What is albinism?

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#1 Oct 14, 2013
"Albinism (from Latin albus, "white"; see extended etymology, also called achromia, achromasia, or achromatosis) is a congenital disorder characterized by the complete or partial absence of pigment in the skin, hair and eyes due to absence or defect of tyrosinase, a copper-containing enzyme involved in the production of melanin. Albinism results from inheritance of recessive gene alleles and is known to affect all vertebrates, including humans. While an organism with complete absence of melanin is called an albino (US /ælˈbaɪno ʊ/,[1] or UK /ælˈbiːno ʊ/)[2] an organism with only a diminished amount of melanin is described as albinoid.[3]

Albinism is associated with a number of vision defects, such as photophobia, nystagmus and astigmatism. Lack of skin pigmentation makes for more susceptibility to sunburn and skin cancers. In rare cases such as Chédiak–Higashi syndrome, albinism may be associated with deficiencies in the transportation of melanin granules. This also affects essential granules present in immune cells leading to increased susceptibility to infection
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#2 Oct 14, 2013
"In humans, there are two principal types of albinism, oculocutaneous, affecting the eyes, skin and hair, and ocular affecting the eyes only.

Most oculocutaenous albinistic humans appear white or very pale as the melanin pigments responsible for brown, black, and some yellow colorations are not present. Ocular albinism results in pale blue eyes, and may require genetic testing to diagnose.

Because individuals with albinism have skin that entirely lacks the dark pigment melanin, which helps protect the skin from the sun's ultraviolet radiation, their skin can burn more easily from overexposure.[5]

The human eye normally produces enough pigment to color the iris blue, green or brown and lend opacity to the eye. However, there are cases in which the eyes of an albinistic person appear red, pink or purple, depending on the amount of pigment present, due to the red of retina being visible through the iris. Lack of pigment in the eyes also results in problems with vision, both related and unrelated to photosensitivity.

Those inflicted with albinism are generally as healthy as the rest of the population (but see related disorders below), with growth and development occurring as normal, and albinism by itself does not cause mortality,[6] although the lack of pigment blocking ultraviolet radiation increases the risk of Melanomas (skins cancers) and other problems
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#3 Oct 14, 2013
"Development of the optical system is highly dependent on the presence of melanin, and the reduction or absence of this pigment in albinistic individuals may lead to
Misrouting of the retinogeniculate projections, resulting in abnormal decussation (crossing) of optic nerve fibres[5]
Photophobia and decreased visual acuity due to light scattering within the eye (ocular straylight)[5][7]
Reduced visual acuity due to foveal hypoplasia and possibly light-induced retinal damage[5]

Eye conditions common in albinism include:
Nystagmus, irregular rapid movement of the eyes back and forth, or in circular motion.[5]
Astigmatism, irregular shaped cornea requiring additional cylindrical corrective lenses in spectacles.[8]
Amblyopia, decrease in acuity of one or both eyes due to poor transmission to the brain, often due to other conditions such as strabismus.[5]
Optic nerve hypoplasia, underdevelopment of the optic nerve

Some of the visual problems associated with albinism arise from a poorly developed retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) due to the lack of melanin.[citation needed] This degenerate RPE causes foveal hypoplasia (a failure in the development of normal foveae), which results in eccentric fixation and lower visual acuity, and often a minor level of strabismus.

The iris is a sphincter formed from pigmented tissue that contracts when the eye is exposed to bright light, to protect the retina by limiting the amount of light passing through the pupil. In low light conditions the iris relaxes to allow more light to enter the eye. In albinistic subjects, the iris does not have enough pigment to block the light, thus the decrease in pupil diameter is only partially successful in reducing the amount of light entering the eye.[citation needed] Additionally, the improper development of the RPE, which in normal eyes absorbs most of the reflected sunlight, further increases glare due to light scattering within the eye.[9] The resulting sensitivity (photophobia) generally leads to discomfort in bright light, but this can be reduced by the use of sunglasses and/or brimmed hats
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BIgKnob

United States

#5 Oct 14, 2013
Inbred Blacks wrote:
A) I didn't read any of your pathetic cut-and-paste garbage, Sambo...
B) Nighurs can be albinos too, boy.
mad because you lack coloring matter, youre nature's freak, have you ever seen a white lizzard, or alligator, frog, or tree, when you do its because of a gentic mutation, the same with hue-color-mans, fair skin is because of a lack melencoytes being produced in the cells, which causes a lack of pigment(,color), recessive genes are biologically inferior to dominate genes, even your founding fathers knew this, while they were raping african women, they passed anti-miscegenation laws to keep ww in check, they knew about the recessive genes boyeeeeee..........

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