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#22
Aug 24, 2013
 
German Peruvian - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Peruvian&#82... ;
A German Peruvian is a Peruvian citizen of German descent. In general, the term is also applied to descents of other German speaking immigrants, such as ...

History

Since independence Germans had been immigrating to Lima on a small scale. the first wave of immigration was in 1853, organized by then-president Ramon Castilla. These immigrants established themselves in the cities of Tingo Maria, Tarapoto, Moyobamba, and in the department of Amazonas. Barón Cosme Damián Freiherr Schutz von Holzhausen, the leader of the immigration movement, consulted with the then Peruvian Minister of Foreign Relations, Manuel Tirado.

The meeting's purpose was to colonize the central jungle to better link the Pacific and Atlantic coasts. The colonists would end up colonizing Pozuzo. In 1854, the first immigration contract was signed between the Baron and then-president José Rufino Echenique. The next year, in 1855, this contract was nullified as Echenique had been ousted and Ramon Castilla had assumed the presidency again. The Baron signed a new contract with the new president on December 6, 1855. According to the contract each colonist would be reimbursed by the government for the cost of the voyage from Europe to Pozuzo, the construction of a new highway from Cerro de Pasco to Pozuzo, each colonist 15 years old or older would receive 15 pesos, the distribution of 140 square miles (360 km2) land between the colonists of which they would have legal ownership, exemption for the first six months of taxes, and the responsibility to build schools, churches, and other basic needs. The government, however, required that the colonists be Catholic and workers skilled at a trade.

To make this project possible the Baron was hired by the Peruvian government to oversee the colonization, paying him a salary of 2,400 pesos annually. The first wave of colonists departed Antwerp in 1857 and arrived in the Peruvian port of Callao two months later. The third wave of immigrants to the jungle occurred in 1868, taking the same route as the second wave of immigrants did. In later years, the descendants of the German immigrants would go on to found new cities throughout the central jungle such as Oxapampa and Villa Rica.[citation needed]

Throughout the history of Peru, particularly in the 19th and 20th centuries, a substantial number of German immigrants have settled in other parts of Peru, primarily in Lima. Also, many of these German immigrants have Jewish heritage. A large part of

Jewish Peruvians are of German descent.
The Peruvian population of German descent is 160,000 people, while the descendants of Austro-German migration to the area of Oxpampa Pozuzo are 25,000 people.[c

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#23
Aug 26, 2013
 
Irish immigration to Puerto Rico

From the 16th to the 19th century, there was considerable Irish immigration to Puerto Rico, for a number of reasons. During the 16th century many Irishmen, who were known as "Wild Geese," fled the English Army and joined the Spanish Army. Some of these men were stationed in Puerto Rico and remained there after their military service to Spain was completed. During the 18th century men such as Field Marshal Alejandro O'Reilly and Colonel Tomas O'Daly were sent to the island to revamp the capital's fortifications. This led to an influx of Irish immigration to the island. In 1797, the appointed governor of Puerto Rico, Ramón de Castro, ordered the expulsion of the Irish from Puerto Rico which led to protests from the local people of the island. Many Irishmen survived the witch hunt created by Castro and continued to live in Puerto Rico.

The Spanish government modified the Royal Decree of Graces of 1815 to encourage Europeans of non-Spanish origin to immigrate and populate the last two remaining Spanish possessions in the "New World," Puerto Rico and Cuba. Many Irish refugees who fled Ireland because of the Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s which killed over one million Irish people immigrated to Puerto Rico. These settlers were instrumental in the development of the island's sugar industry which was vital to the island's economy.

After Puerto Rico was ceded to the United States by Spain as a consequence of the Spanish-American War, many soldiers of Irish-American descent stationed in the island intermarried with the locals and established their homes there. The Irish influence in Puerto Rico is not limited to their contributions to the island's agricultural industry; they have also influenced the fields of education and politics....

19th century

Royal Decree of Graces of 1815

Royal Decree of Graces, 1815

By 1825, the Spanish Empire had lost all of its territories in the Americas with the exception of Cuba and Puerto Rico. These two possessions, however, had been demanding more autonomy since the formation of pro-independence movements in 1808. Realizing that it was in danger of losing its two remaining Caribbean territories, the Spanish Crown revived the Royal Decree of Graces of 1815. This time the decree was printed in three languages — Spanish, English and French — intending to attract Europeans of non-Spanish origin, with the hope that the independence movements would lose their popularity and strength with the arrival of new settlers. Free land was offered to those who wanted to populate the islands on the condition that they swear their loyalty to the Spanish Crown and allegiance to the Roman Catholic Church.[15]

Among the Irishman who received free land was Angus McBean. McBean became involved in the cultivation of the sugar cane and had a plantation in the city of Bayamon. In 1821, the slaves owned by McBean were involved in a failed slave revolt planned and organized by Marcos Xiorro, a bozal slave.[16]

The O'Neills arrived in Puerto Rico from Spain and other locations in the Caribbean, among them the islands of Tortola and St. Croix. However, many Puerto Ricans with the O'Neill surname can trace their ancestry to Colonel Arturo O'Neill O'Keffe. O'Neill O'Keffe was the son of Tulio O'Neill O'Kelly and Catherine O'Keffe y Whalen. On August 8, 1828, O'Neill O'Keffe, a Knight of the Royal Order of King Carlos the 3rd of Spain and 2nd Marques del Norte, served as a Lieutenant Colonel in the Spanish garrison of the City of Bayamón. He was married to Joanna Chabert Heyliger. The descendants of Arturo and Joanna O'Neill were Tulio Luis, Arturo, Micaela Ulpiana and Gonzalo O'Neill y Chabert. All, with the exception of Tulio Luis, were born in Puerto Rico where they established their families.[17]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_immigratio...

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#24
Aug 26, 2013
 
Before the immigration, Argentina was sparsely populated. The Spanish colonization of the Americas favored Mexico and Peru, the southern Spanish regions had no sources of wealth and had lower populations. This population decreased even more in the 19th century, during the Argentine War of Independence and the Argentine Civil Wars. Several Argentines from that time period, such as Domingo Faustino Sarmiento and Juan Bautista Alberdi, thought that it was imperative to populate the country. The Constitution of Argentina of 1853 promoted European immigration in its 25th article, which prohibited any barriers on immigration.

As the immigration came from several European countries, there was not a single reason for the immigrants to leave their home countries. Some of them simply sought a better lifestyle, but many others escaped from ongoing conflicts within Europe. Some Spanish and Italian immigrants had been part of the International Workers' Association, and some German immigrants had been removed from Germany by a decree of Bismarck that banned socialism in 1878. Other Spanish immigrants escaped from the Third Carlist War.

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#25
Aug 29, 2013
 
German Chilean
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
German Chilean
Deutsch-Chilenen
Germanochilenos
Flag of Chile and Germany.svg
Total population
est. 500,000 [1](3.1% of the Chilean population)
Regions with significant populations
Valdivia, Valparaíso, Santiago de Chile, Temuco, Talca, Concepción, Viña del Mar, Osorno, Puerto Varas, Villarrica.
Languages
Chilean Spanish, German
Religion
Christianity (mostly Roman Catholic and Protestant)
Related ethnic groups
German, German Americans, German-Argentinians, German-Brazilian, German Mexican, German-Paraguayan, German-Peruvians, German Uruguayans
German Chileans (Spanish germanochilenos, German Deutsch-Chilenen) are Chileans of German descent deriving their German ethnicity from one or both parents; mainly descendants of about 30,000 immigrants who arrived between 1846–1914.[2][3][4] A major criterion unifying this distinctive Chilean ethnic minority has more to do with linguistics than to the geographic location or the nationality of their ancestors.[citation needed] Hence, the group German Chileans also incorporates descendents of Austrians, Swiss Germans, Silesians, Alsatians and other German-speaking groups. Germans were the fifth largest immigration group to Chile, after Bolivians, Peruvians, Spaniards and Italians.[5]

From the middle of the 19th century to the present they have played a significant role in the economic, political and cultural development of the Chilean nation. Most German Chileans are descendents from German immigrants that began to settle in Chile in the middle of the 19th century, many of them after the failed liberal German Revolution of 1848. Their main settlements were and remain mostly in Chile’s Araucanía Region, Los Ríos Region and Los Lagos Region regions in the so-called Zona Sur of Chile, including the Chilean lake district.

German Chileans today

Raw beef crudos are considered a typical German-Chilean dish similar to the German mett. The one in picture are from Café Hausmann in Valdivia.

Entrance to the Kunstmann Brewery and restaurant in Valdivia, Chile

German Lutheran church in Frutillar, Chile
The exact number German-Chileans is unknown, because many of the early arrivals' descendants have intermarried and assimilated over the past 150 years. According to the last census, there were 5,906 German-citizens living in Chile.

An independent estimate calculates that about 500,000 Chileans could be descendants of German immigrants.[9]

An estimated 20,000 Chileans still speak the German language.[10] There are also German schools[11] and German-language newspapers and periodicals in Chile (e.g., Cóndor – a weekly German-language newspaper).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Wikipe...
Helmut Von Schmitelwinkel

Goose Creek, SC

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#26
Sep 1, 2013
 
Also some of the early conquistadors weren't really Spanish.

"Castilian law prohibited foreigners and non-Catholics from settling in the New World. However, not all Conquistadors were Castilian or Christian. Many foreigners hispanicised their names and/or converted to Catholicism to serve the Castilian Crown. For example, Ioánnis Fokás (known as Juan de Fuca) was a Castilian of Greek origin who discovered the strait that bears his name between Vancouver Island and Washington State in 1592. German-born Nikolaus Federmann, hispanicised as Nicolás de Federmán, was a conquistador in Venezuela and Colombia. The Venetian Sebastiano Caboto was Sebastián Caboto, Georg von Speyer hispanized as Jorge de la Espira, Eusebius Franz Kühn hispanicised as Eusebio Francisco Kino, Wenceslaus Linck was Wenceslao Linck, Ferdinand Konščak, was Fernando Consag, Amerigo Vespucci was Américo Vespucio, and the Portuguese Aleixo Garcia was known as Alejo García in the Castilian army.

The origin of many people in mixed expeditions was not always distinguished. Various occupations, such as sailors, fishermen and pirates employed different languages (even from unrelated language groups), so that crew and settlers of Iberian empires recorded as Galicians from Spain were actually using Portuguese, Arabic, Basque, Berber, Breton, Catalan, Dutch, French, Greek, Italian and Languedoc languages, which were wrongly identified."

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#27
Sep 10, 2013
 
Helmut Von Schmitelwinkel wrote:
Also some of the early conquistadors weren't really Spanish.
"Castilian law prohibited foreigners and non-Catholics from settling in the New World. However, not all Conquistadors were Castilian or Christian. Many foreigners hispanicised their names and/or converted to Catholicism to serve the Castilian Crown. For example, Ioánnis Fokás (known as Juan de Fuca) was a Castilian of Greek origin who discovered the strait that bears his name between Vancouver Island and Washington State in 1592. German-born Nikolaus Federmann, hispanicised as Nicolás de Federmán, was a conquistador in Venezuela and Colombia. The Venetian Sebastiano Caboto was Sebastián Caboto, Georg von Speyer hispanized as Jorge de la Espira, Eusebius Franz Kühn hispanicised as Eusebio Francisco Kino, Wenceslaus Linck was Wenceslao Linck, Ferdinand Konščak, was Fernando Consag, Amerigo Vespucci was Américo Vespucio, and the Portuguese Aleixo Garcia was known as Alejo García in the Castilian army.
The origin of many people in mixed expeditions was not always distinguished. Various occupations, such as sailors, fishermen and pirates employed different languages (even from unrelated language groups), so that crew and settlers of Iberian empires recorded as Galicians from Spain were actually using Portuguese, Arabic, Basque, Berber, Breton, Catalan, Dutch, French, Greek, Italian and Languedoc languages, which were wrongly identified."
Very interesting!

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#28
Sep 16, 2013
 
THEMANJON wrote:
There have always been white people in South America since Spanish conquerors came there. We already knew Argentina is mostly white. As far as MESTIZO hispanics go they have 60 percent white in them/ 40 percent native american.
USA Anglos and AAs have a pathological difficulty in accepting that.

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