Level 4

Since: Feb 11

Location hidden

#1376 Mar 19, 2013
Darkjaemess wrote:
They could never imagine that their African brethren would be treated badly because to them, slaves should be treated like humans and slavery only had household or governmental aspect:
"
The slave trade was the economic basis of African states like Oyo, Dahomey, Benin and Asante and Zanzibar. Before the arrival of the Europeans in the 16th century, the majority of slaves were exported from Zanzibar East Africa which was an important slave centre for the Arabs. Following the overland slave caravan routes across the Sahara from the Sahel to North Africa and the Arabian peninsula.

With increasing European presence, competition and rivalry among Europeans grew in particular for the right of acquiring slaves from their African and Arab agents But as the demand for slaves rose, tribal wars and raids became the main source of supply

The Kingdom of Dahomey, Abomey (Allada, and Whydah were its provinces) one of West Africa's principal slave states was situated in modern day Benin. The kingdom was founded in the 17th century and survived until the late 19th century, when it was conquered by the French and incorporated into France's West African colonies.

In the early 18th century, Kings of Dahomey played an active part in the slave trade. The Bight of Benin was the second largest exporter of captives, after West Central Africa. African monarchs along the Slave Coast, the Pepper Coast, Ivory Coast and Guinea Coast of West Africa amassed fortunes selling slaves to European dealers.

King Tegbesu the sixth King of Dahomey was by the 1750's, estimated to have a slave-based annual income of £250,000. His son, Kpengla, was responsible for expanding the empire into what is currently Togo, and waging war on those who would interfere with Dahomeys stronghold on the slave trade.

King Gezo (Ghezo) of Dahomey (1818-1858) He is famous for taking the kingdom to its highest point of its power and fame, his bloodthirsty reputation, and his women warriors, which he used in wars over the slave trade, between Dahomey and Egba (Yoruba Nation). After about 1840, as Britain had put an end to the overseas slave trade, Gezo turned to palm oil exports, and slaves, would now remain to work palm plantations. Palm oil was much less lucrative than slaves, and the economy began to crumble during King Glele's reign (1858–89).

By the time King Behanzin (1889–94) came to power, hostilities were running high. In 1892 the French Colonel Alfred-Amédée Dodds defeated the Kingdom of Dahomey and King Behanzin was deported to the West Indies.

Level 4

Since: Feb 11

Location hidden

#1377 Mar 19, 2013
the kingdom of Dahomey had its origins in the 17th C as Abomey,but the conquest of 2 coastal kingdoms in the 1720s (Allada in 1724 and Whydah in 1729) really established the kingdom (see map of Dahomey); however, Dahomey was subordinate to Yoruba Oyo in Nigeria until early in the 19th C. The small dotted line on the accompanying map indicates the approximate boundaries of the Kingdom of Dahomey at its maximum in the 19th C; as you can see,the kingdom was only a small part of the French colony created at the end of the 19th C.

- Dahomey was built on the slave trade; kings used profits from the slave trade to acquire guns with which they were able to expand their kingdom by conquest and incorporation of smaller kingdoms.Dahomey deliberately isolated itself from European factors (the agents for European companies) who had to remain at the main port,Whydah, at the coast; only a very few privileged Europeans were allowed to journey inland to visit the capital and see the king.

- most of the slaves were acquired either by trade into the interior or by raids to the north and west into Nigeria. During the Yoruba wars (this is when Dahomey ended its subordination to Oyo), many slaves were acquired by trade with one or other of the sides in that essentially civil war.

- Dahomey was very reluctant to give up the slave trade in the 19th C and continued to carry on a clandestine trade past the mid-19th C.

- Dahomey was probably the most highly centralised state in Africa;it was an almost perfect example of absolute monarchy—beyond France under Louis XIV.

- the kingdom gained great notoriety for 2 features:

human sacrifices at the annual ‘customs’;
the ‘Amazons’—regiments of women soldiers.

Annual ‘Custom’

- each year for a number of days, there was a series of rites and celebrations centred on the king’s court involving rites and ceremonies for the king’s ancestors; thus, it was part of the ancestor cult of the royal clan, but because of the importance of the royal clan to the kingdom, the ancestor cult of the royal clan had many dimensions of a national religion.

- this much was common in Africa; the great notoriety arose from the fact that a prominent component of these activities, known as the ‘custom’, was the execution of a number of people(dozens or ever hundreds) in a context that made them sacrifices.Thus,‘human sacrifice’ sent a shudder of horror and fascination in European audiences.

- it appears that most of the victims were people who had been condemned to death for crimes; executions were saved for the annual‘custom’.

- some of the victims were slaves, but they were executed for some crime; slaves were valuable items for the slave trade so they were not killed lightly.

- while not excusing this action, it is well to recall that public executions were still the norm in Europe and N. America until the 2nd half of 19th C., that the death penalty was imposed for a multitude of offenses (many of them relatively minor or even trivial—one could say that many of these victims were sacrifices to the god ‘Order’ as in ‘Law and Order’) and that torture was used in many places until near the end of 18th C; at present, many executions are semi-public still in the U. S. of A at the end of the 20th C!

Level 4

Since: Feb 11

Location hidden

#1378 Mar 19, 2013
‘Amazons’
- women had been used originally as a deception in a battle(women had been dressed as soldiers in rear formations to make it look as if the Dahomean army was bigger than it was); however,they had been formed into a real regiment which was used primarily as a reserve in battle. Later, they had come to serve as a personal guard for the king. This caused great amazement for early generations of European visitors.
- by the time of its conquest in the 1890s by France, Dahomey was made up of 7 provinces; each had its own governor and assorted officials. Government was based on territorial divisions.
- these male officials were not chosen from the royal family in order to avoid potential challenges to the king; in fact male relatives were excluded from almost everything; however, some female relatives did have important roles.
- below these were regional & village officials, all of whom were appointed by the king; even though there was a tendency for village chiefs to be hereditary, the king could set aside the succession.
- the village chiefs acted as arbitrators rather than judges between family heads of those who made up the village.
4 Classes
Slaves (mostly foreigners taken in raids or trade; some criminals)
Intermediate—children of slaves; these people were not free, but they could not be sold, especially. in the international (i.e., trans Atlantic) slave trade.
Free citizens—farmers, artisans, soldiers.
Privileged classes —members of royal clan, political officers, high ranking religious leaders (heads of cults).
- most decisions of village chiefs were appealable to higher levels if the participants were dissatisfied and all important cases went to the king.
- there was an astonishing degree of control exercised by the king:
many legal and administrative matters (even relatively minor ones) were referred to the king himself;
on the death of a family head, the heir had to go to king’s court to be confirmed as heir; this heir received only a portion of the estate; the rest was kept by the king as a kind of inheritance tax.
every death (even slaves) had to be investigated by royal officials and a report made to the palace.
there was an extensive market economic system, including markets every 4 days in every village; the king’s officials attended these markets to collect fees from all participants—a sales tax.
Dahomey even had a system for taking annual census (in a non-literate society!), not only of people, but also of animals, crops, etc.(they used bags with coloured stones to represent numbers and quantities); this information was used to levy what amounted to an income tax!
- there were some checks on the absolutism of king—he had high level advisors or ministers (for war, treasurer, etc.);although the king was not bound to accept their advice, mostly it was wise for him to do so.
- as a check on the bureaucracy and ministers, the king had a kind of shadow cabinet from within the king’s household—often from among his wives or sisters.
- each one kept an eye on the activities of the official to whom she was assigned to ensure that the official did not get out of hand, cheat or threaten the king.
- the king maintained a system of relay runners—‘halfheads’(their heads were shaved on one side)—who carried messages& instructions to all parts of the kingdom. Messages and orders could be transmitted anywhere in the kingdom within 2-4 days.
- officials had to give reports several times a year; in fact,higher officials (e.g., provincial governors) had to spend much of their time at the royal court—deputies in the provincial capitals did much of the actual administration.
Economy
- Dahomey had a monetary system: cowry shells were the basic currency, but trade goods were used also—guns, bolts of cloth etc.
- Europeans tried to take advantage of this currency; they brought so many cowry shells that the shells lost value (inflation). As a result, European trade goods became the basic currency used in the purchase of slaves.

Level 4

Since: Feb 11

Location hidden

#1379 Mar 19, 2013
- farming was very important; agriculture was mostly carried out by men, usually in communal gangs of young men; this was different from most of the rest of Africa where women did most of the agricultural work. However, there were many artisans also who made products in addition to farming.

- the market economy mostly involved producers selling to consumers,but some women acted as middlemen. The latter would travel from market to market buying and selling goods.

- all trade with Europeans was a royal monopoly and guarded jealously by successive kings; kings never allowed Europeans to bypass and trade directly with people in the kingdom. As a military, predatory state, the costs of government and the military were high; thus,the king needed all the revenue from taxes and the profits of trade that he could get.

- Europeans and their influence were confined to one port on the coast—Whydah.

- permission to go inland, especially to the capital, was given only infrequently and as a special favour; because so few Europeans were allowed in, there were only a limited number of eyewitness accounts in spite of the long history of trade and contacts; no missionaries were allowed in.
Black Deal

United States

#1380 Mar 19, 2013
Darkjaemess wrote:
They could never imagine that their African brethren would be treated badly because to them, slaves should be treated like humans and slavery only had household or governmental aspect:

"The jonya (jon from Mande language, which means captive) was distributed mainly in Western Sudan, as well as in the region of N---r and Chad. A jon (Jaam in Wolof, maccuba in fulfude, bayi in Hausa) was a slave connected to a lineage. He was not assignable and had most of he produced. In societies ruled by this system, he belonged to a sociopolitical category integrated to the ruling class, was so unique citizen of the state and belonged to is political apparatus.

While system and social category, the jonya played an original and considerable role in the states and empires of Ghana, Takrur, Mali, Kanem-Borno, Ashanti, Yoruba and Monomotapa. The elite of royal slaves (the jon tigi of Mandè, the farba of jaami Buur from Takrur, and the Sarkin bayi, from Haussaland) belonged to the ruling class of the state and its society. They wielded some power, embraced fortunes, and can, themselves, own slaves as the slaves jombiri jon of Mande and some slaves from Dahomey."

General History of Africa - Volume 5
Man dont you know africans was in west before euro mfs knew oceans existed

“Democraps are stupid.”

Level 5

Since: Feb 13

Location hidden

#1381 Mar 19, 2013
sunshine wrote:
<quoted text> we will shall see who will be crying when the asians take over this country and take your shit.
Yeah sure. They are going to take my sh!t.

Grow up.
BlackAngel_ FieryHate

Jacksonville, FL

#1382 Mar 19, 2013
bourobou prince wrote:
<quoted text>Many of them seem to forget that we are in 2013 ;If the worldwide is evolving,why not the African continent?
How's it going, bourobou prince?
Stag_R_Lee

Scottsdale, AZ

#1383 Mar 20, 2013
McAlister73 wrote:
- farming was very important; agriculture was mostly carried out by men, usually in communal gangs of young men; this was different from most of the rest of Africa where women did most of the agricultural work. However, there were many artisans also who made products in addition to farming.
- the market economy mostly involved producers selling to consumers,but some women acted as middlemen. The latter would travel from market to market buying and selling goods.
- all trade with Europeans was a royal monopoly and guarded jealously by successive kings; kings never allowed Europeans to bypass and trade directly with people in the kingdom. As a military, predatory state, the costs of government and the military were high; thus,the king needed all the revenue from taxes and the profits of trade that he could get.
- Europeans and their influence were confined to one port on the coast—Whydah.
- permission to go inland, especially to the capital, was given only infrequently and as a special favour; because so few Europeans were allowed in, there were only a limited number of eyewitness accounts in spite of the long history of trade and contacts; no missionaries were allowed in.
Your originality seems to be your ability to copy and paste unsubstantiated information. Next time, don't forget to copy and paste your source(s).

Level 8

Since: Oct 09

Paris France

#1384 Mar 20, 2013
Stag_R_Lee wrote:
<quoted text>
Your originality seems to be your ability to copy and paste unsubstantiated information. Next time, don't forget to copy and paste your source(s).
Sir,

you may have noticed a recent surge of oh'really+zaius various sock-puppets : they are locusts these days flocking on Afam Topix.
Probably the same whitey propagating his nasty propaganda in this Forum.

Even some of their nyms are masquerading as Black people.

a whiteboi

“Leading the Revolution”

Level 6

Since: Oct 09

United States

#1385 Mar 20, 2013
@ Bourbou Prince

I was born here in the states, to a n AA mother and Liberian father, I moved to liberia when I was a baby and came back to the states when I was ten.

How about you where are you from

Level 4

Since: Feb 11

Location hidden

#1386 Mar 20, 2013
Stag_R_Lee wrote:
<quoted text>
Your originality seems to be your ability to copy and paste unsubstantiated information. Next time, don't forget to copy and paste your source(s).
Well if they were simply my own statements of opinion, why the hell should anyone believe me? Duh! LOL!

What's the matter, you don't like historical truth?
Stag_R_Lee

Scottsdale, AZ

#1387 Mar 20, 2013
Bakari Neferu wrote:
<quoted text>
No they didn't. No one has ever, since the end of slavery, tried to stop AA's from going back to Africa.
It was the US whites that paid AA's to go back, which is why they funded AAs' colonization of Liberia.
Do you think I'm a troll? I don't pull B.S. out of thin air and publish it as truth. This is only one source of info for information. Don't like it, then Google Garvey and take your choice.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/garvey/timeline/...
Stag_R_Lee

Scottsdale, AZ

#1388 Mar 20, 2013
attai1 wrote:
<quoted text>
Sir,
you may have noticed a recent surge of oh'really+zaius various sock-puppets : they are locusts these days flocking on Afam Topix.
Probably the same whitey propagating his nasty propaganda in this Forum.
Even some of their nyms are masquerading as Black people.
a whiteboi
"Sock Puppets" LOL. Socks worn by trolls, no doubt.
.
Yes, they are good at that. They argue as Goebbeles, Hitler's tight arm propagandized. Trolls believe if they tell their lies often enough people will believe them.,,

Level 4

Since: Feb 11

Location hidden

#1389 Mar 20, 2013
West Africans to African-Americans: "We Apologize for Slavery"

Written by Rusty Wright
The president of the West African nation of Benin has a message for African-Americans: His compatriots are sorry for their ancestors' complicity in the slave trade. During December, he's going to tell them that at a special Leadership Reconciliation Conference on his soil.
An often-overlooked facet of slavery's ugly historical stain is that black Africans sold other black Africans into slavery. When rival tribes made war, the victors took prisoners and made them indentured servants, often selling them to white slave merchants. Tribal animosity seethed.
Benin president Matthieu Kerekou says intertribal hostility over the slave trade still exists. Many of his people have never seen descendants of their forebears who were shipped off to the Americas.
Kerekou attended the National Prayer Breakfast in Washington last February and sought African-American church leaders to whom he could apologize. The pastors offered forgiveness. As a result, 125 Western leaders will gather with tribal chiefs from across Benin for the reconciliation event. U.S. Senator James Inhofe (R, Oklahoma) and Congressman Tony Hall (D, Ohio) will participate along with pastors, athletes, celebrities and representatives of European (former) slave-trading nations.
Brian Johnson, an African-American living in Virginia, heads a U.S. sponsoring group COMINAD (Cooperative Missions Network of the African Dispersion) and works with many black churches. Johnson says the infamous "Gate of No Return" that stands on the Benin beach where slaves embarked will be renamed the "Gate of Return" and/or destroyed. African-Americans will be granted Benin citizenship.
Plans exist for a larger reconciliation event in 2000. A ship will sail the old slave route from the Canary Islands to Benin and business leaders will host an international business exposition to help stimulate trade.
Johnson says President Kerekou's mission has a spiritual flavor motivated by the president's own recent commitment to Christ. "In the same way that God offered forgiveness by presenting His Son, who was offended first," Johnson notes, African-American church leaders want to offer forgiveness to the descendants of their ancestors' captors. Both the president and the pastors hope to effect reconciliation and to provide an example to help ease global racial tensions.
Johnson says the realization that blacks sold other blacks into slavery has been hard for many African-Americans to handle. "This made it difficult to just hold the white man responsible," he notes. "This creates some problems in our own psyche. We have to deal with another angle to this and it makes it difficult. It's not [merely] a black/white thing."
He says the problem is in human hearts. " 'All have sinned,'" he claims, quoting the New Testament. "All of us need to confess our wrong and appeal to [God] for forgiveness."
Ilmu Batin

Paris, France

#1390 Mar 20, 2013
BS : Chacha de Souza, and Domingo Martinez, and the French slave Trader Regis organized the slave trade in Benin. If the king did not cooperate he would be sold himself to slavery. This is what happened to Toussaint Louverture's Grandfather who was the minister of defense of Benin but was sold as a slave in Haiti. One other example is Teghezzo's brother ( Adosan) who was destituted by the mulato Brazilian slave trader Cha cha de souza and Martinez.
See Alfred B Ellis in his book " The Ewe speaking peoples of the slave coast ".
European are 100 % responsible of the slave trade :
- They financed it (,their kings and queens)
- They planned it via the Asientos
- They needed it for their colonies
But they don't, want to be the culprits, smh.
There was an Indian slave trade ( see Allan Gallay) they used the same methods they applied in Africa:
- 1st kidnapping the of the natives, then they needed to change their strategy
- 2nd, ally with one tribe and provide him with guns and powder to destroy his enemies, of course the currency to be used was a slave....
Ilmu Batin

Paris, France

#1392 Mar 20, 2013
And talking of slavery in Africa during pre-colonial Africa is BS. The Jamaican scholar of slavery Pr Orlando Patterson wrote a book called " Slavery and Social Death", in this book he compares all the different types of servitude known down earth in all the continents from antiquity. The form of slavery ( slave = a slav from Eastern Europe so technical speaking by definition a white man) known in the new world is UNIQUE and only known to Europe : Greece and more specifically to Rome

It was in ancient Rome that you had huge slave plantations (latifundias) with a slave oversee called Villicus and thousand of slaves.

These slaves were castrated for punishment, whipped, branded on the face, locked every night in a jail ( Ergastules) to avoid their flight. Slaves women were prostitutes, and used for breeding purpose.

Remind you something ? The slave system of the new world.

Level 4

Since: Feb 11

Location hidden

#1393 Mar 20, 2013
Ilmu Batin wrote:
BS : Chacha de Souza, and Domingo Martinez, and the French slave Trader Regis organized the slave trade in Benin. If the king did not cooperate he would be sold himself to slavery. This is what happened to Toussaint Louverture's Grandfather who was the minister of defense of Benin but was sold as a slave in Haiti. One other example is Teghezzo's brother ( Adosan) who was destituted by the mulato Brazilian slave trader Cha cha de souza and Martinez.
See Alfred B Ellis in his book " The Ewe speaking peoples of the slave coast ".
European are 100 % responsible of the slave trade :
- They financed it (,their kings and queens)
- They planned it via the Asientos
- They needed it for their colonies
But they don't, want to be the culprits, smh.
There was an Indian slave trade ( see Allan Gallay) they used the same methods they applied in Africa:
- 1st kidnapping the of the natives, then they needed to change their strategy
- 2nd, ally with one tribe and provide him with guns and powder to destroy his enemies, of course the currency to be used was a slave....
How can the Europeans be 100% responsible Attai? That makes no sense. Especially when it was Africans who procured the slaves. And many tribes built up their kingdoms off the slave trade.
Africans are even admiting thrir guilt and tryin to make amends. What you are just going to ignore all that?

Look to your own damn selves for slavery. Don't blame Me. I don't have a damn thing to do with it. I'm Irish with Polish ancestry. If any dare get in my face with all these contrived accusations and I will lay their sorry asses low! I'm getting tired of all this shoit!
koliko

Alexandria, VA

#1395 Mar 20, 2013
McAlister73 wrote:
<quoted text>
How can the Europeans be 100% responsible Attai? That makes no sense. Especially when it was Africans who procured the slaves. And many tribes built up their kingdoms off the slave trade.
Africans are even admiting thrir guilt and tryin to make amends. What you are just going to ignore all that?
Look to your own damn selves for slavery. Don't blame Me. I don't have a damn thing to do with it. I'm Irish with Polish ancestry. If any dare get in my face with all these contrived accusations and I will lay their sorry asses low! I'm getting tired of all this shoit!
Which africans are admitting their guilt? We are not stuck in the past like other people. We look to the future, a bright future. if you pay close attention it is a couple of presidents and ministers of tourism who have made such statements, guess what their target is? tourism from AAs. for the individual african we take each person as they come,if you are a hate-filled AA, you will get treated differently from one who comes with humility to find out how we really live now.

“Democraps are stupid.”

Level 5

Since: Feb 13

Location hidden

#1396 Mar 21, 2013
attai1 wrote:
<quoted text>
Sir,
you may have noticed a recent surge of oh'really+zaius various sock-puppets : they are locusts these days flocking on Afam Topix.
Probably the same whitey propagating his nasty propaganda in this Forum.
Even some of their nyms are masquerading as Black people.
a whiteboi
LOL!!!!! you are so full of sh!t.

“Democraps are stupid.”

Level 5

Since: Feb 13

Location hidden

#1397 Mar 21, 2013
attai1 wrote:
<quoted text>

a whiteboi
A liar.

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