The Ancient Egyptians were black! Fin...
Almoravid

Rotterdam, Netherlands

#1697 Jun 26, 2013
Nevertheless, when you're doing academic research, you should be extremely cautious about using Wikipedia. As its own disclaimer states, information on Wikipedia is contributed by anyone who wants to post material, and the expertise of the posters is not taken into consideration. Users may be reading information that is outdated or that has been posted by someone who is not an expert in the field or by someone who wishes to provide misinformation.(Case in point: Four years ago, an Expos student who was writing a paper about the limitations of Wikipedia posted a fictional entry for himself, stating that he was the mayor of a small town in China. Four years later, if you type in his name, or if you do a subject search on Wikipedia for mayors of towns in China, you will still find this fictional entry.) Some information on Wikipedia may well be accurate, but because experts do not review the site's entries, there is a considerable risk in relying on this source for your essays.

http://isites.harvard.edu/icb/icb.do...

Wikipedia in universities

Obviously, Wikipedia is not a reliable resource for academic projects, where solid references are needed. Scientific literature is based on refereed contents, which are written and edited by scientists. In academic environments, such scientists are indeed university professors.
In any case, Wikipedia is widely used as reference materials by university students. This is indeed a misleading based on the Wikipedia fame, as most of students and professors are not aware of the Wikipedia structure, and usually consider it as a well-edited encyclopedia like Britannica.
Who are the contributors?

Assuming that the contents of Wikipedia is free of personal opinions and views (e.g. through a severe editorial systems and limiting the writing grants), the main problem is still associated with the common contributors, who are students rather than professors. Students may have enough knowledge in their field of study, but their writings cannot be used by similar students as reference materials.

In a typical example, imagine a student who contributes to Wikipedia, then using such Wikipedia content as a solid referencing material for his project.

http://www.examiner.com/article/unreliability...
Almoravid

Rotterdam, Netherlands

#1698 Jun 26, 2013
African AE wrote:
<quoted text>According to Photobucket the North African Berbers are overwhelming related to each other and less to Sub Saharan Africans. You do know that E1b1b (E-M78) is an indigenous Egyptian/Libyan Haplogroup? The majority of Egyptians carry Haplogroup E1b1b which is AN INDIGENOUS NORTH AFRICAN HAPLOGROUP that goes back at least 20000 years! EGYPTIANS ARE FAR MORE RELATED TO OTHER NORTH AFRICANS AND ALWAYS HAVE BEEN! So did Sub-Saharan African build the pyramids?
www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA_history_of_Egyp...
Modern Libyans

http://i56.tinypic.com/o09r1i.jpg

Ancient Libyans

http://i54.tinypic.com/14vgpyf.jpg

LOL E-M78 is a NORTHEAST AFRICAN HG YOU DUMBASS. Nubians aren't based in Hg E-M81 which is Northwest African.

GROUPS LIKE THE MASSALIT AND FUR CARRY THIS IN HIGHEST FREQUENCY.

Quote:
Paragroup E-M78 represents 74.5% of haplogroup E*, the highest frequencies observed in Masalit and Fur populations.

http://www.lnsart.com/NewSerifCampNyalaDarfur...

http://www.lnsart.com/JachCampChiefSudan.jpg

As for Somalis:

http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v13/n7/ima...

E1b1b1a. M78

quote:
The Northeast Africa-based E1b1b1a subclade is defined by SNP M78. Somalia, Sudan and Egypt are among the present day countries with very high frequencies (60-90%) of the E1b1b1a M78 subclade. The STR data also support its origin in this area with a TMRCA estimated at 14-23 kya.

All these people are related in genotype.

http://www.rosengurtt.co.uk/photos/events_par...

http://farm3.staticflickr.com/2606/3873432616...

http://www.xculturemag.com/icc55.jpg

http://farm1.staticflickr.com/227/523076171_8...

http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/4735900...

http://farm6.static.flickr.com/5179/553150474...

http://doug-johnson.squarespace.com/storage/c...

http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2380/185892321...

http://media-files.gather.com/images/d178/d78...

http://i95.photobucket.com/albums/l128/KING9_...

http://eadone.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/...

http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3254/280413008...

http://tinyurl.com/7j6w9e3

http://faculty.coloradomtn.edu/jeschofnig/mur...

http://www.australfoto.com/Indigenous-Peoples...

http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2317/238794786...

http://wwwdelivery.superstock.com/WI/223/1890...

http://i38.tinypic.com/11cgok4.jpg

Quote:
*Notes on E-M78 and Rosa DNA study linking Egyptians with East and Central Africans. DNA study (Rosa et al. 2007) groups Egyptians with East and Central Africans. Other DNA studies link these peoples together. Quote:“the majority of Y chromosomes found in populations in Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia and Oromos in Somalia and North Kenya (Boranas) belong to haplogroup E3b1 defined by the Y chromosome marker M78“(Sanchez 2005). Codes: Egy=Egypt. Or= Oromo, Ethiopia. Am=Amahara, Ethiopia. Sud=Sudan. FCA=Cameroon. Maa= Massai, Kenya. Note: Eighty (80)% or more of the haplotypes in Cameroon are of West African origin (Rosa et al. 2007, Cerny et al. 2006). Ethiopia, Cameroon and most of the Sudan is located below the Sahara, and thus sub-Saharan.
-- Rosa, et al.(2007) Y-chromosomal diversity in the population of Guinea-Bissau. BMC Evolutionary Biology. 7:124

Quote:
E3b originated in East Africa and expanded into the Near East and northern Africa at the end of the Pleistocene (Underhill et al. 2001).

Quote:
E3b lineages would have then been introduced from the Near East into southern Europe by farmers, during the Neolithic expansion (Hammer et al. 1998; Semino et al. 2000; Underhill et al. 2001).
Almoravid

Rotterdam, Netherlands

#1699 Jun 26, 2013
Sinajuavi wrote:
<quoted text>
Imported from where, boy?
Answer.
You lying sack of crap.
Boy, boy boy...lol

If you have a culture which arose in the South, Kerma, Naqada, MAA confederation. And a people who are tropical adapted Africans lived in North (lower) Egypt and Southern (Upper) Egypt. From where could it have been imported? LOL

The studies I have cited clearly stated from where it came, go cry a river!

You are pathetic laughable stock, with multiple accounts.
Almoravid

Rotterdam, Netherlands

#1700 Jun 26, 2013
Sinajuavi wrote:
<quoted text>
You Afronazi cult racists asserted that predynastic Lower Egypt was PURE black, had no Eurasians... so prove it, boy.
Let's see some genetic analysis of Lower Egypt, and we need that info over time, since 30,000 years ago.
You fearful lying contorting Afronazis have provided NO evidence which would support your racist black-supremacist Afronazi assertion.
Liar.
You have now been reduced to "not pure black" this insinuation tells that you are NOW. very aware that tropical adapted Africans lived in North Egypt, during the Mesolithic and Neolithic. LOL

It's up to you to prove that there were cold adapted Eurasians during the same time and beyond.

The part you still don't get, is that Lower Egyptians have absorbed foreign populations, especially in the Delta region, they most admixture due to recent invasions. The more one goes to the South less it becomes, because the region is hard to access. But how will you know? You're an Internet troll who has no understanding of the region.lol

And you are too dumb to really understand anything. This is why you have a hard time understanding what has been cited thusfar. LOL
Almoravid

Rotterdam, Netherlands

#1704 Jun 26, 2013
African AE wrote:
<quoted text>The Palermo Stone the most ancient document ever written by the Egyptians, says Libyan Berbers lived along the Niele BEFORE the pyramids! So the ancient Egyptians were always mixed race thats why Nubians have so much Eurasian DNA!
http://oi.uchicago.edu/museum/nubia/aqib.html

ORIENTAL INSTITUTE MUSEUM

NUBIA - "Its glory and its people"

1987 EXHIBITION: BROCHURE

Figure 1: The decoration of the Qustul Incense Burner, as restored. A sacrificial procession contains the earliest definite imaye of a pharaoh with his crown and falcon-label. Oriental Institute Nubian Expedition.

http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/PROJ/NUB/NUBX/NUBX_...

Yale Egyptological Institute in Egypt

Early Neolithic to Predynastic/A-Group

quote:

"Remains in the immediate eastern foreland of Kurkur, just east of the Sinn el-Kiddab escarpment, are sparse. Numerous and widely distributed hearth mounds18 occur in the area. Pottery, though sparse, further demonstrates the association of early Nile Valley and Western Desert cultures. "

http://www.yale.edu/egyptology/ae_kurkur.htm

The Wadi of the Horus Qa-a:
A Tableau of Royal Ritual Power in the Theban Western Desert

John Coleman Darnell 1

http://www.yale.edu/egyptology/ae_alamat_wadi...

Amun-Ra

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/images/hb/hb_07...

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/images/hb/hb_07...

A modern Libyan desert girl, from who you are trying to steal history.

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-MuP5365iYu8/TZ9iyMK...

Am J Phys Anthropol. 2012 Feb;147(2):280-92. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.21645. Epub 2011 Dec 20.

Sahara: Barrier or corridor? Nonmetric cranial traits and biological affinities of North African late Holocene populations.
Nikita E, Mattingly D, Lahr MM.

Source

Leverhulme Centre for Human Evolutionary Studies, Department of Biological Anthropology, University of Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Street, Cambridge, UK.

Abstract

quote:
The Garamantes flourished in southwestern Libya, in the core of the Sahara Desert ~3,000 years ago and largely controlled trans-Saharan trade. Their biological affinities to other North African populations, including the Egyptian, Algerian, Tunisian and Sudanese, roughly contemporary to them, are examined by means of cranial nonmetric traits using the Mean Measure of Divergence and Mahalanobis D(2) distance. The aim is to shed light on the extent to which the Sahara Desert inhibited extensive population movements and gene flow. Our results show that the Garamantes possess distant affinities to their neighbors. This relationship may be due to the Central Sahara forming a barrier among groups, despite the archaeological evidence for extended networks of contact. The role of the Sahara as a barrier is further corroborated by the significant correlation between the Mahalanobis D(2) distance and geographic distance between the Garamantes and the other populations under study. In contrast, no clear pattern was observed when all North African populations were examined, indicating that there was no uniform gene flow in the region.

Elaborating info,

http://i47.tinypic.com/25umljq.png

http://i45.tinypic.com/2wd7o82.png
Almoravid

Rotterdam, Netherlands

#1705 Jun 26, 2013
African AE wrote:
<quoted text>The Palermo Stone the most ancient document ever written by the Egyptians, says Libyan Berbers lived along the Niele BEFORE the pyramids! So the ancient Egyptians were always mixed race thats why Nubians have so much Eurasian DNA!
Ancient finds in the Western Desert of Egypt at Gebel Ramlah circa 5,000 BC show culture closely linked with indigenous tropical Africans of both the Saharan and sub-Saharan regions, not Europe or the Middle East. Dental studies put the inhabitants of Gebel Ramlah, closest to indigenous tropical African populations.

Quote:
"During three seasons of research (in 2000, 2001 and 2003) carried out by the Combined Prehistoric Expedition at Gebel Ramlah in the southern part of the Egyptian Western Desert, three separate Final Neolithic cemeteries were discovered and excavated. Skeletal remains of 67 individuals, comprising both primary and secondary interments, were recovered from 32 discrete burial pits. Numerous grave goods were found, including lithics, pottery and ground stone objects, as well as items of personal adornment, pigments, shells and sheets of mica. Imports from distant areas prove far-reaching contacts.

Analysis of the finds sheds important light on the burial rituals and social conditions of the Final Neolithic cattle keepers inhabiting Ramlah Playa. This community, dated to the mid-fifth millennium B.C.(calibrated), was composed of a phenotypically diverse population derived from both North and sub-Saharan Africa. There were no indications of social differentiation. The deteriorating climatic conditions probably forced these people to migrate toward the Nile Valley where they undoubtedly contributed to the birth of ancient Egyptian civilization."
--Michal Kobusiewicz, Jacek Kabacinski, Romuald Schild, Joel D. Irish and Fred Wendorf, Burial practices of the Final Neolithic pastoralists at Gebel Ramlah, Western Desert of Egypt

http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/publica...

Older data

Quote:
In North Africa, we find the earliest evidence of trephinations in the world. For example, there were three trephined skulls from the Epipalaeolithic site of Taforalt, Morocco (12&#8201;000–11&#8201 ;000&#8201;bc), and two from Afalou-bou-Rhumel, Algeria (8500–6500&#8201;bc)(Crubé zy et al., 2001; Dastugue, 1962, 1973, 1975). The practice continued into later archaeological periods among the Egyptians. Evidence of trephinations has been found in one skull from the 12th Dynasty at Lisht (Moodie, 1920; Ranke, 1933), a 17th–19th Dynasty man from Sesebi (Leca, 1986; Lisowski, 1954), a 27th Dynasty young individual (12–13&#8201;years) from Dakhleh Oasis (Shaaban, 1984), an adult man from Saqqara (Ghalioungui, 1973; Shafik & Elseesy, 2003) and others. In addition to the aforementioned evidence, the Edwin Smith papyrus shows that the Egyptians had a good understanding of neuroanatomy and head injuries (Wilkins, 1964). Outside Egypt, this form of surgery is rather rare in North Africa, with very few exceptions. For example, a trephined skull was found in the 1st millennium BC site of Roknia, Algeria (Faidherbe, 1868). Another one was documented in an Egyptian fort in Nubia, although it is not clear whether the individual exhibiting the lesion was an Egyptian or a Nubian (Lisowski, 1954). Finally, there is a questionable case of a female from Meroe (Batrawi, 1935). In modern times, the practice became common among Berber groups in order to relieve problems of headaches following injuries or disease (Arnott et al., 2003). More specifically, populations known to have practised trephinations in the 19th–20th centuries are the Chaouïa Berbers from Algeria (Malbot & Verneau, 1897), the neighbouring Arab community from El Kantara (Hilton-Simpson, 1913) and the Tibu or Teda of the Tibesti (Akester, 1958; Oakley et al., 1959; Steele, 1958).
Almoravid

Rotterdam, Netherlands

#1706 Jun 26, 2013
African AE wrote:
<quoted text>MIXED WITH BERBERS! Berbers have lived in Egypt for 30000 years before that, Mechtoids lived in Egypt. Egyptians were mixed race from day one!87
The only "Berbers" in Egypt are the Siwa Berbers. They've been there for at least 10,000 years.

For the Mechtoids. LOL

Quote:
Mechtoid, these were a skeletally robust people and definitely African in origin [...] dental morphology does suggest connections with later Africans, including those responsible for the Capsian Industry (Irish 2000) and early mid-Holocene human remains from the western half of the Sahara (Dutour 1989), something that points to the Maghreb as one of the regions from which people recolonised the desert (MacDonald 1998).
--Lawrence Barham
The First Africans: African Archaeology from the Earliest Toolmakers to Most Recent Foragers (Cambridge World Archaeology)

Quote
Trans-Saharan craniometry. Principal components analysis of craniometric variables closely allies the early Holocene occupants at Gobero, who were buried with Kiffian material culture, with Late Pleistocene to mid-Holocene humans from the Maghreb and southern Sahara referred to as Iberomaurusians, Capsians and “Mechtoids.” Outliers to this cluster of populations include an older Aterian sample and the mid-Holocene occupants at Gobero associated with Tenerean material culture.

http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.ac...

Quote:
Principal components analysis of craniometric data clearly distinguishes the mid-Holocene population at Gobero (Gob-m) from all other sampled populations, including the early Holocene population at Gobero, Iberomaurusian and Capsian populations from the Maghreb,“Mechtoids” from Mali and Mauritania, as well as much older Aterian samples (Figure 6).
--Paul C. Sereno
Lakeside Cemeteries in the Sahara: 5000 Years of Holocene Population and Environmental Change
trollslayer

East Chicago, IN

#1707 Jun 26, 2013
Who Dat wrote:
Trollslayer, watch this video.
http://www.youtube.com/watch...
Yes, many of us are familiar with Mostafa Hefny situation. It's clearly a "western racist tactic" designed to further divide and conquer Africans (world-wide). Notice the white trolls here never wanna touch or discuss the racist tactics used to deny Hefny NOT being "white" or non-"euroasian"

__________

Mostafa Hefny has been fighting the US government for decades to be classified as black. The US erroneously classifies all Egyptians as white. Hefny has faced discrimination and ridicule for his quest to be classified as black. Yet he makes his case for the authentic blackness of ancient Egypt and challenges the historical falsehoods that have propagated since the 19th century.
Almoravid

Rotterdam, Netherlands

#1708 Jun 26, 2013
African AE wrote:
Egyptians ARE FAR less related to Sub-Saharan African and are more related to other North Africans:
www.genebase.com/learning/article/2
Egyptians have always been more related to North Africans than anyone else. AFTER ALL THE B*E*R*B*E*R*S ARE THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE OF NORTH AFRICA! mtDNA taken from women at Thebes in Egypt, show them to have 61% Eurasian DNA. THE EGYPTIANS WERE ALWAYS MIXED RACE!
First off is what do you consider sub-Sahara African? lol

Second, as I pointed out before, the root of Hg E-M78 is in East Africa. Which is sub-Sahara Africa.

And again Berber is a linguistic phylum, the people are called Tamazight. The Tamazight are ethnically very diverse. I understand how this is all too difficult for you to understand. Nortwest Africa is E-M81 and Northeast Africa is E-M78. You retard.

You should listen to the Ph.D he puts Northwest and Northeast Africans in Africa as indigenous Africans. not as foreign people. LOL

quote:
E1b1b1b (E-M81) is the most common Y chromosome haplogroup in the Maghreb,
dominated by its sub-clade E-M183. It is thought to have originated in the area of North Africa 5,600 years ago ----(Cruciani et al. 2004, Arredi et al.(2004)). Nubians don't carry E-M81, nor is is found in abundance in the whole of Egypt.LOL

http://i204.photobucket.com/albums/bb178/beyo...

http://i46.tinypic.com/2628byo.jpg

http://i49.tinypic.com/14kl9uu.png

These are North Africans too:

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons...

http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_tJ8Z8XIGoL0/SyAfnLK...

http://c8.img.v4.skyrock.net/c85/mamssdu19/pi...

http://img366.imageshack.us/img366/1472/ml46i...

http://tinyurl.com/ob838tt

Like the above, there are millions upon millions like them. But I don't except that an Internet troll will know. It's very typical of your kind. To speak on people you have nothing to do with, or know about.

Where is the study done on tropical adapted African ancient people from Thebes?LOL

As for Thebes, it was colonized at the end of the ancient Egyptian civilization. And even more recent Ottomans took enslaved Mamluk females into Egypt.

Quote:
With the Ottoman victories over the Maml&#363;ks in 1516–17, Egypt and Syria reverted to the status of provinces within an empire. Although the Maml&#363;k sultanate was destroyed, the Maml&#363;ks remained intact as a class in Egypt and continued to exercise considerable influence in the state.

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/360...

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/maml/hd_maml...

You are so dumb it's beyond hilarious. Stupid Internet troll.

The more you post, the dumber you look.LOL

You should not speak of things and people you have nothing to do with, let alone know about. You dumbo!
UruEuWauWau

Brazil

#1709 Jun 26, 2013
Ancient Egyptians were obviously not black, & I doubt even Nubians were black. Dark skin is a diff. thaaang, but even from that point ancient Egyptians weren't black. Case closed. ;-D
Almoravid

Rotterdam, Netherlands

#1710 Jun 26, 2013
African AE wrote:
<quoted text>I dont think you have a clue about haplogroups LOOK AT THE WIKI it says that North Africans have hardly any Sub-Saharan DNA SUB-SAHARAN HAPLOGROUP = E1b1a EGYPTIAN/EGYPT INDIGENOUS HAPLOGROUP = E1b1b (E-M78) Europeans and Middle Eastern people also carry E1b1b!!!!!!!!!!
You shot yourself in the foot big time!
LOL IT'S GETTING FUNNIER WITH EACH POST!

Look at the FACTS!

Quote:
Our results reveal that Berber speakers have a foundational biogeographic root in Africa and that deep African lineages have continued to evolve in supra-Saharan Africa
--Frigi S, Cherni L, Fadhlaoui-Zid K et el.
Ancient local evolution of African mtDNA haplogroups in Tunisian Berber populations.

->>>"However, the absence of E-V68* and E-V257* in the Middle East (Table S2) makes a maritime spread between northern Africa and southern Europe a more plausible hypothesis."<<<-

quote:
Within E-M35, there are striking parallels between two haplogroups, E-V68 and E-V257. Both contain a lineage which has been frequently observed in Africa (E-M78 and E-M81, respectively)[6],[8],[10],[13] –[16] and a group of undifferentiated chromosomes that are mostly found in southern Europe (Table S2). An expansion of E-M35 carriers, possibly from the Middle East as proposed by other Authors [14], and split into two branches separated by the geographic barrier of the Mediterranean Sea, would explain this geographic pattern. However, the absence of E-V68* and E-V257* in the Middle East (Table S2) makes a maritime spread between northern Africa and southern Europe a more plausible hypothesis. A detailed analysis of the Y chromosomal microsatellite variation associated with E-V68 and E-V257 could help in gaining a better understanding of the likely timing and place of origin of these two haplogroups.
--Beniamino Trombetta et al.(2010)

http://thegeneticatlas.com/somalid.JPG
Almoravid

Rotterdam, Netherlands

#1711 Jun 26, 2013
UruEuWauWau wrote:
Ancient Egyptians were obviously not black, & I doubt even Nubians were black. Dark skin is a diff. thaaang, but even from that point ancient Egyptians weren't black. Case closed. ;-D
Mutaba, what you doubt or believe is unimportant.

The facts have been summarized. And they say loud and clear African indigenous people.

Case closed!LOL

Almoravid

Rotterdam, Netherlands

#1712 Jun 26, 2013
white democrat wrote:
<quoted text>
African AE , would mine being my guess on an small forum. We could use your insights. If you choose to visit I will have a post waiting for you look in the first topic. Search this and you will find us: plan b forum . index page
If someone as dumb as that individual is helpful to "your forum", it speaks volumes on who else is there already.LOL
Almoravid

Rotterdam, Netherlands

#1713 Jun 26, 2013
UruEuWauWau wrote:
Ancient Egyptians were obviously not black, & I doubt even Nubians were black. Dark skin is a diff. thaaang, but even from that point ancient Egyptians weren't black. Case closed. ;-D
Internet troll. Come amongst us with your rubbish! LOL

YOU ARE LAUGHING STOCK, MUKTABA! WE MAKE FUN OF TYPES LIKE YOU, ALL THE TIME.



http://www.youtube.com/watch...
UruEuWauWau

Brazil

#1714 Jun 26, 2013
Almoravid wrote:
<quoted text>
Mutaba, what you doubt or believe is unimportant.
The facts have been summarized. And they say loud and clear African indigenous people.
Case closed!LOL
More important than yo' dumb Yank ghetto azz, kever, or should I say wakatare. ;-)
Almoravid

Rotterdam, Netherlands

#1715 Jun 26, 2013
[
Sinajuavi wrote:
<quoted text>
Imported from where, boy?
Answer.
You lying sack of crap.
You're an idiot, that's for sure!

Repost,

Quote:
Specific central African tool designs found at the well known Naqada, Badari and Fayum archaeological sites in Egypt (de Heinzelin 1962, Arkell and Ucko, 1956 et al). Shaw (1976) states that "the early cultures of Merimde, the Fayum, Badari Naqada I and II are essentially African and early African social customs and religious beliefs were the root and foundation of the ancient Egyptian way of life."
Pottery evidence first seen in the Saharan Highlands then spreading to the Nile Valley (Flight 1973).

Art motifs of Saharan rock paintings showing similarities to those in pharaonic art. A number of scholars suggest that these earlier artistic styles influenced later pharaonic art via Saharans leaving drier areas and moving into the Nile Valley taking their art styles with them (Mori 1964, Blanc 1964, et al)

Quote:
The earliest documentation of food production in the Nile Valley comes in the form of evidence for barley, cattle, and either sheep or goats in various Neolithic sites of el-Badari, Maadi, Merimbd, Omari and the Fayum at approximately 5000 BC (Arkell and Ucko, 1965; Hassan, 1984). There were no permanent dwellings at the site of el-Badari, which suggests that while exploiting barley and domesticated animals, the Badarians may have remained semi- nomadic pastoralists rather than committed farmers (Hassan, 1988). While herding may have been a component of the Badarian culture, it is clear that the intensification of agriculture in the Nile Valley occurred in this early Predynastic Period, and by the beginning of the first Dynasty there were a number of large sedentary communities, which were politically united under the first pharaohs (Kemp, 1989).

Quote:
From Nabta Playa, civilization spread down the Nile Valley all the way to the Fayum Oasis region northwest of the river, and it is here that we find the Fayum Neolithic culture of 5200 BC. This is the oldest Egyptian site to show signs of plant cultivation, and to be sure many of the crops and domesticated animals uncovered (e.g. emmer wheat, sheep, and goats) do appear to have been imported from the Middle East. However, this does not necessarily mean significant Middle Eastern immigration into Egypt. Ehret (1996) notes that since agriculture seems to have developed very gradually in the Fayum, it was more likely slowly incorporated by native Africans into their existing subsistence strategy rather than brought into the area fully developed by immigrants. Additionally, Keita (2005) observes that none of the ancient Egyptian words for these Middle Eastern domesticates appear to have been loaned from ancient Middle Eastern languages such as Semitic or Sumerian, and Arkell (1975) has detected similarities between Fayum Neolithic and contemporary Sudanese material cultures.

Between 5200 and 4000 BC, knowledge of plant cultivation spread from the Fayum into southern (or Upper) Egypt, but this did not immediately lead to Egyptians abandoning their cattle-herding ways. On the contrary, herding cattle, along with hunting wild game, continued to play much more important roles in prehistoric Upper Egyptian economies (Wilkinson 2003). Furthermore, Egyptian material culture, especially tools and pottery, continued to share characteristics with more southerly African material culture (de Heinzelin 1962, Arkell and Ucko 1965, Arkell 1975) and rock art from the heart of the Sahara shows similarities to prehistoric Egyptian art (Donadoni 1964).

Quote:
And of course like all ancient cultural practices we see this also going upstream the Nile. By a people who came from the South. Entering Egypt.
http://books.google.nl/books...
--Barry Kemp
Ancient Egypt: Anatomy Of A Civilisation
UruEuWauWau

Brazil

#1716 Jun 26, 2013
Almoravid wrote:
<quoted text>
Internet troll. Come amongst us with your rubbish! LOL
YOU ARE LAUGHING STOCK, MUKTABA! WE MAKE FUN OF TYPES LIKE YOU, ALL THE TIME.
...
If I come amongst yo' retarded Yank saitai (monkey) species, no matter where ya might find yo' dumb Yank monkey trollin' azz @ that very moment, 1st yo' hoin' fat Yank IViggress momma will be sufferin' through her azz, than yo' Yank old man phagg banana hung by the balls, & finally ya'll suffer a lot, bein' boot raped by a big Afro-BRA dude, jij uilskuiken, or should I say oyinbade obo. ;-) Get lost w/ yo' Yank monkey useless crap, & make sure never to cross my path in real, ya dumb IVigglet. ;-D
Almoravid

Rotterdam, Netherlands

#1717 Jun 26, 2013
UruEuWauWau wrote:
<quoted text>
If I come amongst yo' retarded Yank saitai (monkey) species, no matter where ya might find yo' dumb Yank monkey trollin' azz @ that very moment, 1st yo' hoin' fat Yank IViggress momma will be sufferin' through her azz, than yo' Yank old man phagg banana hung by the balls, & finally ya'll suffer a lot, bein' boot raped by a big Afro-BRA dude, jij uilskuiken, or should I say oyinbade obo. ;-) Get lost w/ yo' Yank monkey useless crap, & make sure never to cross my path in real, ya dumb IVigglet. ;-D
I have no clue what you've been writing.

But it does look like a text someone retarded would write.

On that note, YOU'RE A RETARDED MUKTABA!
Almoravid

Rotterdam, Netherlands

#1718 Jun 26, 2013
Sinajuavi wrote:
<quoted text>
LOL at continuing Afronazi prevarication.
Your studies prove what?
Explain that “N-S cline”, boy, LOL!!! Who was in Lower Egypt, then?
You do NOT want to see genetic evidence. That is why you never post any. I think you've found some DNA studies and won't speak of them.
You are a liar, boy.
I see that you are mentally ill and very slow. So let us try it again!

Quote:
"...sample populations available from northern Egypt from before the 1st Dynasty (Merimda, Maadi and Wadi Digla) turn out to be significantly different from sample populations from early Palestine and Byblos, suggesting a lack of common ancestors over a long time.

->>> If there was a south-north cline variation along the Nile valley it did not, from this limited evidence, continue smoothly on into southern Palestine. <<<-

The limb-length proportions of males from the Egyptian sites group them with Africans rather than with Europeans."

->>>sample populations available from northern Egypt from before the 1st Dynasty (Merimda, Maadi and Wadi Digla) turn out to be significantly different from sample populations from early Palestine and Byblos,<<<-

->>>The limb-length proportions of males from the Egyptian sites group them with Africans<<<-

--Barry Kemp, "Ancient Egypt Anatomy of a Civilisation.(2005) Routledge. p. 52-60

quote:
"By contrast an excavated set of around 300 burials from Tell el-Dab'a in the northeast delta belonging to a group considered to be Palestinian immigrants living in the late Middle Kingdom/Second Intermediate Period (1750 BC-1550 BC) have physical characteristics which group them more closely with ancient populations from the Near East and ->>>at a greater distance from those from Elephantine..."<< <-
--Barry Kemp, "Ancient Egypt Anatomy of a Civilisation.(2005) Routledge

These site scenes are Fayum sites, muktaba dorky.

Northern Egyptians group with Africans: QUOTE – Smith 2002:
"Limb length proportions in males from Maadi and Merimde group them
with African rather than European populations. Mean femur length in
males from Maadi was similar to that recorded at Byblos and the early
Bronze Age male from Kabri, but mean tibia length in Maadi males was
6.9cm longer than that at Byblos. At Merimde both bones were longer
than at the other sites shown, but again, the tibia was longer proportionate
to femurs than at Byblos (Fig 6.2), reinforcing the impression of an
African rather than Levantine affinity.“

-- Smith, P.(2002) The palaeo-biological evidence for admix.. In: Egypt & the Levant.. Leicester Univ. 118-28
African AE

Johannesburg, South Africa

#1719 Jun 26, 2013
Almoravid wrote:
<quoted text>
Modern Libyans
http://i56.tinypic.com/o09r1i.jpg
Ancient Libyans
http://i54.tinypic.com/14vgpyf.jpg
LOL E-M78 is a NORTHEAST AFRICAN HG YOU DUMBASS. Nubians aren't based in Hg E-M81 which is Northwest African.
GROUPS LIKE THE MASSALIT AND FUR CARRY THIS IN HIGHEST FREQUENCY.
Quote:
Paragroup E-M78 represents 74.5% of haplogroup E*, the highest frequencies observed in Masalit and Fur populations.
http://www.lnsart.com/NewSerifCampNyalaDarfur...
http://www.lnsart.com/JachCampChiefSudan.jpg
As for Somalis:
http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v13/n7/ima...
E1b1b1a. M78
quote:
The Northeast Africa-based E1b1b1a subclade is defined by SNP M78. Somalia, Sudan and Egypt are among the present day countries with very high frequencies (60-90%) of the E1b1b1a M78 subclade. The STR data also support its origin in this area with a TMRCA estimated at 14-23 kya.
All these people are related in genotype.
http://www.rosengurtt.co.uk/photos/events_par...
http://farm3.staticflickr.com/2606/3873432616...
http://www.xculturemag.com/icc55.jpg
http://farm1.staticflickr.com/227/523076171_8...
http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/4735900...
http://farm6.static.flickr.com/5179/553150474...
http://doug-johnson.squarespace.com/storage/c...
http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2380/185892321...
http://media-files.gather.com/images/d178/d78...
http://i95.photobucket.com/albums/l128/KING9_...
http://eadone.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/...
http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3254/280413008...
http://tinyurl.com/7j6w9e3
http://faculty.coloradomtn.edu/jeschofnig/mur...
http://www.australfoto.com/Indigenous-Peoples...
http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2317/238794786...
http://wwwdelivery.superstock.com/WI/223/1890...
http://i38.tinypic.com/11cgok4.jpg
Quote:
*Notes on E-M78 and Rosa DNA study linking Egyptians with East and Central Africans. DNA study (Rosa et al. 2007) groups Egyptians with East and Central Africans. Other DNA studies link these peoples together. Quote:“the majority of Y chromosomes found in populations in Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia and Oromos in Somalia and North Kenya (Boranas) belong to haplogroup E3b1 defined by the Y chromosome marker M78“(Sanchez 2005). Codes: Egy=Egypt. Or= Oromo, Ethiopia. Am=Amahara, Ethiopia. Sud=Sudan. FCA=Cameroon. Maa= Massai, Kenya. Note: Eighty (80)% or more of the haplotypes in Cameroon are of West African origin (Rosa et al. 2007, Cerny et al. 2006). Ethiopia, Cameroon and most of the Sudan is located below the Sahara, and thus sub-Saharan.
-- Rosa, et al.(2007) Y-chromosomal diversity in the population of Guinea-Bissau. BMC Evolutionary Biology. 7:124
Quote:
E3b originated in East Africa and expanded into the Near East and northern Africa at the end of the Pleistocene (Underhill et al. 2001).
Quote:
E3b lineages would have then been introduced from the Near East into southern Europe by farmers, during the Neolithic expansion (Hammer et al. 1998; Semino et al. 2000; Underhill et al. 2001).
Central Africans DO NOT HAVE E1b1b. Ethiopians,Somalis and Sudanese are carriers of Eurasian DNA NOT WEST AFRICANS who carry E1b1a. Haplogroup M78 IS NORTH AFRICAN IN ORIGIN and went into the Middle East and Europe! Europeans/Middle Eastern people have virtually NO Sub-Saharan DNA!
Photos of the book of Gates showing different races according to ancient Egypt:
www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Egyptian_races...
MAP OF Y-DNA HAPLOGROUPS:
www.scs.illinois.edu/~mcdonald/WorldHaplogrou...

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