about as a choice, and not an epiphany. I didn't fall out in church, as folks sometimes do. The questions I had didn't magically disappear. The skeptical bent of my mind didn't suddenly vanish. But kneeling beneath that cross on the South Side, I felt I heard God's spirit beckoning me. I submitted myself to His will, and dedicated myself to discovering His truth and carrying out His works."

Obama's personal religion became a topic of debate and speculation during the 2008 election campaign, when opponents suggested that Obama was either a Muslim because of his father's heritage or a racist Christian, based on some of the Rev. Wright's controversial sermons. During the campaign, Obama was ultimately forced to separate himself fully from the pastor, and he resigned his 20-year membership at Trinity.

As a candidate, Obama delivered the keynote speech at a conference organized by the liberal evangelical minister Jim Wallis. "Secularists are wrong when they ask believers to leave their religion at the door before entering into the public square," he said. "Frederick Douglass, Abraham Lincoln, Williams Jennings Bryan, Dorothy Day, Martin Luther King -- indeed, the majority of great reformers in American history -- were not only motivated by faith, but repeatedly used religious language to argue for their cause. So to say that men and women should not inject their 'personal morality' into public policy debates is a practical absurdity. Our law is by definition a codification of morality, much of it grounded in the Judeo-Christian tradition."

In the same speech, Obama criticized the religious right and their argument of political issues. "I may be opposed to abortion for religious reasons," he said, "but if I seek to pass a law banning the practice, I cannot simply point to the teachings of my church or evoke God's will. I have to explain why abortion violates some principle that is accessible to people of all faiths, including those with no faith at all."
Shakalaka

Morrow, GA

#113 Mar 24, 2013
George Washington

The religious beliefs of the first president of the United States of America have been the subject of debate since he held office.

Washington's faith has been categorized at times as evangelical Christianity, deist, Free Masonry and mainline Protestant Christianity. Washington himself was raised in, married in and became a vestryman in the Episcopal Church (the U.S. branch of the Anglican Communion). However, he rarely took communion and attended church sporadically.

Evangelical Christians have claimed that Washington accepted Jesus Christ as his personal savior, though there isn't evidence of this specific belief aside from Washington's rare mention of the figure of Christ, often in relation to morality, in public speeches.

Though also sometimes labeled a deist, Washington doesn't fit the definition of a deist as a person who sees God as similar to a clockmaker, a being who created the world and set life into motion, watching over events on earth without interfering. Washington believed in a God who responded to prayer and human need. Of his experiences in the battlefield, Washington reported, "By the all powerful dispensations of Providence, I have been protected beyond all human probability or expectation."

Though this debate is kept alive due to the fact that Washington did not reveal belief or nonbelief in his diaries, keeping what he saw as his personal life strictly private, there is little room for debate about Washington's commitment to religious liberty and his belief in the link between religion and morality. His experience leading the Continental Army and the fledgling nation helped shape his opinion that religious intolerance and bigotry led to dangerous divisions where unity was needed.

Of the link between religion and morality, Washington states in his Farewell Address, "Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity, religion and morality are indispensable supports... And let us with caution indulge the supposition that morality can be maintained without religion. Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined education on minds of peculiar structure, reason and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principle."

Regardless of his personal religious beliefs, Washington, like other statesmen responsible for crafting the new nation, struggled with the question of how to impart a morality and virtue to a diverse people. In Washington's mind, that unifying virtue was central to creating a responsible and successful democracy.
Shakalaka

Morrow, GA

#114 Mar 24, 2013
What is the belief of the Deist?
de·ism (dzm, d-)
n.
The belief, based solely on reason, in a God who created the universe and then abandoned it, assuming no control over life, exerting no influence on natural phenomena, and giving no supernatural revelation.

g.com · Bing Dictionary
Chris·ti·an·i·ty [ krìschee ánn&#601;tee ]
religion that follows Jesus Christ's teachings: the religion based on the life, teachings, and example of Jesus Christ
holding of Christian beliefs: the fact of holding Christian beliefs or of being a Christian
Christians as group: all Christian people considered as a group

Islam [&#712;&#618;zl&#5 93;&#720;m]
n
1.(Non-Christian Religions / Islam) Also called Islamism [&#618;z&#712;l&#5 93;&#720;m&#618;z& #601;m &#712;&#618;zl&#60 1;m&#618;z&#601;m] the religion of Muslims, having the Koran as its sacred scripture and teaching that there is only one God and that Mohammed is his prophet; Mohammedanism
2.(Non-Christian Religions / Islam)
a. Muslims collectively and their civilization
b. the countries where the Muslim religion is predominant
[from Arabic: surrender (to God), from aslama to surrender]
Islamic adj

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