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Level 8

Since: May 10

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#1 May 6, 2010
Though this question has been bantered about for quite sometime, I already knew the answer, having actually seen a Neanderthal, well two in fact. A couple, man and woman, in New Hampshire. And, yes, they looked just like the GEICO commercial. No, I sh^t you not, they must have been some kind of throwbacks. It was absolutely freaky.

http://www.aolnews.com/science/article/neande...

Level 8

Since: May 10

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#2 May 6, 2010
This is a better article on the subject:

http://www.boston.com/news/health/blog/2010/0...

By Carolyn Y. Johnson, Globe Staff

In a stunning scientific feat, an international research team has deciphered the genome of long-extinct Neanderthals, revealing that they are our ancestors.

Modern humans likely interbred with Neanderthals, the scientists conclude in a paper published today -- and 30,000 years after they disappeared, leaving behind bones and tools, traces of them can also be found in many of us, in our DNA.

Researchers extracted and sequenced genetic material from a pill-sized amount of crushed bones found in a cave in Croatia. Then, a Harvard geneticist led efforts to compare the ancient DNA with present-day human genomes. Not only did the team find strong support for the controversial mating theory, but they also produced a catalog of genetic mutations that set humans apart, yielding potential clues about why we succeeded while Neanderthals died off.

John Hawks, an anthropologist at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, compared the discovery to "those first pictures from the Apollo spacecraft where you see the whole Earth from space and it really changes the way people think about Earth.

"They've taken an extinct group of people who don't exist anymore and they've discovered that extinct group of people is still in us," said Hawks, who was not involved in the research. "It really has changed our view of humanity."

The first draft of the Neanderthal genome, published in the journal Science, took a massive international effort involving more than 50 scientists working for four years. They were spearheaded by Svante Pääbo of the Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany. Harvard Medical School geneticist David Reich led the work to understand how Neanderthals and modern humans are related.

While Neanderthals and modern humans both descended from a common ancestor, Neanderthals evolved separately for several hundred thousand years. "But there's evidence in this new paper there was a remixture event. Some modern humans today have inherited some of their ancestry due to this remixture," said Reich, also a member of the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, a genetics research center in Cambridge.

What the researchers found was that modern-day people, except for Africans, can trace about 1 to 4 percent of their genome back to Neanderthals. That suggests mating before Asian and European populations diverged, perhaps in the Middle East or northern Africa, around 50,000 to 80,000 years ago.

The scientists began with three fragments of bone, two of which have been dated to around 40,000 years ago. Because DNA degrades over time and is easily contaminated, there were serious doubts that they would succeed. But they took exquisite care in both the preparation and the analysis of the samples.

Scientists used a sterilized dentist's drill to remove tiny amounts of powderized bone. They took measures to sift out the vast majority of the data, from fungi or bacteria that had colonized the bones. And they took precautions to prevent and detect any new contamination.

To reconstruct the Neanderthal genome from millions of snippets, they used the human and chimpanzee genomes as a template, matching short fragments. Researchers were able to assemble about two-thirds of the Neanderthal genome, a first draft that highlights how new genetic tools are leading to insights about evolution.

"It's like living in a science fiction story that comes true," said Daniel Lieberman, a professor of human evolutionary biology at Harvard University not involved in the research. "Do some of those genes help us understand why it is we're here and Neanderthals aren't? The answers aren't there yet, but the fact that these data are available and we could start asking these questions is incredibly exciting."

Level 8

Since: May 10

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#3 May 6, 2010
continued...

Researchers have already begun to catalogue genetic differences that set present-day humans apart from Neanderthals. So far, they have found that genes involved in wound healing, skin, and energy metabolism underwent evolutionary changes, along with genes associated with cognitive development.

"This is a very powerful method for shining light ... and finding these important changes that happen in a really crucial time in human evolutionary history," said Richard E. Green, the lead author of the paper and an assistant professor of biomolecular engineering at the University of California, Santa Cruz.

Neanderthals and modern humans are close relatives, split from the same branch of the evolutionary tree between 270,000 and 400,000 years ago. That means Neanderthal DNA is already mostly the same as human DNA. But using three independent methods, researchers looked at whether Neanderthal genes flowed back into the human population, and -- to their surprise -- found evidence that Neanderthals and humans mated after the split.

One way they showed this was by comparing the ancient genome with five present-day people from Southern Africa, West Africa, China, Papua New Guinea, and France. The Neanderthal genome was more similar to the non-Africans.

Jeffrey Long, an anthropologist at the University of New Mexico, said the results were a relief -- they complement unpublished data that he and colleagues recently presented at a conference, suggesting that genetic variation in present-day people outside of Africa is due to two interbreeding episodes with Neanderthals.

The new data will keep researchers busy for years as they examine the function of the genes unique to humans and do more extensive sequencing. But it also answers a key question about human origins and identity.

"The Neanderthal are not totally extinct," Pääbo said. "In some of us, they live on, a little bit."

Very interesting stuff...
BERTUT

United States

#4 May 6, 2010
Did Whites Mate With Neanderthals?

NO BUT YOU'RE MAMA DID.

Level 8

Since: May 10

Location hidden

#6 May 6, 2010
BERTUT wrote:
Did Whites Mate With Neanderthals?
NO BUT YOU'RE MAMA DID.
That was a rhetorical question you dumb neanderthal.hehe. Read the article.
Beatrice

Prospect, KY

#7 May 7, 2010
DISASTER LOOMS wrote:
<quoted text>
That was a rhetorical question you dumb neanderthal.hehe. Read the article.
Even worse, whites have mated with blacks.
Tim John

Spokane, WA

#8 May 7, 2010
Beatrice wrote:
<quoted text>Even worse, whites have mated with blacks.
Beatrice...nope,..you think you can just slide off...get back to our other thread and answer my questions..
Beatrice

Prospect, KY

#9 May 7, 2010
Tim John wrote:
<quoted text>
Beatrice...nope,..you think you can just slide off...get back to our other thread and answer my questions..
First of all, it's none of your d*mn business what I'm doing on here. And YOU are the one who's changing the subject....I was talking about how you hypocrite blacks do the same things you accuse whites of, not about me being on the AA forum. You blacks love to use the word "racist" while overlooking the fact that you are the biggest d*mn racists on the planet. Any comments on that? And please don't try to change the subject again.
Tim John

Spokane, WA

#10 May 7, 2010
Beatrice wrote:
<quoted text>First of all, it's none of your d*mn business what I'm doing on here. And YOU are the one who's changing the subject....I was talking about how you hypocrite blacks do the same things you accuse whites of, not about me being on the AA forum. You blacks love to use the word "racist" while overlooking the fact that you are the biggest d*mn racists on the planet. Any comments on that? And please don't try to change the subject again.
Life is cause and effect, Beatrice,...if you are oppressive to a people for over 400 years, eventually, you should expect that,..that people will be reactionary to your oppressive disposition...In order words, they will seek to match your oppression of them, versus you...

,..Try it is science, shock a lab rat over the course of 20 days, when you put your finger in the little cage, expect to get bitten, but if you feed the lab rat over 20 days, when you put your finger in the cage, the lab rat will lick your finger..

,..This is caused normal 'cause and effect' logic

I suggest you learn it

Level 8

Since: May 10

Location hidden

#11 May 7, 2010
Beatrice wrote:
<quoted text>Even worse, whites have mated with blacks.
Nope, black africans are closer to pure sapiens than either europeans or asians. That could be why black seems to improve everything. And I think this "discovery" is a little disingenuous. Whites always knew that they had neanderthal blood. There's been speculation about this concerning the origins of red hair and blue eyes for quite sometime, now. And I know there are throwbacks that whites are familiar with because I've seen them - complete neanderthals. This is a dirty little secret that you've been hiding for awhile. What, did you think that if people knew you were part neanderthal no one would want to touch you with a ten foot pole? Are all your neanderthal genetic throwbacks that you've been hiding in the closet gonna be coming out, now? Come out come out, wherever you are..hehe
White Master

Tuscaloosa, AL

#12 May 7, 2010
Black africans are closer to chimpanzees.
Johnny

Cleveland, TN

#13 May 7, 2010
DISASTER LOOMS wrote:
<quoted text>
Nope, black africans are closer to pure sapiens than either europeans or asians. That could be why black seems to improve everything. And I think this "discovery" is a little disingenuous. Whites always knew that they had neanderthal blood. There's been speculation about this concerning the origins of red hair and blue eyes for quite sometime, now. And I know there are throwbacks that whites are familiar with because I've seen them - complete neanderthals. This is a dirty little secret that you've been hiding for awhile. What, did you think that if people knew you were part neanderthal no one would want to touch you with a ten foot pole? Are all your neanderthal genetic throwbacks that you've been hiding in the closet gonna be coming out, now? Come out come out, wherever you are..hehe
What have blacks improved? They sure haven't improved my taxes. I was panhandled THREE times today on my lunch break, all by blacks. I finally told the last one "No I don't have any money for you, but I can show you a copy of my 1040 form".

I guess blacks did improve the game of football and basketball. They improve a neighborhood every time they move out. They had cotton picking down to a science.
Johnny

Cleveland, TN

#14 May 7, 2010
Why all the commericals begging for me to feed some little black savage with a bone in his nose for "only pennies a day". Is it just me, but I don't recall seeing a commerical begging me to feed poor, diseased Engish children, or French, or German, or, just pick any country has a white majority.

If every white disapeared tonight, in six months this country would look like Rwanda. The blacks would not know what to do without Mr. Whitey taxpayer footing the bill for their 15 kids, food stamps, medical care and housing. If every white person left, blacks would try to follow, screaming we are racists for not providing for their inferior, backwards race.
Tim John

Spokane, WA

#15 May 7, 2010
What have blacks improved?

Behold....

http://inventors.about.com/od/blackinventors/...

Go through the alphabet at the top to view the countless inventions and patents, contributions from the Black community in America...

Level 8

Since: May 10

Location hidden

#16 May 7, 2010
Johnny wrote:
Why all the commericals begging for me to feed some little black savage with a bone in his nose for "only pennies a day". Is it just me, but I don't recall seeing a commerical begging me to feed poor, diseased Engish children, or French, or German, or, just pick any country has a white majority.
If every white disapeared tonight, in six months this country would look like Rwanda. The blacks would not know what to do without Mr. Whitey taxpayer footing the bill for their 15 kids, food stamps, medical care and housing. If every white person left, blacks would try to follow, screaming we are racists for not providing for their inferior, backwards race.
Pride comes before the fall, my neanderthal friend. History has shown us that people who are in a dysfunctional state and economically depressed, and seem in a hole that they can never climb out of, can turn it around in a split second. And likewise, those who have been on top and think they'll be on top forever have found themselves at the very bottom wondering what happened. Before the Romans showed up northern europeans were the most primitive people on the planet, and now you've been ruling the world for the past 500 years. Though that rule is obviously coming to an end, that's not a bad run for cavemen.
jimmy dean

Philadelphia, PA

#17 May 15, 2010
How can whites have royalty when they come from animals(neanderthals).Destroyi ng the planet and warring against nature in not high i.q. it's low i.q. because the universe is run by the laws of nature nit wits.If pinks (whites) are so smart then why when we ask your top scientists how did the kemmetians (egytians) build those pyramids your top scientist always say DUUUUUUUUH ???

“you dumb muthaf**ka”

Level 1

Since: Feb 10

Location hidden

#18 May 15, 2010
jimmy dean wrote:
How can whites have royalty when they come from animals(neanderthals).Destroyi ng the planet and warring against nature in not high i.q. it's low i.q. because the universe is run by the laws of nature nit wits.If pinks (whites) are so smart then why when we ask your top scientists how did the kemmetians (egytians) build those pyramids your top scientist always say DUUUUUUUUH ???
this coming from a dead homosexual who crashed his sports car......
baboon face

AOL

#19 May 15, 2010
Sidneycatbastard wrote:
<quoted text>
this coming from a dead homosexual who crashed his sports car......
still trollin for white pecker to gobble on bruda?

Since: May 10

Location hidden

#20 May 15, 2010
baboon face wrote:
<quoted text>still trollin for white pecker to gobble on bruda?
He'll take any pecker he can get, but, yeah, whites and goats are his favorite.
baboon face

AOL

#21 May 15, 2010
ChimpsOut wrote:
<quoted text>
He'll take any pecker he can get, but, yeah, whites and goats are his favorite.
ill bet he likes them soaked in recum sauce first then gobbles on it like a sucker!

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