Information on African History

Information on African History

Posted in the African-American Forum

“Africa”

Level 7

Since: Jan 12

Oakland

#1 Feb 4, 2013
Let me start off by saying this one thing first:

I am not interested in anyone listing anything about the history of Ancient Egyptian civilization.

I am not interested in anyone listing anything about the so called "ethnic make up" of Ancient Egypt.

I am not interested in anyone listing anything about Iberian Moors, Ancient or Medieval America, or anything that involves Black people supposedly creating civilization in Europe, especially Greece.

I am not interested in anything pertaining to the Hebrews being Black or the Phoenicians or any of those people.

This thread is PURELY about NON ANCIENT EGYPTIAN AFRICAN civilizations and NON ANCIENT EGYPTIAN AFRICAN PEOPLE.

Emphasis on "African" and "Non-Ancient Egyptian".

That being said, let me explain what this thread IS about:

I would like all who wish to participate in this exercise to provide links to books, pdf's, articles or whatever else that has to do with African civilizations and societies.

I am particularly interested in information pertaining to the regions of West Africa, with societies like Kano, Bornu, Benin, Nri, Nok, Mali, Kanuri, etc.; Central Africa, with societies like the Kongo, Luango, Rwanda, Luba, etc.; East Africa, with societies like the Swahili States, Malaravi, Buganda, Ajuuraan, etc.; Southern Africa, like Zimbabwe, Zulu, Matabele, Mapungabwe, etc.; and Northeast African region of Nubia/Sudan and Ethiopia.

So like I said, any information of the history civilization in these regions is welcomed.

“Africa”

Level 7

Since: Jan 12

Oakland

#2 Feb 4, 2013
Here's some information about the history of writing among African societies, dispelling this myth about Africans never having discovered writing mostly propagated by these senseless, intellectually inferior white racists.

"Until recently, many commentators on Africa claimed that African societies had no tradition of writing. With the rediscovery of ancient manuscript collections, some dating back to the 8th century AD, this perception is changing.

Approximately 250,000 old manuscripts still survive in modern Ethiopia. Thousands of documents from the medieval Sudanese empire of Makuria, written in eight different languages were unearthed at the southern Egyptian site of Qasr Ibrim. Thousands of old manuscripts have survived in the West African cities of Chinguetti, Walata, Oudane, Kano and Agadez.

Despite the many dangers posed by fire, floods, insects and pillaging, some one million manuscripts have survived from the northern fringes of Guinea and Ghana to the shores of the Mediterranean. National Geographic estimates that 700,000 manuscripts have survived in Timbuktu alone."

http://www.understandingslavery.com/index.php...

“Leading the Revolution”

Level 6

Since: Oct 09

United States

#3 Feb 4, 2013
Ok

“Africa”

Level 7

Since: Jan 12

Oakland

#5 Feb 5, 2013
Satan wrote:
Nice Thread Bakari, but AA's would rather claim races they do not descend from; instead of claiming West Africa.
Sadly, the bulk of African recorded history was actually destroyed by the arabs in their enslavement and domination of blacks.
Once you take away a Race's Culture you not only rape their minds but strip their souls bare.
Yes, I know what they would rather claim and obsess about. This thread was established, like my last one, to prove that very point.

People who I attack, namely afrocentrists, typically try to deflect my criticism of them by telling me to start a thread talking about African history if I don't like the subjects being discussed on this forum.

Well, the thread is here, and their sorry asses are not.

What a surprise.

Jahx
Level 8

Since: Oct 11

Location hidden

#6 Feb 5, 2013
Bakari Neferu wrote:
National Geographic estimates that 700,000 manuscripts have survived in Timbuktu alone."
I wish I could read it all during my lifetime.
Phoenix

Houston, TX

#7 Feb 5, 2013
Bakari Neferu wrote:
Let me start off by saying this one thing first:

I am not interested in anyone listing anything about the history of Ancient Egyptian civilization.

I am not interested in anyone listing anything about the so called "ethnic make up" of Ancient Egypt.

I am not interested in anyone listing anything about Iberian Moors, Ancient or Medieval America, or anything that involves Black people supposedly creating civilization in Europe, especially Greece.

I am not interested in anything pertaining to the Hebrews being Black or the Phoenicians or any of those people.

This thread is PURELY about NON ANCIENT EGYPTIAN AFRICAN civilizations and NON ANCIENT EGYPTIAN AFRICAN PEOPLE.

Emphasis on "African" and "Non-Ancient Egyptian".

That being said, let me explain what this thread IS about:

I would like all who wish to participate in this exercise to provide links to books, pdf's, articles or whatever else that has to do with African civilizations and societies.

I am particularly interested in information pertaining to the regions of West Africa, with societies like Kano, Bornu, Benin, Nri, Nok, Mali, Kanuri, etc.; Central Africa, with societies like the Kongo, Luango, Rwanda, Luba, etc.; East Africa, with societies like the Swahili States, Malaravi, Buganda, Ajuuraan, etc.; Southern Africa, like Zimbabwe, Zulu, Matabele, Mapungabwe, etc.; and Northeast African region of Nubia/Sudan and Ethiopia.

So like I said, any information of the history civilization in these regions is welcomed.
Most of us African Americans are from west Africa not AE.

“Africa”

Level 7

Since: Jan 12

Oakland

#8 Feb 5, 2013
Phoenix wrote:
<quoted text>
Most of us African Americans are from west Africa not AE.
Yes, absolutely correct.

“Leading the Revolution”

Level 6

Since: Oct 09

United States

#9 Feb 5, 2013
Brief history of the beautiful land Liberia:

Portuguese explorers established contacts with Liberia as early as 1461 and named the area Grain Coast because of the abundance of grains of Malegueta Pepper. In 1663 the British installed trading posts on the Grain Coast, but the Dutch destroyed these posts a year later. There were no further reports of European settlements along the Grain Coast until the arrival of freed slaves in the early 1800's.

Liberia, which means "land of the free," was founded by free African-Americans and freed slaves from the United States in 1820. An initial group of 86 immigrants, who came to be called Americo-Liberians, established a settlement in Christopolis (now Monrovia, named after U.S. President James Monroe) on 6 February 1820.

Thousands of freed American slaves and free African-Americans arrived during the following years, leading to the formation of more settlements and culminating in a declaration of independence of the Republic of Liberia on 26 July 1847. The drive to resettle freed slaves in Africa was promoted by the American Colonization Society (ACS), an organization of white clergymen, abolitionists, and slave owners founded in 1816 by Robert Finley, a Presbyterian minister.

“Leading the Revolution”

Level 6

Since: Oct 09

United States

#10 Feb 5, 2013
Cont..

Between 1821 and 1867 the ACS resettled some 10,000 African-Americans and several thousand Africans from interdicted slave ships; it governed the Commonwealth of Liberia until independence in 1847. In Liberia's early years, the Americo-Liberian settlers periodically encountered stiff and sometimes violent opposition from indigenous Africans, who were excluded from citizenship in the new Republic until 1904. At the same time, British and French colonial expansionists encroached upon Liberia, taking over much of its territory.

Politically, the country was a one-party state ruled by the True Whig Party (TWP). Joseph Jenkins Roberts, who was born and raised in America, was Liberia's first President. The style of government and constitution was fashioned on that of the United States, and the Americo-Liberian elite monopolized political power and restricted the voting rights of the indigenous population.

The True Whig Party dominated all sectors of Liberia from independence in 1847 until 12 April 1980, when indigenous Liberian Master Sergeant Samuel K. Doe (from the Krahn ethnic group) seized power in a coup d'etat. Doe's forces executed President William R. Tolbert and several officials of his government, mostly of Americo-Liberian descent. One hundred and thirty-three years of Americo-Liberian political domination ended with the formation of the People's Redemption Council (PRC).

“Leading the Revolution”

Level 6

Since: Oct 09

United States

#11 Feb 5, 2013
Cont..

Over time, the Doe government began promoting members of Doe's Krahn ethnic group, who soon dominated political and military life in Liberia. This raised ethnic tension and caused frequent hostilities between the politically and militarily dominant Krahns and other ethnic groups in the country.

After the October 1985 elections, characterized by widespread fraud, Doe solidified his control. The period after the elections saw increased human rights abuses, corruption, and ethnic tensions. The standard of living further deteriorated. On 12 November 1985, former Army Commanding Gen. Thomas Quiwonkpa almost succeeded in toppling the government of Samuel Doe. The Armed Forces of Liberia repelled Quiwonkpa's attack and executed him in Monrovia. Doe's Krahn-dominated forces carried out reprisals against Mano and Gio civilians suspected of supporting Quiwonkpa.

Despite Doe's poor human rights record and questionable democratic credentials, he retained close relations with Washington. A staunch U.S. ally, Doe met twice with President Ronald Reagan and enjoyed considerable U.S. financial support.

“Leading the Revolution”

Level 6

Since: Oct 09

United States

#12 Feb 5, 2013
Cont..

On 24 December 1989, a small band of rebels led by Doe's former procurement chief, Charles Taylor, invaded Liberia from the Ivory Coast. Taylor and his National Patriotic Front rebels rapidly gained the support of many Liberians and reached the outskirts of Monrovia within six months.

From 1989 to 1996 one of Africa's bloodiest civil wars ensued, claiming the lives of more than 200,000 Liberians and displacing a million others into refugee camps in neighboring countries. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) intervened in 1990 and succeeded in preventing Charles Taylor from capturing Monrovia. Prince Johnson – formerly a member of Taylor's National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL)–formed the break-away Independent National Patriotic Front of Liberia (INPFL).

On 9 September 1990 Prince Johnson's forces captured and killed Doe. Taking refuge in Sierra Leone and other neighboring countries, former AFL soldiers founded the new insurgent United Liberation Movement of Liberia for Democracy (ULIMO), fighting back Taylor’s NPFL. An Interim Government of National Unity (IGNU) was formed in Gambia under the auspices of ECOWAS in October 1990, headed by Dr. Amos Claudius Sawyer. Taylor (along with other Liberian factions) refused to work with the interim government and continued fighting.

“Leading the Revolution”

Level 6

Since: Oct 09

United States

#13 Feb 5, 2013
Cont..

Dr. Sawyer, for the Liberian People's Party, LPP, remained in power until 7 March 1994, and was succeeded by a rapid succession of heads of state (David Donald Kpormakpor, Wilton G. S. Sankawulo, and Ruth Sando Perry) acting as Chairmen of the Council of State for the Liberian National Transitional Government, LNTG. Ruth Perry was Africa's first non-elected Female leader. After more than a dozen peace accords and declining military power, Taylor finally agreed to the formation of a five-man transitional government. A hasty disarmament and demobilization of warring factions was followed by special elections on 19 July 1997. Charles Taylor and his National Patriotic Party, NPP, emerged victorious. Taylor won the election by a large majority, primarily because Liberians feared a return to war had Taylor lost.

For the next six years, the Taylor government did not improve the lives of Liberians. Unemployment and illiteracy stood above 75%, and little investment was made in the country's infrastructure.(Liberia is still trying to recover from the ravages of war; pipe-borne water and electricity are generally unavailable to most of the population, especially outside Monrovia, and schools, hospitals, roads, and infrastructure remain derelict.) Rather than work to improve the lives of Liberians, Taylor supported the Revolutionary United Front in Sierra Leone.

Taylor’s misrule led to the resumption of armed rebellion from among Taylor's former adversaries. By 2003, armed groups called "Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy" (LURD) and "Movement for Democracy in Liberia" (MODEL), largely representing elements of the former ULIMO-K and ULIMO-J factions that fought Taylor during Liberia’s previous civil war (1989-1996), were challenging Taylor and his increasingly fragmented supporters on the outskirts of Monrovia.

“Leading the Revolution”

Level 6

Since: Oct 09

United States

#14 Feb 5, 2013
Cont...

On 4 June 2003 in Accra, Ghana, ECOWAS facilitated peace talks among the Government of Liberia, civil society, and the LURD and MODEL rebel groups. On the same day, the Chief Prosecutor of the Special Court for Sierra Leone issued a press statement announcing the opening of a sealed 7 March 2003 indictment of Liberian President Charles Taylor for "bearing the greatest responsibility" for atrocities in Sierra Leone since November 1996.

In July 2003 the Government of Liberia, LURD, and MODEL signed a cease-fire that all sides failed to respect; bitter fighting reached downtown Monrovia in July and August 2003, creating a massive humanitarian disaster. On August 11, 2003, under intense U.S. and international pressure, President Taylor resigned office and departed into exile in Nigeria. He was succeeded for an interim period of two months by President Moses Zeh Blah of the NPP. Taylor's move paved the way for the deployment by ECOWAS of what became a 3,600-strong peacekeeping mission in Liberia (ECOMIL).

On 18 August leaders from the Liberian Government, the rebels, political parties, and civil society signed a comprehensive peace agreement that laid the framework for constructing a 2-year National Transitional Government of Liberia (NTGL), headed by businessman Charles Gyude Bryant – he became head of state on 14 October. The UN took over security in Liberia in October 2003, subsuming ECOMIL into the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL), a force that grew to nearly 15,000.

“Leading the Revolution”

Level 6

Since: Oct 09

United States

#15 Feb 5, 2013
Cont...

The October 11, 2005 presidential and legislative elections and the subsequent November 8, 2005 presidential run-off were the most free, fair, and peaceful elections in Liberia’s history. Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf defeated international soccer star George Weah 59.4% to 40.6% to become Africa’s first democratically elected female president. She was inaugurated on16 January 2006 formed a government of technocrats drawn from among Liberia's ethnic groups, including members of the Liberian diaspora who have returned to the country to rebuild government institutions.

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