How has Africa from the begining of t...

Sinajuavi
Level 6

Since: Nov 11

Location hidden

#159 Jun 10, 2013
In terms of human evolution, Africa influenced the world by being the place where a line of dryopithecine apes interacted with the environment to produce several evolutionary events leading to modern humans.

The hominin line itself began probably in E-Central Africa, the split from the common chimp-bonobo-human ancestor. Evolution then of many species of Australopithecus and then the transition to Homo occurred in Africa, given the recent Austraopithecus sediba discoveries, probably in southern Africa.

Homo erectus also appeared in Africa.

While the location of the evolution of erectus to heidelbergensis is not known, it is nearly certain that the transition of heidelbergensis to sapiens occurred in Africa.

And the evolution of the modern sapiens type (everyone but San and Twa peoples) occurred in the area of Ethiopia.

The modern type of stoneage culture, termed "Upper Palaeolithic", which involves complex tools, art, complex kinship systems, etc., evolved in Africa, before the OOA migration which took Homo sapiens to Eurasia and beyond.

As humanity went through cultural evolution, now on most continents, those still in Africa produced their own varieties of religion, crop plants, philosophy, science, art, and so on, all of which have been important to humanity everywhere.

There are innumerable examples. Egyptian religion, itself derived both from Nile Valley (Nubian-affiliated) and Saharan sources, affected all of the ancient world, and around the Mediterranean right up to the Christianization of the Roman Empire.

Similar to the influence of Polynesian art on Gauguin, W African visual art was a significant influence on Picasso's cubism.

African crops... oh but if I mention agriculture then certain Afronazi claim I've said that Africa only contributed fried chicken to the world. What I did say was that fried chicken does indeed derive from W African culinary treatment of the indigenously-domesticated Guinea hen.

Since African civilizations dating back even before that of Kemet have existed in many regions, their influence on the world has been consistent and considerable. W Africa has affected the Maghreb. East Africa has influenced India. Ethiopian influence has moved eastward into Arabia and northward to the Mediterranean and Mideast.

During the time of Medieval Europe, There were great cities in Africa just as in Cambodia, Mexico and Central Asia. Probably the most significant were Meroe and Djenne.

The story of civilization in the "Old World" involves Africa as much as the Mideast, Europe, India, SE Asia or China. This is only the latest example of human physical and cultural evolution occurring always in Africa, even when Homo sapiens is evolving in other places as well.
trollslayer

Tinley Park, IL

#160 Jun 10, 2013
"barros" We'll give ya' a solid "D" grade for an attempt at finally looking at Africa from a world perspective. I don't believe in the "ape stuff", but for another thread.

We do ask that you provide sources for this data. Sorry, but I'm very familiar with your writing style and it's obvious you copied & pasted your info. from another source. No offense, but you don't write as well as what you have in ur post.

____

Lets stay away from labels here and lets use coffee rather than "fried chicken" as one of the many African contributions to the world.

Level 8

Since: Aug 09

Saint Louis, MO

#161 Jun 11, 2013
trollslayer wrote:
"barros" We'll give ya' a solid "D" grade for an attempt at finally looking at Africa from a world perspective. I don't believe in the "ape stuff", but for another thread.
We do ask that you provide sources for this data. Sorry, but I'm very familiar with your writing style and it's obvious you copied & pasted your info. from another source. No offense, but you don't write as well as what you have in ur post.
____
Lets stay away from labels here and lets use coffee rather than "fried chicken" as one of the many African contributions to the world.
Let's use the Arabic numerals as an example of how EVERYTHING in modern science and technology is derived from Africa. Roman numerals do not even have a zero. How can anyone use that for anything other than simple counting?
trollslayer

Thornton, IL

#162 Jun 11, 2013
Abdurratln wrote:
<quoted text>
Let's use the Arabic numerals as an example of how EVERYTHING in modern science and technology is derived from Africa. Roman numerals do not even have a zero. How can anyone use that for anything other than simple counting?
You're a strange "bird" "Abdurratln", 1 minute you give credit to Africa....the next minute you take it away.

Level 8

Since: Aug 09

Saint Louis, MO

#163 Jun 11, 2013
trollslayer wrote:
<quoted text>
You're a strange "bird" "Abdurratln", 1 minute you give credit to Africa....the next minute you take it away.
Duh? How so? I do not get your point.
trollslayer

Thornton, IL

#164 Jun 12, 2013
Abdurratln wrote:
<quoted text>
Duh? How so? I do not get your point.
Abdurratln wrote:
So we know as a matter of truth that European culture did not inspire African civilization. Indeed, Africa was civilized for tens of thousands of years before Europeans even had the ability to communicate in written language, much less civilized human language.
1st you say something like this....which is true. Then, however you say something like this .........
Abdurratln wrote:
"No kind of racism or "afrocentricity" is going to fly here as long as I am here. I am an honest scholar who will not tell lies to stroke the egos of idiots like you."
Dam a racist label, look at the content. "Look at the forest and not the trees". BTW....you are NOT a "scholar", you're just a poster like all of us. Your opinion, is just a opinion to be weighed with all others. So-called "afrocentricity" used by PPL. like you and whites is the new term for "black militant" of the past. And of course the comment below is wrong / off-center......
Abdurratln wrote:
" you and I agree on something. My whole point is that it is genetically impossible to prove that the first humans were black or any other specific color."
You're getting caught up in "color" and NOT seeing the fact that MAN arose from Africa. NON-black or NON-Africans arose from Africans. There's no such thing as "euroasians" on earth before Africans.

Level 8

Since: Aug 09

Saint Louis, MO

#165 Jun 12, 2013
Idiot, obviously you nothing about me and nothing about my postings here. I am a Muslim. Muslims do not recognize races. And all kinds of racism is contrary to Islam. Racism is also contrary to Catholicism. That is why even in the US census they do not call a black Hispanic "negro" or "black" or even African. Hispanics do not recognize race because they are Catholics.

Level 3

Since: Mar 13

kaiserslautern, Germany

#166 Jun 12, 2013
Abdurratln wrote:
The subject is How has Africa from the beginning of time influenced the world? We know that all humanity has some ties to Africa. That it is anthropological and genetic is indisputable. It is also indisputable that Africa civilized the entire world. A major means, the major means, by which this was accomplished was through religion. Judaism clearly came from Monotheism which originated in Egypt. It is nonsensical to debate whether or not Egypt was "black", African, Arab, Asian or Eurasian. It is clear that it was not European. The Greeks invaded and colonized Egypt. The Romans colonized Libya. But in both cases, the Europeans dominated for only a short period of time very, very late in African civilization. So we know as a matter of truth that European culture did not inspire African civilization. Indeed, Africa was civilized for tens of thousands of years before Europeans even had the ability to communicate in written language, much less civilized human language.
The key is the term "Eurasian". But a better word would be Afroasiatic. and a still better term would be Semitic. Semitics is the common thread that unites all of Arabia, North Africa and most of coastal Africa. For example, Afroasiatics are spoken as far away from Asia as Nigeria. Hausa for example is an Afroasiatic language.
Likewise, for the sake of consistency and clarity, we may think of all Afroasiatic languages as parts of Arabic. I am a student of Arabic. I am such and mindful of the fact that many African languages can accessed from Arabic. For example, 25% of Swahili is directly from Arabic. Therefore, by learning Arabic, I automatically learn 25% of Swahili: kill two bird with one stone.
With that in mind, we need to know that the Arabic numerals are the basis of all modern sciences and technologies. Roman numerals cannot do it. The computer is based on an inter-relationship between one and zero. Roman numerals do not even have a zero. Thusly, we can that all modern science and technology came from Africa by way of the Arabic numerals. Racist dogs would die rather than admit such as obvious fact. But we as Africans must become mindful of this so that we may better chart our way to Black Power. If we ruled humanity in the past, we shall do so very soon in the future. But we will not do it is a racist of violent manner. Our mission is to bring world peace, as Nkrumah said.
Bogus statements.

[Judaism clearly came from Monotheism which originated in Egypt.]

That cannot be proven.

[The Greeks invaded and colonized Egypt. The Romans colonized Libya.]

Both the Greeks and Romans colonized Egypt and Libya for a long time.

[Africa was civilized for tens of thousands of years before Europeans even had the ability to communicate in written language, much less civilized human language.]

Egyptian civilization and writing does not go back much further back than 5000 years.

[Therefore, Hebrew must be a sub-language a part of Arabic.]

Hebrew drives from proto-canaanite.

[ I am such and mindful of the fact that many African languages can accessed from Arabic.]

Just those African languages that were influenced by arabic after the muslim invasions.

[Roman numerals do not even have a zero. Thusly, we can that all modern science and technology came from Africa by way of the Arabic numerals.]

But Arabic numerals did not come out of Africa and the concept of zero comes from India.

[Racist dogs would die rather than admit such as obvious fact.]

Wrong it is plainly accepted and taught that we switched to arabic numerals because they are more practical and that we got the concept of zero theough them form the Indians.

[If we ruled humanity in the past, we shall do so very soon in the future.]

You never ruled humanity. And how could if you were only confined to one continent? Did you rule over the Eskimos too?

Say, you ever think about going back to school? It's never too late.

Level 8

Since: Aug 09

Saint Louis, MO

#167 Jun 12, 2013
Uncle Miltie wrote:
<quoted text>
Bogus statements.
[Judaism clearly came from Monotheism which originated in Egypt.]
That cannot be proven.
[The Greeks invaded and colonized Egypt. The Romans colonized Libya.]
Both the Greeks and Romans colonized Egypt and Libya for a long time.
[Africa was civilized for tens of thousands of years before Europeans even had the ability to communicate in written language, much less civilized human language.]
Egyptian civilization and writing does not go back much further back than 5000 years.
[Therefore, Hebrew must be a sub-language a part of Arabic.]
Hebrew drives from proto-canaanite.
[ I am such and mindful of the fact that many African languages can accessed from Arabic.]
Just those African languages that were influenced by arabic after the muslim invasions.
[Roman numerals do not even have a zero. Thusly, we can that all modern science and technology came from Africa by way of the Arabic numerals.]
But Arabic numerals did not come out of Africa and the concept of zero comes from India.
[Racist dogs would die rather than admit such as obvious fact.]
Wrong it is plainly accepted and taught that we switched to arabic numerals because they are more practical and that we got the concept of zero theough them form the Indians.
[If we ruled humanity in the past, we shall do so very soon in the future.]
You never ruled humanity. And how could if you were only confined to one continent? Did you rule over the Eskimos too?
Say, you ever think about going back to school? It's never too late.
Judaism was clearly born in Africa. This is proven by reading the Bible.

Level 3

Since: Mar 13

kaiserslautern, Germany

#168 Jun 12, 2013
Abdurratln wrote:
<quoted text>
Judaism was clearly born in Africa. This is proven by reading the Bible.
Are you refering to Sinai?

Level 8

Since: Aug 09

Saint Louis, MO

#169 Jun 12, 2013
Uncle Miltie wrote:
<quoted text>
Are you refering to Sinai?
Yes. I am referring to Egypt and Ethiopia, also
trollslayer

Midlothian, IL

#170 Jun 12, 2013
Abdurratln wrote:
Idiot, obviously you nothing about me and nothing about my postings here. I am a Muslim. Muslims do not recognize races. And all kinds of racism is contrary to Islam. Racism is also contrary to Catholicism. That is why even in the US census they do not call a black Hispanic "negro" or "black" or even African. Hispanics do not recognize race because they are Catholics.
I didn't use any name-calling tactics with you. Continue on this path and you will ignored and unwelcome here. This thread is not about Muslims. Go back and read the intro.

“Try harder :)”

Level 8

Since: Oct 11

Location hidden

#171 Jun 13, 2013
Okay I'm going to help contribute to this thread...

http://io9.com/5905871/the-lost-civilizations...

"People have been punching holes in each other's skulls, for medicinal purposes or magic, since at least the middle part of the Stone Age. Now, researchers have found what may be the first evidence this complex surgical operation took place in the lost civilizations in the Sahara and Nubia, too.

The surgical procedure known as trepanation is arguably the oldest known medical operation in history, with the earliest known evidence for it found dating to about 12,000 BC in Morocco. A portion of the skull was removed for therapy or thaumaturgy — for instance, to reduce pressure within the skull, or to release evil spirits.

Scientists now reveal the Garamantians — a lost civilization in what is now southwest Libya — apparently practiced trepanation, the first time the operation has been seen in the Sahara. The Garamantians, named after their capital, Garama, flourished in the harsh central Sahara for nearly 1,500 years between 1,000 BC and 700 AD. They introduced key innovations to the region, including cities, irrigated farming, trade across the Sahara and a hierarchical, probably slave-owning society.

Archaeologists digging near Garama found three male skulls with signs of trepanning, dating from approximately 1 to 700 AD. The regular shape of all these holes suggests they were made intentionally, as do scrape marks seen in certain cases. The location of most of these marks on the left side suggest they might have been caused as the result of violence with right-handed opponents.

All these patients appeared to have survived the surgery, given the presence of newly formed bone in these holes. This suggests the Garamantians had "knowledge of complex surgical procedures," researchers said in the International Journal of Osteoarchaeology.

Archaeologists have also discovered trepanation in the ancient Nubian kingdom of Kerma. The ancient Nubians have long been thought of as rivals to the more prominent Egyptians who lay to the north of their ever changing borders. The close proximity and interaction of these two civilizations have led to the notion that Nubians copied the traditions of the ancient Egyptians, but this new find suggests the Nubians may have surpassed the Egyptians in some areas of technology and medicine.

The Kerma civilization, which dated between 2,500 and 1,500 BC, was located in what is considered to be the most fertile area along the Nile River south of Thebes. It served as the major middleman for trade between Nubian lands and the Egyptian empire.

One skull from Kerma, probably dating to between 1750 and 1550 BC, had a dime-sized circular hole with clear evidence of healing along its inside edge, the first confirmed Nubian case of trepanation to date. Similar holes have been seen on pyramids from the Egyptian Old Kingdom, suggesting a drill was used here, of the kind to hollow out stone sarcophagi.

"If this is true, it would mean that the Nubians had taken an architectural tool, which was probably introduced to them by the Egyptians years before, and adapted it for a much more sophisticated purpose. This would then imply extremely innovative capabilities and an outstanding intellect on the part of the Nubians," the researchers wrote in the International Journal of Osteoarchaeology."

“Try harder :)”

Level 8

Since: Oct 11

Location hidden

#172 Jun 13, 2013
"Now controversial findings from a French team working at
the site of Ôboui in the Central African Republic challenge
the diffusion model. Artifacts there suggest that sub-Saharan
Africans were making iron by at least 2000 B.C.E. and possibly
much earlier — well before Middle Easterners, says team member
Philippe Fluzin, an archaeometallurgist at the University of
Technology of Belfort-Montbéliard in Belfort, France. The
team unearthed a blacksmith’s forge and copious iron artifacts,
including pieces of iron bloom and two needles, as they describe
in a recent monograph, Les Ateliers d‘Ôboui, published in Paris."

“Effectively, the oldest known sites for iron metallurgy are in Africa,”

Fluzin says.

Source:
Heather Pringle; science.

“Try harder :)”

Level 8

Since: Oct 11

Location hidden

#173 Jun 13, 2013
Imitation in Aksumite Coinage and Indian Imitations of
Aksumite Coins
Rebecca Day

University of Birmingham, College of Arts and Law
[email protected]
Introduction

"The sudden appearance and disappearance of Aksumite coins in the Indian
Ocean region in the late third century remains an enigmatic clue to a dynamic
phase of international trade and diplomacy. This study will explore how the
Aksumite kingdom of Ethiopia used imitation of Byzantine coins as part of its
strategy to usurp the role of the eastern Roman Empire in long-distance trade
with the East. These coins demonstrate a flourishing and self-confident polity,
but also illustrate the importance of cultural tradition in the pursuit of maritime
trade.1 Discussing these themes further, the use and production of Indian
imitations of Aksumite coins as part of a cultural tradition of imitation, which
incorporated Byzantine, Roman and Kushan material will be explored.2 Such
an examination of genuine and original coins in the context of the mysterious
phenomenon of Aksumite trade clearly highlights the fluidity of notions of
continuity, distinction and differentiation, which gave the maritime trading
network of the Indian Ocean its unique and ambiguous historical character.

p2
Aksum, trade, and the right of Christian kingship
East Africa formed one of the key peripheries of the ancient Mediterranean
world. Pharaonic Egypt appears to have derived both trade and tribute from
Punt (probably the coastal region of East Africa down to Zanzibar). Punt
provided not only cinnamon and incense but also live animals for the
entertainment of the elite.3 By the Roman period East Africa south of Egypt
was still a mysterious but important part of an extended trade network. The
first-century A.D. Periplus Maris Ertyhrae provides the first literary reference to
a kingdom of Aksum in the region of modern Ethiopia and Eritrea, though it is
clearly already an established commercial centre.
4 Archaeological evidence
supports the impression of the literature, revealing the development of a
‘proto-Aksumite’ kingdom from the fourth century BC, developing by the first
century AD into what can be regarded as the developed Aksumite state.5
The significance of the kingdom of Aksum extends far beyond the coast of
modern Ethiopia and Eritrea, however. The structure, ideology and economy
of this kingdom provide a unique lens through which to view, to the west, the
development of the eastern Roman Empire during its Late Antique phase, and
to the east, the shifting patterns of Indian Ocean maritime trade during the
transitional fourth to eighth centuries. Coinage is crucial to constructing this
picture as it was the most mobile and public assertion of Aksumite identity
within its trade network. The form and spread of this coinage provides the
scaffolding for a reconstruction of the ambitions and achievements of the
Aksumite state to which the evidence of written and archaeological material
can be added.
The coinage of Aksum was tri-metallic, with a gold issue circulating within
Aksum and outside as a medium of long-distance exchange, and copper and
silver coinage which, apart from a few stray finds, appears to have served."
http://www.rosetta.bham.ac.uk/colloquium2011/...

Level 8

Since: Aug 09

Saint Louis, MO

#174 Jun 13, 2013
trollslayer wrote:
<quoted text>
I didn't use any name-calling tactics with you. Continue on this path and you will ignored and unwelcome here. This thread is not about Muslims. Go back and read the intro.
Do not threaten me, punk. I hate racism in all its forms and I hate racists. I have spent an entire lifetime fighting racism and will continue to do so. Islam is emphatically against racism. Obviously GOD was not a racist. And obviously none of GOD's prophets were racists:

"All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over black nor a black has any superiority over white except by piety (taqwa) and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to yourselves." ( http://www.iqrasense.com/about-islam/the-last... )

Having gotten away with the murder of Malcolm, the only thing NOI punks like you know how to do is threaten people.

Get lost. I have better thing to do with my time.
trollslayer

Lowell, IN

#175 Jun 13, 2013
Abdurratln wrote:
<quoted text>
Do not threaten me, punk. I hate racism in all its forms and I hate racists. I have spent an entire lifetime fighting racism and will continue to do so. Islam is emphatically against racism. Obviously GOD was not a racist. And obviously none of GOD's prophets were racists:
"All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over black nor a black has any superiority over white except by piety (taqwa) and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood. Nothing shall be legitimate to a Muslim which belongs to a fellow Muslim unless it was given freely and willingly. Do not, therefore, do injustice to yourselves." ( http://www.iqrasense.com/about-islam/the-last... )
Having gotten away with the murder of Malcolm, the only thing NOI punks like you know how to do is threaten people.
Get lost. I have better thing to do with my time.
dude ur going off on a tangent. If you have nothing to contribute to this thread about ancient African contributions to the world then YES.....PLEASE GET LOST. Thanks IN ADVANCE.
trollslayer

Lowell, IN

#176 Jun 13, 2013
big mike M wrote:
Imitation in Aksumite Coinage and Indian Imitations of
Aksumite Coins
Rebecca Day
University of Birmingham, College of Arts and Law
[email protected]
Introduction
"The sudden appearance and disappearance of Aksumite coins in the Indian
Ocean region in the late third century remains an enigmatic clue to a dynamic
phase of international trade and diplomacy. This study will explore how the
Aksumite kingdom of Ethiopia used imitation of Byzantine coins as part of its
strategy to usurp the role of the eastern Roman Empire in long-distance trade
with the East. These coins demonstrate a flourishing and self-confident polity,
but also illustrate the importance of cultural tradition in the pursuit of maritime
trade.1 Discussing these themes further, the use and production of Indian
imitations of Aksumite coins as part of a cultural tradition of imitation, which
incorporated Byzantine, Roman and Kushan material will be explored.2 Such
an examination of genuine and original coins in the context of the mysterious
phenomenon of Aksumite trade clearly highlights the fluidity of notions of
continuity, distinction and differentiation, which gave the maritime trading
network of the Indian Ocean its unique and ambiguous historical character.
p2
Aksum, trade, and the right of Christian kingship
East Africa formed one of the key peripheries of the ancient Mediterranean
world. Pharaonic Egypt appears to have derived both trade and tribute from
Punt (probably the coastal region of East Africa down to Zanzibar). Punt
provided not only cinnamon and incense but also live animals for the
entertainment of the elite.3 By the Roman period East Africa south of Egypt
was still a mysterious but important part of an extended trade network. The
first-century A.D. Periplus Maris Ertyhrae provides the first literary reference to
a kingdom of Aksum in the region of modern Ethiopia and Eritrea, though it is
clearly already an established commercial centre.
4 Archaeological evidence
supports the impression of the literature, revealing the development of a
‘proto-Aksumite’ kingdom from the fourth century BC, developing by the first
century AD into what can be regarded as the developed Aksumite state.5
The significance of the kingdom of Aksum extends far beyond the coast of
modern Ethiopia and Eritrea, however. The structure, ideology and economy
of this kingdom provide a unique lens through which to view, to the west, the
development of the eastern Roman Empire during its Late Antique phase, and
to the east, the shifting patterns of Indian Ocean maritime trade during the
transitional fourth to eighth centuries. Coinage is crucial to constructing this
picture as it was the most mobile and public assertion of Aksumite identity
within its trade network. The form and spread of this coinage provides the
scaffolding for a reconstruction of the ambitions and achievements of the
Aksumite state to which the evidence of written and archaeological material
can be added.
The coinage of Aksum was tri-metallic, with a gold issue circulating within
Aksum and outside as a medium of long-distance exchange, and copper and
silver coinage which, apart from a few stray finds, appears to have served."
http://www.rosetta.bham.ac.uk/colloquium2011/...
Thanks for the in-depth, well researched material.
trollslayer

Munster, IN

#177 Jun 15, 2013
The position of the Nazlet Khaterspecimen among prehistoric and modern African and Levantine populations

http://www.google.com/url...

“Try harder :)”

Level 8

Since: Oct 11

Location hidden

#178 Jun 15, 2013
@Trollslayer

You welcome.

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