Almoravid

Rotterdam, Netherlands

#282 Jan 16, 2014
Ish Tov wrote:
<quoted text>
J and R are Eurasian haplogroups.
J is associated with the Mideast, and R with Aryans.
They are in Africa due to back-migration.
What is your point about all of this, boy? Yet another Afronazi attempt to twist things around so you can pretend to be a Moorish Hebrew Chinese Olmec?
I already went over the locus of J*. It's right there in eastAfrica. LOL.

Here is more about R*. And his proto groups, Chromosomal Phylogenetic Tree.LOL

A Revised Root for the Human Y Chromosomal Phylogenetic Tree: The Origin of Patrilineal Diversity in Africa Fulvio Cruciani et al.(2011).

http://dnaexplained.files.wordpress.com/2012/...

The deepest branching separates A1b from a monophyletic clade whose members (A1a, A2, A3, B, C, and R) all share seven mutually reinforcing derived mutations (five transitions and two transversions, all at non-CpG sites). To retain the information from the reference MSY tree13 as much as possible, we named this clade A1a-T (Figure 1). Within A1a-T, the transversion V221 separates A1a from a monophyletic clade (called A2-T) consisting of three branches: A2, A3, and BT, the latter being supported by ten mutations (Figure 1).
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/...

quote:
Y-DNA haplogroup A contains lineages deriving from the earliest branching in the human Y chromosome tree. The oldest branching event, separating A0-P305 and A1-V161, is thought to have occurred about 140,000 years ago. Haplogroups A0-P305, A1a-M31 and A1b1a-M14 are restricted to Africa and A1b1b-M32 is nearly restricted to Africa. The haplogroup that would be named A1b2 is composed of haplogroups B through T. The internal branching of haplogroup A1-V161 into A1a-M31, A1b1, and BT (A1b2) may have occurred about 110,000 years ago. A0-P305 is found at low frequency in Central and West Africa. A1a-M31 is observed in northwestern Africans; A1b1a-M14 is seen among click language-speaking Khoisan populations. A1b1b-M32 has a wide distribution including Khoisan speaking and East African populations, and scattered members on the Arabian Peninsula.
http://www.isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_HapgrpA.html

Haplogroup CT (M168): Time of Emergence: 70,000 BP, 2800 generations ago beginning of the Last Glacial Period Place of Origin: The African Rift Valleymore
by Gábor Balogh

http://www.academia.edu/4461398/Haplogroup_CT...

Loooooooooool
Almoravid

Rotterdam, Netherlands

#283 Jan 16, 2014
Here is more scientific evidence stating that Cro Magonons originated from Africa, directly.

quote:
His recreation offers a tantalising glimpse into life before the dawn of civilisation. It also shows the close links between the first European settlers and their immediate African ancestors.
Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/articl...

quote:
"...the Cro-Magnons, the presumed ancestors of modern Europeans....were more like present-day Australians or Africans..."
--Chris Stringer, African Exodus ((Michael Witzel, The Origins of the World's Mythologies) 2013)

Oxford University Press

quote:
Today, most paleoanthropologists agree that the Cro-Magnons came from Africa (5).
--Stringer, C. B.(2003) Nature 423 , 692–695. pmid:12802315
http://www.pnas.org/content/101/16/5705.full

quote:
"The so-called Old Man [Cro-Magnon 1] became the original model for
what was once termed the Cro-Magnon or Upper Paleolithic "race" of
Europe.. there's no such valid biological category, and Cro-Magnon 1 is
not typical of Upper Paleolithic western Europeans- and not even all that
similar to the other two make skulls found at the site. Most of the genetic
evidence, as well as the newest fossil evidence from Africa argue against
continuous local evolution producing modern groups directly from any
Eurasian pre-modern population.. there's no longer much debate that a
large genetic contribution from migrating early modern Africans infuenced
other groups throughout the Old World.“
--B. Lewis et al. 2008. Understanding Humans: Introduction to Physical

quote:
If this analysis shows nothing else, it demonstrates that the oft-repeated European feeling that the Cro-Magnons are “us”(47) is more a product of anthropological folklore than the result of the metric data available from the skeletal remains.
--C. Loring Brace(2006)
The questionable contribution of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age to European craniofacial form

quote:
It has been proposed that heat adapted, relatively long-legged Homo sapiens from Africa replaced the cold adapted, relatively short-legged Homo neandertalensis of the Levant and Europe
--J Hum Evol 32 (1997a) 423], Bogin B, Rios L. et al.

quote:
The subsequent post-28,000-B.P. Gravettian human sample of Europe includes numerous associated skeletons (Table 2)(Zilhão & Trinkaus 2002). Most of these specimens are fully modern in their morphology, and there is a persistence in them of both linear (equatorial) limb proportions and more "African" nasal morphology (Trinkaus 1981, Holliday 1997, Franciscus 2003). However, one Iberian specimen (Lagar Velho 1) exhibits Neandertal limb segment proportions and a series of relatively archaic cranial and postcranial features (Trinkaus & Zilhão 2002). In addition, central incisor shoveling, ubiquitous among the Neandertals, absent in the Qafzeh-Skhul sample, and variably present in the earlier European sample, persists at modest frequencies. And scapular axillary border dorsal sulci, an apparently Neandertal feature also absent in the Qafzeh-Skhul sample, is present
--Trinkaus 2005

quote:
"Nor does the picture get any clearer when we move on to the Cro-Magnons, the presumed ancestors of modern Europeans. Some looked more like present-day Australians or Africans, judged by OBJECTIVE anatomical categorizations, as is the case with some early modern skulls from the Upper Cave at Zhoukoudian in China."
-- Am J Phys Anthropol. 1975 May;42(3):351-69,

quote:
In modern humans, this elongation is a pattern characteristic of warm-adapted populations, and this physique may be an early Cro-Magnon retention from African ancestors. Similar retentions may be observed in certain indices of facial shape [...]
--Encyclopedia of Human Evolution and Prehistory: Second Edition by Eric Delson
Almoravid

Rotterdam, Netherlands

#284 Jan 16, 2014
Yep I Said It wrote:
<quoted text> Look at your Hillbilly @ss getting factual information from us. Where is your information to refute what was told to you? <You don't have any, because you're fraudulent >
That individual is a mental phuck up, and there is no evidence of back migrations. Since there is no real support for this, in fact it's the other way around. Small pockets of African people migrated out if Africa. The understand is in that during the genetic mutation occurrences these
groups/ population were very small. Up to only a few thousand max, but even more likely a few hundred. This is what makes the back migration hypothesis even more laughable.

Quote:
At about 40,000 years ago, however, Homo sapiens, in the form of the Cro-Magnons, began trickling into Europe, probably from an initially African place of origin.
http://www.metmuseum.org/en/exhibitions/listi...

Quote:
Migrations into India “did occur, but rarely from western Eurasian populations.” There are low frequencies of the western Eurasian mtDNA types in both southern and northern India. Thus, the ‘caucasoid’ features of south Asians may best be considered ‘pre-caucasoid’— that is, part of a diverse north or north-east African gene pool that yielded separate origins for western Eurasian and southern Asian populations over 50,000 years ago.
--U.S. biological anthropologist Todd R. Disotell.

quote:
The first argues that modern cognition is unique to our species and the consequence of a genetic mutation that took place 50 ka in Africa among anatomically modern humans (AMH)(1).
--Francesco d’Erricoa et al.(2009)

http://picturestack.com/933/761/H8fSchermafbe...

http://desmond.imageshack.us/Himg197/scaled.p...

http://armagideon-time.com/img/120329/0329.jp...

Last but not least, and I'm out of here.


Was North Africa the Launch Pad for Modern Human Migrations?

Michael Balter

Until very recently, most researchers studying the origins of Homo sapiens focused on the fossils of East Africa and the sophisticated tools and ornaments of famed South African sites such as Blombos Cave. Few scientists thought that much of evolutionary significance had gone on in North Africa, or that the region's big-toothed, somewhat archaic-looking hominins might be closely related to the ancestors of many living people. Now, thanks to new excavations and more accurate dating, North Africa boasts unequivocal signs of modern human behavior as early as anywhere else in the world, including South Africa. Climate reconstructions and fossil studies now suggest that the region was more hospitable during key periods than once thought. The data suggest that the Sahara Desert was a land of lakes and rivers about 130,000 years ago, when moderns first left Africa for sites in what is today Israel. And new studies of hominin fossils suggest some strong resemblances—and possible evolutionary connections—between North African specimens and fossils representing migrations out of Africa between 130,000 and 40,000 years ago.

http://www.sciencemag.org/content/331/6013/20

7 JANUARY 2011 VOL 331 SCIENCE, sciencemag

E. A. A. Garcea, Ed., South-Eastern Mediterranean Peoples Between 130,000 and 10,000 Years Ago (Oxbow Books, 2010).

J.-J. Hublin and S. McPherron, Eds., Modern Origins: A North African Perspective (Springer, in press).

http://www.springer.com/Aterian

Level 3

Since: Sep 13

Location hidden

#285 Jan 16, 2014
Wannabe Almoravid wrote:
<quoted text>
Uneducated Appalachian, that data is right there for everyone to see and read. The sources are right there.
More:
quote:
Migrations into India “did occur, but rarely from western Eurasian populations.” There are low frequencies of the western Eurasian mtDNA types in both southern and northern India. Thus, the ‘caucasoid’ features of south Asians may best be considered ‘pre-caucasoid’— that is, part of a diverse north or north-east African gene pool that yielded separate origins for western Eurasian and southern Asian populations over 50,000 years ago.
-- U.S. biological anthropologist Todd R. Disotell.
quote:
European connection? Some features, such as the molars, of these 40,000-year- old specimens from Romania resemble those of earlier North African hominins.
Was North Africa The Launch Pad For Modern Human Migrations www.springer.com.At erian
quote:
Abstract The Aterian fossil hominins represent one of the most abundant series of human remains associated with Middle Stone Age/Middle Paleolithic assemblages in Africa.
The discovery will help better define northern Africa's possible role in first populating southern Europe.
The makers of these assemblages can therefore be seen as (1) a
group of Homo sapiens predating and/or contemporary to
the out-of-Africa exodus of the species, and (2) geographically one of the (if not the) closest from the main gate to Eurasia at the northeastern corner of the African continent.
Although Moroccan specimens have been discovered far
away from this area, they may provide us with one of the
best proxies of the African groups that expanded into Eurasia[...]
--J.-J. Hublin, Dental Evidence from the Aterian Human Populations of Morocco
http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~bioanth/tanya_smi...
More ignorance from the Afronazi.

What India and Europe have mostly in common is the R haplogroup, that of the Aryans. It originated in northern India.

“Pre-Caucasoid”, that would be type F? Because “Caucasoid” type is spread from India to Central Asia to the Mideast to the Maghreb to Europe.

Southern Europe was first populated by Cro-Magnon, from the Mideast, type I, offspring of IJ... and J is Mid-Eastern, boy.

Aterians were not in the Maghreb when the first Eurasians arrived. Find ANY evidence that they were... no such sites have been found.

You change the subject, from Europe to the Maghreb, and you're wrong on every point, boy.

And so, yes, there are many biological and cultural connections between Europe and India.

And the Maghreb has been inhabited by Eurasians for over 30k years.

Boy.
Almoravid

Rotterdam, Netherlands

#286 Jan 16, 2014

Level 3

Since: Sep 13

Location hidden

#287 Jan 16, 2014
Almoravid wrote:
<quoted text>
That individual is a mental phuck up, and there is no evidence of back migrations. Since there is no real support for this, in fact it's the other way around. Small pockets of African people migrated out if Africa. The understand is in that during the genetic mutation occurrences these
groups/ population were very small. Up to only a few thousand max, but even more likely a few hundred. This is what makes the back migration hypothesis even more laughable.
Quote:
At about 40,000 years ago, however, Homo sapiens, in the form of the Cro-Magnons, began trickling into Europe, probably from an initially African place of origin.
http://www.metmuseum.org/en/exhibitions/listi...
Quote:
Migrations into India “did occur, but rarely from western Eurasian populations.” There are low frequencies of the western Eurasian mtDNA types in both southern and northern India. Thus, the ‘caucasoid’ features of south Asians may best be considered ‘pre-caucasoid’— that is, part of a diverse north or north-east African gene pool that yielded separate origins for western Eurasian and southern Asian populations over 50,000 years ago.
--U.S. biological anthropologist Todd R. Disotell.
quote:
The first argues that modern cognition is unique to our species and the consequence of a genetic mutation that took place 50 ka in Africa among anatomically modern humans (AMH)

Last but not least, and I'm out of here.
Was North Africa the Launch Pad for Modern Human Migrations?
Michael Balter
Until very recently, most researchers studying the origins of Homo sapiens focused on the fossils of East Africa and the sophisticated tools and ornaments of famed South African sites such as Blombos Cave. Few scientists thought that much of evolutionary significance had gone on in North Africa, or that the region's big-toothed, somewhat archaic-looking hominins might be closely related to the ancestors of many living people. Now, thanks to new excavations and more accurate dating, North Africa boasts unequivocal signs of modern human behavior as early as anywhere else in the world, including South Africa. Climate reconstructions and fossil studies now suggest that the region was more hospitable during key periods than once thought. The data suggest that the Sahara Desert was a land of lakes and rivers about 130,000 years ago, when moderns first left Africa for sites in what is today Israel. And new studies of hominin fossils suggest some strong resemblances—and possible evolutionary connections—between North African specimens and fossils representing migrations out of Africa between 130,000 and 40,000 years ago.
You're a liar, boy. There is much evidence for back-migrations, including that into the Maghreb over 30k years ago which brought in the Eurasian base of the Maghreb population.

Furthermore, J is all over northeast Africa, and came from the Mideast.

Then there's Aryan R in W Africa.

Over 40,000 years ago, Cro-Magnon moved into Europe, from a Mideast/Central Asian/steppe location, since their DNA is Eurasian and descended from OOA migrants who'd left Africa LONG before that time.

Cro-Magnon had distinctive european traits from the beginning. Clearly much evolution had occurred since OOA.

The common origin of Indians and Europeans could not have been in Africa, since their common ancestors are all Eurasian.

Indian H, L and R all descend from F. L and R descend from IJK.

Modern cognition, if you mean by that the Upper Palaeolithic, is older than 50k years, as Palaeolithic artifacts are found as old as 80k bp in southern Africa.

All Homo sapiens had complex Upper Palaolithic culture at the time of OOA, whether they were the ones who stayed in Africa or those who left.

Learn anthropology before you attempt to step to me, racist cult boy. Log off of www.afronazisgonewild.com .
Almoravid

Rotterdam, Netherlands

#288 Jan 16, 2014
Ish Tov wrote:
<quoted text>
More ignorance from the Afronazi.
What India and Europe have mostly in common is the R haplogroup, that of the Aryans. It originated in northern India.
“Pre-Caucasoid”, that would be type F? Because “Caucasoid” type is spread from India to Central Asia to the Mideast to the Maghreb to Europe.
Southern Europe was first populated by Cro-Magnon, from the Mideast, type I, offspring of IJ... and J is Mid-Eastern, boy.
Aterians were not in the Maghreb when the first Eurasians arrived. Find ANY evidence that they were... no such sites have been found.
You change the subject, from Europe to the Maghreb, and you're wrong on every point, boy.
And so, yes, there are many biological and cultural connections between Europe and India.
And the Maghreb has been inhabited by Eurasians for over 30k years.
Boy.
You are typing rubbish.

I have posted directly from the sources for everyone to read.

The locus of J is found in east Africa. Not in the Arabian Peninsula. And Hg R has been covered as well. For all questions sake, here is it again!

http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S...

http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S...

Level 3

Since: Sep 13

Location hidden

#289 Jan 16, 2014
Almoravid wrote:
<quoted text>
I already went over the locus of J*. It's right there in eastAfrica. LOL.
Here is more about R*. And his proto groups, Chromosomal Phylogenetic Tree.LOL
A Revised Root for the Human Y Chromosomal Phylogenetic Tree: The Origin of Patrilineal Diversity in Africa Fulvio Cruciani et al.(2011).
http://dnaexplained.files.wordpress.com/2012/...
The deepest branching separates A1b from a monophyletic clade whose members (A1a, A2, A3, B, C, and R) all share seven mutually reinforcing derived mutations (five transitions and two transversions, all at non-CpG sites). To retain the information from the reference MSY tree13 as much as possible, we named this clade A1a-T (Figure 1). Within A1a-T, the transversion V221 separates A1a from a monophyletic clade (called A2-T) consisting of three branches: A2, A3, and BT, the latter being supported by ten mutations (Figure 1).
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/...
quote:
Y-DNA haplogroup A contains lineages deriving from the earliest branching in the human Y chromosome tree. The oldest branching event, separating A0-P305 and A1-V161, is thought to have occurred about 140,000 years ago. Haplogroups A0-P305, A1a-M31 and A1b1a-M14 are restricted to Africa and A1b1b-M32 is nearly restricted to Africa. The haplogroup that would be named A1b2 is composed of haplogroups B through T. The internal branching of haplogroup A1-V161 into A1a-M31, A1b1, and BT (A1b2) may have occurred about 110,000 years ago. A0-P305 is found at low frequency in Central and West Africa. A1a-M31 is observed in northwestern Africans; A1b1a-M14 is seen among click language-speaking Khoisan populations. A1b1b-M32 has a wide distribution including Khoisan speaking and East African populations, and scattered members on the Arabian Peninsula.
http://www.isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_HapgrpA.html
Haplogroup CT (M168): Time of Emergence: 70,000 BP, 2800 generations ago beginning of the Last Glacial Period Place of Origin: The African Rift Valleymore
by Gábor Balogh
http://www.academia.edu/4461398/Haplogroup_CT...
Loooooooooool
Wrong, boy. How can J descend from OOA F, and yet be African? That is nonsense and you should know that... oh but you're not interested in facts, just racist Afronazi ideology.

Then you post info on pre-OOA Y evolution in Africa... which is irrelevant to this topic! LOL...

Do you think that the Afronazis will simply not understand it, but see the word “Africa” and think therefore that y'all have won? LOL... that is how you lying racists operate.

That is because you, like all Afronazis, completely lack character and integrity.

Boy.
Almoravid

Rotterdam, Netherlands

#290 Jan 16, 2014
More for the simpleton,

The Aterian and its place in the North African Middle Stone Age

Eleanor M.L. Scerri Centre for the Archaeology of Human Origins (CAHO), 65A Avenue Campus, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BF, UK

Abstract

quote:
The Aterian is a frequently cited manifestation of the Middle Stone Age (MSA) of North Africa, yet its character and meaning have remained largely opaque, as attention has focused almost exclusively on the typology of ‘tanged’, or ‘pedunculated’, lithics. Observations of technological similarities between the Aterian and other regional technocomplexes suggest that the Aterian should be considered within the wider context of the North African MSA and not as an isolated phenomenon. This paper critically reviews the meaning and history of research of the Aterian. This highlights a number of serious issues with definitions and interpretations of this technocomplex, ranging from a lack of definitional consensus to problems with the common view of the Aterian as a ‘desert adaptation’. Following this review, the paper presents the results of a quantitative study of six North African MSA assemblages (Aterian, Nubian Complex and ‘MSA’). Correspondence and Principal Components Analyses are applied, which suggest that the patterns of similarity and difference demonstrated do not simplistically correlate with traditional divisions between named industries. These similarity patterns are instead structured geographically and it is suggested that they reflect a population differentiation that cannot be explained by isolation and distance alone. Particular results include the apparent uniqueness of Haua Fteah compared to all the other assemblages and the observation that the Aterian in northeast Africa is more similar to the Nubian in that region than to the Aterian in the Maghreb. The study demonstrates the existence of population structure in the North African MSA, which has important implications for the evolutionary dynamics of modern human dispersals.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/...

http://www.indiana.edu/~origins/teach/P314/MS...

http://www.springer.com/cda/content/document/...
Almoravid

Rotterdam, Netherlands

#291 Jan 16, 2014
More for the Appalachian simpleton.

quote:
North Africa is quickly emerging as one of the more important regions yielding information on the origins of modern Homo sapiens. Associated with significant fossil hominin remains are two stone tool industries, the Aterian and Mousterian, which have been differentiated, respectively, primarily on the basis of the presence and absence of tanged, or stemmed, stone tools. Largely because of historical reasons, these two industries have been attributed to the western Eurasian Middle Paleolithic rather than the African Middle Stone Age. In this paper, drawing on our recent excavation of Contrebandiers Cave and other published data, we show that, aside from the presence or absence of tanged pieces, there are no other distinctions between these two industries in terms of either lithic attributes or chronology. Together, these results demonstrate that these two ‘industries’ are instead variants of the same entity.

** Moreover, several additional characteristics of these assemblages, such as distinctive stone implements and the manufacture and use of bone tools and possible shell ornaments, suggest a closer affinity to other Late Pleistocene African Middle Stone Age industries rather than to the Middle Paleolithic of western Eurasia.

--On the industrial attributions of the Aterian and Mousterian of the Maghreb, Harold L. Dibble et al.
Journal of Human Evolution, 2013 Elsevier.

Level 3

Since: Sep 13

Location hidden

#292 Jan 16, 2014
Wannabe Almoravid wrote:
http://ars.els-cdn.com/content /image/1-s2.0-S000292971100164 9-gr1.jpg
http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S...
Bye everybody.
LOL!!!! You don't even understand the information you post, boy. That is obvious, since it is irrelevant to the topic.

Yes, Europeans are very ancient, were already distinctively European 45k bp,

Yes, after OOA (about 60k bp), Eurasians continued to diversify and evolve, and so all the types descended from CF are of course Eurasian, not African. That includes G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, and T.

Whatchagonnado, Afronazi putz?
Almoravid

Rotterdam, Netherlands

#293 Jan 16, 2014
Ish Tov wrote:
<quoted text>
Wrong, boy. How can J descend from OOA F, and yet be African? That is nonsense and you should know that... oh but you're not interested in facts, just racist Afronazi ideology.
Then you post info on pre-OOA Y evolution in Africa... which is irrelevant to this topic! LOL...
Do you think that the Afronazis will simply not understand it, but see the word “Africa” and think therefore that y'all have won? LOL... that is how you lying racists operate.
That is because you, like all Afronazis, completely lack character and integrity.
Boy.
That is because small pockets of groups moved slowly out of Africa. The locus is in east Africa. Sorry.

These movements were during a time of climatic shifts.

See, everything I've posted came directly from official sources. Yet, you're being ignorant and arrogant.

There was never such thing as back migrations, there is no support of this. All shows the opposite, as I have shown.

Again the key to understand this is "small populations".
Almoravid

Rotterdam, Netherlands

#294 Jan 16, 2014
More for the uneducated Appalachian,

quote:
Regular Middle Paleolithic inventories as well as Middle Paleolithic inventories of Aterian type have a long chronology in Morocco going back to MIS 6 and are interstratified in some sites. Their potential for detecting chrono-cultural patterns is low. The transition from the Middle to Upper Paleolithic, here termed Early Upper Paleolithic—at between 30 to 20 ka—remains a most enigmatic era. Scarce data from this period requires careful and fundamental reconsidering of human presence. By integrating environmental data in the reconstruction of population dynamics, clear correlations become obvious. High resolution data are lacking before 20 ka, and at some sites this period is characterized by the occurrence of sterile layers between Middle Paleolithic deposits, possibly indicative of a very low presence of humans in Morocco. After Heinrich Event 1, there is an enormous increase of data due to the prominent Late Iberomaurusian deposits that contrast strongly with the foregoing accumulations in terms of sedimentological features, fauna, and artifact composition. The Younger Dryas again shows a remarkable decline of data marking the end of the Paleolithic. Environmental improvements in the Holocene are associated with an extensive Epipaleolithic occupation. Therefore, the late glacial cultural sequence of Morocco is a good test case for analyzing the interrelationship of culture and climate change.
--Late Pleistocene Human Occupation of Northwest Africa: A Crosscheck of Chronology and Climate Change in Morocco
Jörg Linstädter, Prehistoric Archaeology, Cologne University, GERMANY Josef Eiwanger, KAAK, German Archaeological Institute, GERMANY Abdessalam Mikdad, INSAP, MOROCCO
Gerd-Christian Weniger, Neanderthal Museum, GERMANY
Almoravid

Rotterdam, Netherlands

#295 Jan 16, 2014
Ish Tov wrote:
<quoted text>
LOL!!!! You don't even understand the information you post, boy. That is obvious, since it is irrelevant to the topic.
Yes, Europeans are very ancient, were already distinctively European 45k bp,
Yes, after OOA (about 60k bp), Eurasians continued to diversify and evolve, and so all the types descended from CF are of course Eurasian, not African. That includes G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, and T.
Whatchagonnado, Afronazi putz?
LOL, SMH. Simply pathetic.

I have put up the sources for everyone to read. People can see for themselves that I didn't make it up, or lied. Everything I've posted is true. If you can't deal with it, then that's your problem.

Many of the markers you've posted have there locus in Africa amongst indigenous Africans. And further evolved as they moved out, further away from the African continent.

Let me summarize for you quickly how it goes,

http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/fetchObje...

http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/fetchObje...

http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/fetchObje...


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons...

quote:
Coalescent simulations

In coalescent simulation analyses we considered the ancient populations of aUzPo, aBOO, Central/East/Scandinavian European hunter-gatherers (aHG [12],[14], aPWC [13]), and the modern populations of NEE, CE, and Saami (saa). Population statistics (haplotype diversity and fixation indexes, FST) for the ancient and extant populations were calculated in Arlequin version 3.11 (Table 2,[91]).

[...]

We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population movements across Eurasia.

[...]

This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population movements across Eurasia. It contributes to the description of the spatio-temporal distribution of mitochondrial diversity and will be of significance for future reconstructions of the history of Europeans.

[...]

First, ancestors of the Saami were suggested to have reached Fennoscandia from Western Europe along the Atlantic cast of Norway as part of the expansion of Mesolithic post-Ahrensburgian cultures (Fosna-Hensbacka and Komsa) in the early Holocene (~10,000–11,000 yBP). Alternatively, the Saami were proposed to find their origins in Mesolithic post-Swiderian cultures (Kunda, Veretye, Suomusjärvi), which had moved from Poland into NEE also in the early Holocene [24].

[...]

Further temporal population samples will be required, especially along the proposed alternative western migration route into sub-arctic Europe.

--Clio Der Sarkissian et al.(2013)

Ancient DNA Reveals Prehistoric Gene-Flow from Siberia in the Complex Human Population History of North East Europe

".. it appears that Europeans are about
two-thirds Asians and one-third
African."
--Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza (2001).
Genes, peoples and languages. FARRAR
STRAUS AND GIROUX Publishers

PNAS July 22, 1997 vol. 94 no. 15 7719-7724

http://www.pnas.org/content/94/15/7719.full

Level 3

Since: Sep 13

Location hidden

#296 Jan 16, 2014
Wannabe Almoravid wrote:
<quoted text>
That is because small pockets of groups moved slowly out of Africa. The locus is in east Africa. Sorry.
These movements were during a time of climatic shifts.
See, everything I've posted came directly from official sources. Yet, you're being ignorant and arrogant.
There was never such thing as back migrations, there is no support of this. All shows the opposite, as I have shown.
Again the key to understand this is "small populations".
You're so full of crap, boy, and intentionally misrepresenting data, twisting it so you can pretend you know something... lol!

But you know nothing, boy, and are nothing but a liar, and therefore worthy of ZERO respect. Arrogant? I'll dance on your goddam face, boy!

Yes, there is much evidence for back migrations, and you provided NO evidence to the contrary. Evidence for F being from Africa? No... LOL!!! And the Cro-Magnon type I descends from F... EURASIAN!!!

The locus of what? LOL!!! You babble nonsense. Your sentences make no sense. We'd laugh you out of any real university, boy.

Level 3

Since: Sep 13

Location hidden

#297 Jan 16, 2014
Wannabe Almoravid wrote:
More for the uneducated Appalachian,
quote:
Regular Middle Paleolithic inventories as well as Middle Paleolithic inventories of Aterian type have a long chronology in Morocco going back to MIS 6 and are interstratified in some sites. Their potential for detecting chrono-cultural patterns is low. The transition from the Middle to Upper Paleolithic, here termed Early Upper Paleolithic—at between 30 to 20 ka—remains a most enigmatic era. Scarce data from this period requires careful and fundamental reconsidering of human presence. By integrating environmental data in the reconstruction of population dynamics, clear correlations become obvious. High resolution data are lacking before 20 ka, and at some sites this period is characterized by the occurrence of sterile layers between Middle Paleolithic deposits, possibly indicative of a very low presence of humans in Morocco. After Heinrich Event 1, there is an enormous increase of data due to the prominent Late Iberomaurusian deposits that contrast strongly with the foregoing accumulations in terms of sedimentological features, fauna, and artifact composition. The Younger Dryas again shows a remarkable decline of data marking the end of the Paleolithic. Environmental improvements in the Holocene are associated with an extensive Epipaleolithic occupation. Therefore, the late glacial cultural sequence of Morocco is a good test case for analyzing the interrelationship of culture and climate change.
--Late Pleistocene Human Occupation of Northwest Africa: A Crosscheck of Chronology and Climate Change in Morocco
Jörg Linstädter, Prehistoric Archaeology, Cologne University, GERMANY Josef Eiwanger, KAAK, German Archaeological Institute, GERMANY Abdessalam Mikdad, INSAP, MOROCCO
Gerd-Christian Weniger, Neanderthal Museum, GERMANY
NOTHING in there says that there was anyone in the Maghreb after 40k bp until the Eurasians got there, boy.

Aterians, LOL!!! Middle Palaeolithic!

What a numbnuts. The DNA of those who appear in the uninhabited Maghreb some time before 30k bp is pure Eurasian. This is proven.

Everything I say is proven, boy.

Everything you say is bull$hit spewed by a racist ignoramus.

Boy.
Almoravid

Rotterdam, Netherlands

#299 Jan 16, 2014
Ish Tov wrote:
<quoted text>
NOTHING in there says that there was anyone in the Maghreb after 40k bp until the Eurasians got there, boy.
Aterians, LOL!!! Middle Palaeolithic!
What a numbnuts. The DNA of those who appear in the uninhabited Maghreb some time before 30k bp is pure Eurasian. This is proven.
Everything I say is proven, boy.
Everything you say is bull$hit spewed by a racist ignoramus.
Boy.
Can you please stop your foolishness, there weren't any Eurasian in North Africa, certainly not in Northwest Africa. All shows migration from Africa into Southern Europe, later the levant and the oldest migration route via the Horn into Yemen.

Quote:
Trans-Saharan craniometry. Principal components analysis of craniometric variables closely allies the early Holocene occupants at Gobero, who were buried with Kiffian material culture, with Late Pleistocene to mid-Holocene humans from the Maghreb and southern Sahara referred to as Iberomaurusians, Capsians and “Mechtoids.” Outliers to this cluster of populations include an older Aterian sample and the mid-Holocene occupants at Gobero associated with Tenerean material culture.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F1...



Quote:
WHAT BONES CAN TELL: BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES ON THE HUNTER-GATHERERS OF THE MAGHREB:

The extremely large skeletal samples that come from sites such as Taforalt (Fig. 8.13) and Afalou constitute an invaluable resource for understanding the makers of Iberomaurusian artifacts, and their number is unparalleled elsewhere in Africa for the early Holocene. Frequently termed Mechta-Afalou or Mechtoid, these were a skeletally robust people and definitely African in origin, though attempts, such as those of Ferembach (1985), to establish similarities with much older and rarer Aterian skeletal remains are tenuous given the immense temporal separation between the two (Close and Wendorf 1990). At the opposite end of the chronological spectrum, dental morphology does suggest connections with later Africans, including those responsible for the Capsian Industry (Irish 2000) and early mid-Holocene human remains from the western half of the Sahara (Dutour 1989), something that points to the Maghreb as one of the regions from which people recolonised the desert (MacDonald 1998).

Turning to what can be learned about cultural practices and disease, the individuals from Taforalt, the largest sample by far, display little evidence of trauma, though they do suggest a high incidence of infant mortality, with evidence for dental caries, arthritis, and rheumatism among other degenerative conditions. Interestingly, Taforalt also provides one of the oldest known instances of the practice of trepanation, the surgical removal of a portion of the cranium; the patient evidently survived for some time, as there are signs of bone regrowth in the affected area. Another form of body modification was much more widespread and, indeed, a distinctive feature of the Iberomaurusian skeletal sample as a whole. This was the practice of removing two or more of the upper incisors, usually around puberty and from both males and females, something that probably served as both a rite of passage and an ethnic marker (Close and Wendorf 1990), just as it does in parts of sub-Saharan Africa today (e.g., van Reenen 1987). Cranial and postcranial malformations are also apparent and may indicate pronounced endogamy at a much more localised level (Hadjouis 2002), perhaps supported by the degree of variability between different site samples noted by Irish (2000).
--Lawrence Barham
The First Africans: African Archaeology from the Earliest Toolmakers to Most Recent Foragers (Cambridge World Archaeology)

To be continued.

...
Almoravid

Rotterdam, Netherlands

#300 Jan 16, 2014
Ish Tov wrote:
<quoted text>
NOTHING in there says that there was anyone in the Maghreb after 40k bp until the Eurasians got there, boy.
Aterians, LOL!!! Middle Palaeolithic!
What a numbnuts. The DNA of those who appear in the uninhabited Maghreb some time before 30k bp is pure Eurasian. This is proven.
Everything I say is proven, boy.
Everything you say is bull$hit spewed by a racist ignoramus.
Boy.
All are clustered with specimen of indigenous Africans, the more you type, the funnier you become.

Quote:
Craniometric data from seven human groups (Tables 3, 4) were subjected to principal components analysis, which allies the early Holocene population at Gobero (Gob-e) with mid-Holocene “Mechtoids” from Mali and Mauritania [18],[26],[27] and with Late Pleistocene Iberomaurusians and early Holocene Capsians from across the Maghreb

http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.ac...

Figure 6. Principal components analysis of craniofacial dimensions among Late Pleistocene to mid-Holocene populations from the Maghreb and southern Sahara.

http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.ac...

Table 3. Nine human populations sampled for craniometric analysis ranging in age from the Late Pleistocene (ca. 80,000 BP, Aterian) to the mid-Holocene (ca. 4000 BP) and in geographic distribution across the Maghreb to the southern Sahara [18],[19],[26],[27],[54].
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.00029 95.t003

http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.ac...


Successes and failures of human dispersals from North Africa
(2011)

http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1...

http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1...

http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1...

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/...
Almoravid

Rotterdam, Netherlands

#302 Jan 16, 2014
http://oi55.tinypic.com/293yejm.jpg

http://oi55.tinypic.com/293yejm.jpg

quote:
The Middle Holocene climatic transition

The Middle Holocene, and more precisely the period from around 6400 BP and 5000 BP, was a period of profound environmental change, during which the global climate underwent a systematic reorganisation as the warm, humid post-glacial climate of the Early Holocene gave way to a climatic configuration broadly similar to that of today (Brooks, 2010; Mayewski et al., 2004). The most prominent manifestations of this transition were a cooling at middle and high latitudes and high altitudes (Thompson et al., 2006), a transition from relatively humid to arid conditions in the NHST (Brooks, 2006, 2010; deMenocal et al., 2000) and the establishment of a regular El Niño after a multimillennial period during which is was rare or absent (Sandweiss et al., 2007).
This “Middle Holocene Climatic Transition”(MHCT) represented a stepwise acceleration of climatic trends that had commenced in the 9th millennium BP in some regions (Jung et al., 2004), and entailed a long-term shift towards cooler and more arid conditions, punctuated by episodes of abrupt climatic change. Around 6400–6300 BP, palaeo-environmental evidence indicates abrupt lake recessions and increased aridity in northern Africa, western Asia, South Asia and northern China, and the advance of glaciers in Europe and elsewhere (Damnati, 2000; Enzel et al., 1999; Jung et al.,)...

Ocean records suggest a cold-arid episode around 5900 BP (Bond et al., 1997), followed in the Sahara by an abrupt shift to aridity around 5800–5700 BP, evident in terrestrial records from the Libyan central Sahara and marine records from the Eastern Tropical Atlantic (Cremaschi, 2002; di Lernia, 2002; deMenocal et al., 2000). From about 5800–5700 BP to 5200–5000 BP, aridification intensified in the Sahara (deMenocal et al., 2000), South Asia (Enzel et al., 1999), north-central China (Zhang et al., 2000; Xiao et al., 2004) and the Arabian Peninsula (Parker et al., 2006). Over the same period, drought conditions prevailed in the Eastern Medi- terranean (Bar-Matthews & Ayalon, 2011), the Zagros Mountains of Iran (Stevens et al., 2006) and County Mayo in Ireland (Caseldine et al., 2005), while river flow into the Cariaco Basin of northern South America decreased (Haug et al., 2001). An abrupt cold-arid epi- sode around 5200 BP is evident in environmental records from Europe, Africa, western Asia, China and South America,(Caseldine et al., 2005; Gasse, 2002; Magny & Haas, 2004; Parker et al., 2006; Thompson et al., 1995).
The above evidence indicates that the MHCT was associated with a weakening of monsoon systems across the globe, and the southward retreat of monsoon rains in the NHST (Lézine, 2009). However, these changes coin- cided with climatic reorganisation outside of the global monsoon belt, as indicated by the onset of El Niño and evidence of large changes in climate at middle and high latitudes. The ultimate driving force behind these changes was a decline in the intensity of summer solar radiation outside the tropics, resulting from long-term changes in the angle of the Earth’s axis of rotation relative to its orbital plane. This was translated into abrupt changes in climate by non-linear feedback processes within the climate system...

[...]

In the Sahara, population agglomeration is also evident in certain areas such as the Libyan Fezzan, which (albeit much later) also saw the emergence of an indigenous Saharan “civilization” in the form of the Garamantian Tribal Confederation, the development of which has been described explicitly in terms of adaptation to increased aridity (Brooks, 2006; di Lernia et al., 2002; Mattingly et al., 2003).
--Nick Brooks (2013): Beyond collapse: climate change and causality during the Middle Holocene Climatic Transition, 6400–5000 years before present, Geografisk Tidsskrift-Danish Journal of Geography, 112:2, 93-104
Almoravid

Rotterdam, Netherlands

#303 Jan 16, 2014
Quote:
The concentration of populations in expanding settlements where surface water is available, and the organisation of these populations into specialised urban and/or stratified state-level societies, is not the only response to increasing aridity evident in the archaeological record. In other words the nature of the response is not determined by the nature of the climatic stress to which people must adapt. Differential adaptation is apparent in response to climatic desiccation in the Fezzan region of southern Libya, where Di Lernia and Palombini (2002) describe two contrasting responses to aridity in the middle Holocene. In higher elevation regions cattle herding, previously the dominant economic activity, almost completely disappeared after 5000 years BP. The keeping of cattle was replaced by highly mobile pastoralism based on sheep and goats and involving large-scale year round movement in order to exploit remnant water and pasture, a nomadic lifestyle that persists to this day. In contrast, lower elevation regions were characterised by increasing settlement in relict oases, associated with sedentism and more intensive exploitation of local resources. Settlement in the relict oases ultimately led to the emergence of the Garamantian civilisation in the early third millennium BP, based on the exploitation of underground water resources via the construction of subterranean irrigation channels or foggara (Wilson and Mattingly, 2003). The Garamantes dominated the Fezzan between about 3000 years BP and 700 years AD, and their society appears to have arisen as the result of local innovation, the outcome of a process of increasing social complexity among the pastoral groups of the Fezzan (Di Lernia et al., 2002; Mattingly, 2003).
--Beyond collapse: the role of climatic desiccation in the emergence of complex societies in the middle Holocene
by Brooks, Nick

Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research and School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK.

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